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This style was started by a group of medical doctors in Vancouver, Canada and it is now mostly used in medical journals and scientific works. It’s also known as the ‘author-number’ system.

  The style uses notational method of referencing and the reference should occur in numerical order.  Citations are numbered according to how they appear in a text and should correspond to a reference number given. Whereas only the numeric reference is made in the text, more details e.g. title, author etc is required when writing down the bibliography

 Header and cover page

A consistent partial title located on the upper or lower right side of the text page is needed. A short topic is centered at the cover page and it can be followed by a longer title.  The name of the author follows, then his credentials, followed by the department, and institution after the institution, the contacts of the author follow.

 In-text citation

Unless relevant to your text it is not compulsory to mention the author or date of reference. The defining aspect of the Vancouver style is the use of the same citation number from the beginning of a text all through to the end e.g. if one cite a book written by Benny Carson and gives it number 4, then five pages later you can still cite the book as number 4.In-text citations use superscript Arabic numericalseg1, 2, 3.

To cite a page, the writer should indicate the page number in brackets after the reference number e.g.……the treatment of malaria, 12 (5)…..

When citing a journal or article, the titles of the journal is abbreviated, the part and issue number can be indicated if required.


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