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 The oxford style originates from the OxfordUniversity and it includes a guide on how to spell, punctuate and other typographic formats. The Oxford style uses the British English rather than the American English, For example use of ‘s’ instead of ‘z’  like in the word ‘organization’  use of ‘ysn’  instead of ‘yze’ in  a word like ‘analyze’.

The spelling is also different for example coordinate instead of co-ordinate, ‘coursework’ instead of ‘course work’. The use of the en rule also applies, the en rule refers to (-) which is longer than an ordinary hyphen it is normally used as a parenthetical dash to further explain a comment statement or idea in a sentence. For example ‘This afternoon’s speech – by the president – was mind opening.’

 The hyphen can also be used without spaces to express connection for example ‘the employer-employee relationship’.  The use of hyphen in relation to compound words like antislavery/anti-slavery is not strict; however, the form used should be consistent in the whole text

In the use of commas, the oxford style does not use Serial comma e.g. a, b, and c, instead it uses ‘a, b and c’. However commas should be used in sentences that would otherwise be ambiguous without them for example ‘The people of America, Africa, Asia and Australia’

 Ellipses are also used in the Oxford style; these are three dots that indicate missing words in a quote. A space is placed before and after the three dots, square brackets are however not used. For example: ‘This afternoon’s speech … was very interesting.’

Quotation marks

Single quotations are used when denoting a quote while a double quotation is used to quote a quote within another quote; for example ‘I have a new book it has “its mine” written all over it’


The use of italics is limited only when writing the names of News papers like The Peoples Daily, writing of foreign words, book titles, TV and Radio series etc.

The apostrophe

It can be used to indicate possession: The author’s works

It’s also used in time construction like; a weeks’ time

Also used after plurals that end with an‘s’ like; a neighbors’ dog

The apostrophe is however not used in possessive pronouns: theirs, hers, and ours etc

 Abbreviations /acronyms

Unless an abbreviation is so common like UN, AIDS etc the abbreviation/acronym should first be given in full on the first mention of it. Later on, the abbreviations for the same can be used in the following pages. Where an abbreviation can be pronounced e.g. UNESCO a definite article does not have to precede it, however, where it cannot be pronounced e.g. USA, CNN the articles precede the abbreviation

 Use of full stops

In cases where the abbreviation is partly or wholly in the lower case, no full stop is needed if the last letter of the abbreviation is also the last letter of the word in full; for example; Ltd, Md etc

Full stops are also not used in initials that require spacing when written down for example Dr Z K Dawood; Mary C Peters Full stops are also not used at the end of pictures caption and at the end of headings


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