Category: Social Sciences

 

Creation Science

 


 Introduction

Creation science tries to bring to light compelling scientific facts that in one way or the other support the creation story in the Genesis Book and cast a shadow of doubt over other scientific paradigms, theories as well as facts that strive to explain earth’s history as well as evolution.


Problems inherent in the concept

Though the whole of concept of what has been regarded as scientific science programs at some universities has been welcome in some quarters, there has been some discomfort about the whole idea with some arguing that this could present some problems. Some of these problems include its supposed conflict with evolutionary science.


Creation science is largely seen as a critique of evolutionary theories which have been in one way or the other gained much prominence in the education system over time. The concept will hence motivate an inevitable clash with evolution theorists.


 Secondly, creation science have been accused of not being in touch with anomalous facts force, those that due to one reason or the other can not be conclusively explained using the theory at the moment (LeConte 2009).


 Science and faith

Over time, most observers have viewed science as a critique of religion and vice versa. However, this need not be the case. In my own opinion, science and religion are representatives of reality and hence any clash between them is unnecessary. However, there are those who truly that religion and science are absolutely incompatible. To reconcile the two and reach a middle ground, proponents of both must abandon their hard-line positions and conservancy. This is because as I state above, both science and religion are representatives of reality from different viewpoints.


 Conclusion

It is important to note that all the issues brought to the fore by “creation science” programs should be addressed by all the stakeholders so that the discipline can gain acceptance alongside geological as well as biological sciences. This would be a great step towards liberalizing individuals’ outlook of life and its origin.


 References

LeConte, J. (2009). Religion and Science. Books LLC


 

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Databases In A Business

 


 Phase 3- task 1: Discussion Board

Business rules are a set of characteristics of an application which contributes to the efficiency of a database. A database has to be flexible such that any application that is put in place embraces the subsequent changes which will be included in the database when it is being updated. This minimizes the need to establish a new database each time a something has to be added or modified.In this case study, one of the most essential business rules is the program codes for the various types of information that is incorporated into the database. Such program codes include details which are quite permanent such as their name which allows for a more enhanced task of editing the database.


This gives a chance for the company to put data which is relevant at that particular time and the denormalizing engine used in the application should ensure that any additional information is added simultaneously.Seeking clarifications as well as understanding the business rules of a company is important especially to a database designer as it must meet the needs and requirement of the company. The logical design of the database should incorporate the essential features which are most important to the company as it will make no sense when the design fails to meet the requirements.  


 Phase 3-task 2: Individual Project

Inherent limitations and benefits of Microsoft Access, SQL Server and FoxPro

Databases

FoxPro

FoxPro database incorporates the use of codes which enable the user to execute user defined applications. The best feature in FoxPro is the ability to store back ups of the data that has been put in the database online. This becomes equally important for companies which are faced by recurrent power failure which may lead to lose of unsaved data (Datanet Solutions, 2010). However, this advantage is only effective for individuals who are very keen on their data input otherwise more errors may be experienced. It therefore calls for experienced personnel to use FoxPro especially during subsequent up dates to avoid harming existing data. Consequently, FoxPro is less compatible with most operating systems thus limiting the number of areas where it can be applied. Only UNIX and Windows Winus are compatible with the application while others are not quite efficient (Datanet Solutions, 2010).


 MySQL

This is the program of choice for most companies solely due to its flexibility as it is highly compatible with quite a number of operation systems. MySQL is quite fast during data input as well as being user friendly such that it does not require a qualified computer wizard to run and operate it(Oracle Corporation, 2010).This database provides for faultiness when entering data by allowing the user to edit and compile complete data by suggesting ways through which the data which is entered can be verified. However, the database does not allow usage of more than one code such as when a certain feature of employees is not constant, different codes cannot be used for that item.


Therefore, it may prove to be quiet challenging for the needs of Sorenson Medical (Oracle Corporation, 2010).Microsoft AccessMicrosoft Access offers a unique opportunity to database managers such that they can be able to import data for other sources such as other employee records. By creating links, the various sources of data are incorporated into one hence making data entry a less tedious task. Data that is entered into the Microsoft Access database is often faced with the risk of being corrupted by unknown applications. This is especially common in small files which are less than 10MB in size. Larger files are however quite safe hence it becomes quite important to compile large files or else store them in secondary storage devices (Microsoft Access, 2010).


 Why Microsoft Access is the most appropriate tool for this problem

Over the years, Microsoft Access has been modified to make it more efficient in storing al types of data regardless of size and complexity. Data which contains variant attachments as well as that containing different values such as information on level of education or home address may be incorporated without any problems. This makes it ideal for Sorenson medical as it will be flexible enough to enter all necessary data per employee (Microsoft Access, 2010).

An equally important feature of Microsoft Access allows different users to enter as well as edit their own data at the same time using different computers. This option reduces congestion as well as the workload which would otherwise be placed on a single employee. The company will thus save on manpower and time by ensuring all the computers are networked and each employee given the mandate to modify their information as they progress in their careers. This feature is exceptionally easy to execute as it offers a wide variety of queries which the user applies when entering any data (Microsoft Access, 2010).


   References

Datanet Solutions. Inc, (2010), FoxPro vs. Access databases for medical and health           software. Retrieved on June 2, 2010 from: www.datanetsolutions.org/foxpro.htm

Microsoft Access, (2010), what’s new in Microsoft Access 2010. retrieved on June 2,        2010 from: www.microsoft.com/…/8794ea1b-ef03-4a09-a86a-0caabf590fcd

Oracle Corporation (2010), MySQL performance benchmark. Retrieved on June 2, 2010   from: www.databasejournal.com/…/Using-a-MySQLdatabase-with-PHP.htm.


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Public Policy

 


 Abstract

The US illegal immigration policy has continued to be a subject of debate but less has been discussed concerning legal skilled worker visa.  Instead there have been structure rules for immigrants especially after the September 11 attack. This paper will examine the liberal labor and the action of political committee in relation to Border Security of the US and Prosperity Skilled Worker Visas

Introduction

           Since the late 1980’s, America had foreseen the change in labor force which was shrinking and aging.  This is as a result of the baby boom generation.  Today America has the same challenges to face.  There is shortage of  labor and more so, on the department of  nursing  as  our  health care facilities which is  getting flooded  with old  people in  need  of  acute medical  attention. Engineering is another department in need of skilled man power. Most firms have found it difficult in finding qualified workers. These firms have also found it expensive in hiring the few available qualified personal because they are expected to offer better benefits and higher salaries so as to remain competitive. As the majority of the workforce individuals retire, there has been an increase of manufacturing jobs, off shoring design services   and much more restrictive rules on laws required to immigrate.  These factors have jointly caused labor shortage since 2007.


Liberal-labor coalition

               International corporations based in the US are always in search of the best people to work in them. This therefore means that the current attitude of implementing structure rules on legal work force in to the current situation is a fallacy (Bhagwati, 2010, p16).  The corporations hire from world class technological centers and institutions which are set up and sponsored by the US.  Visa for skilled workers such as the H-1B have not been expanded yet politics have shifted to increasing quotas for illegal immigrants.  Yet if such  a move could  be undertaken,  the bill would benefit  firms  like Microsoft and  Intel which are in  need of  skilled  laborers.  Many are against the use of skilled foreigners because of the public notion that the foreigners would take away jobs from them. This brings a serious battle ground that harms globalization (Gelatt, 2006, 23)   king visa are eligible to work in a foreign country.   The US has always benefited from foreign workers for the general development of the country. Holders of H-1B visas have come from world recognized technical institutions.  By labor it doesn’t mean just and other graduate but a hugely successful people to enrich the US immeasurably.   The Outdated immigration policy is threatening the economic well being of the US (COHA Research Associate Jamie Heine, 2010).  This is because the immigration policy does not allow skilled immigrants to work in the US. The country is therefore loosing the race for talented immigrants.  In 2007, for example, Microsoft opened   a software development in Vancouver, Canada but the qualified skilled workers were prohibited to live in the US. 


A Canadian venture has recently noted the growing number of ventures in need of talented workers through of shoring.  Thais has been attributed to lack of modern policies that fill the need of skilled immigrants      Another challenge with the current US policy for skilled workers immigrant is the inability to receive US work permits through the professionals has been educated in the countries universities.  This forms an ironical scenario where by the US government fully funds valuable resources to these universities for education with no restrictions as to weather one is an immigrant or not.  Yet when it comes to employment, the foreigners are not given work permits to work for the country. Therefore, the US misses out on substantial economic benefits especially from those graduating from our universities.    Green cards and H-1B visas are the only legal documents used in obtaining employment opportunities in the US. The H-1B is reserved for those individuals with unique skills that are specific (U.S. Department of Homeland Security n.d.). The country issues only 65,000 of them annually while the green cards are140, 000 annually. (Willly 2008, 76).


This is a small number of work permits being sought by foreign workers.  Companies in need of enough skilled labors are forced to move to other countries. This is why Microsoft after labor shortage in Vancouver moved to Israel, Ireland and Denmark (Gohring 2007, p 45).Since the middle of the twentieth century, highly qualified personal have lacked opportunity in their countries went to the US. Currently this trend is being reversed. As countries expand their policies to accommodate skilled immigrants into the economy, the US has tightened its policy to restrict foreigners in to the country. The UK has a Highly Skilled Immigrant Program which evaluates the skills that specific immigrant have as they apply for work permit. Australia has also opened doors for skilled immigrants which   have seen the growth of Australian economy.


 Political action committees

           The Obama administration has implemented new strategies to carry out immigration strategies of enforcement responsibilities in regard detention, criminal aliens and the employers.  Other efforts are to be done in collaboration with Mexico to reduce drug war violence and arms trafficking. The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant responsibility Act involves it self with hastening deportation of unauthorized immigrants who committed crime.  The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation welfare denied access to federal benefits to unauthorized immigrants. Such benefits included Supplemental security Medicaid and food stamps. The antiterrorism and Effective Death penalty act made it easier to deport arrest and detain non citizens.  The Congress enacted the American Competitiveness in the Twenty First Century Act in 2000.  This act was to measure the demand of skilled immigrants   especially in engineering, math and science to bring an economic boom to the US. This has to the rise of the number of H-1B visas from 115,000 in 2000 to 195,000 in 2003. 


However the number has currently been reduced to 65,000. The attack of September 11, 2001, posed a threat to National security.  The Department of Home land security merged twenty two federal agencies and dissolved INS.  The functions of the INS which was part of the Department of Justice, was distributed among three new agencies. These roles were Immigration and Customer Enforcement ICE.  Its responsibility was for enforcement of customer requirement and immigration and customs requirements. This included employer removal and detention.The US Citizenship and Immigration service Added visa benefits, naturalization Applications, and refuge and asylum application.  Customer and Boarder Protection oversee the entry of goods and people at all ports of entry. 


America global skills leadership is now under challenge, the long term end of baby boomers in the form of stagnating US education attainment and retirement. This has jeopardized long term economic growth opportunities and High-tech sectors.  Policy makers have not stopped the graying population and mass retirements.  Now that the boarder peculiarity and illegal immigration has become the prominent subject of debate, they should consider recruiting highly skilled worker from abroad. Along side this the government should aim at improving the education system as a quick solution and a more realistic one as we can now foretell skill shortages.


US policy makers can only hope to counter the long term phenomena by reforming high -skilled immigration policies. They should also facilitate the continuing and economically necessary inflow of skilled workers from off shores.This is an aspect that has not been considered by recent policy makers by in fact becoming more tangibly moiré restrictive through political emphasis.The issue of skilled immigration has however been subsumed by highly polities aspects like, the heated immigration debate on border control security and the reinforcement of high labor standards. The technology industry is currently missing out opportunities to expand production and employment (Keeter, 2009, 342).


 Conclusions

               The Immigration policy undermines economic characteristics which include mastery of new advanced technologies and entrepreneur vitality.  Most competitive companies cannot get visa from foreign high skills workers they want to hire. Such companies like Google, eBay and Yahoo. US should copy other countries such as China and India, which offer incentives for skilled workers and are now fast growing.There are not enough US citizens with these skills in such of technological jobs. The number of H-1B visa issues annually should be increased in number so as to allow more skilled legal immigrants   for the benefit of this country.


  Reference

 Bhagwati, J and Hanson, G (2009) Skilled Immigration Today: Prospects, Problems, and Policies, Oxford University Press, p 17

COHA Research Associate Jamie Heine ( 2010). Retrieved from

 http://www.coha.org/

On May 26, 2010

Department of Homeland Security (2008) Office of Immigration Statistics. Retrieved from

http://www.dhs.gov/index.shtm

On May 26, 2010

 

Gelatt, Julia (2006.) House Passes Enforcement Bill Lacking Temporary Worker Program. Migration Information Source, p 23

 

Keeter, S  (2009). Where the Public Stands on Immigration Reform. Pew Research Center, p 342


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Personal Primary Insights Style

 


 As information on the individuals personal primary insight was being obtained, the connection was made in color yellow which calls for teamwork and it so happened that the respondent had a distinctively different personality. The discussion was more of an interactive session in which both parties were able to learn from each other as well as each side being presented with equal opportunities to air out their views (Caproni, 2005).One of the implications associated with changing the personality of an individual so as to adopt a new personality is reluctance to try out new things.  A person with an unsociable personality is always at pains to freely open up to any discussion as well as sharing in major areas especially those related to personality and work.


Another implication is emphasis on the advantages of teamwork in addition to the feeling of appreciation by helping others in their tasks (Caproni, 2005).One crucial strategy which may help such a person change their personality is by making them get involved in projects which require the team members to work together so as to achieve the set goals. The aspect of being flexible to any changes as well as the ability to cope with a variety of personalities during the course of the project will create an impact on the overall change.


Consequently, by paying closer interest on their activities and tasks such individuals learn to open up as they feel that they are appreciated and they would not wish to loose their reputation (Caproni, 2005).The individuals who do not enjoy sharing their personal details are often privy of any information which could be prodding their private lives such that discussions with them should be void of questions that are so personal. The individual should be given a chance to give details without being asked (Caproni, 2005).


 Reference

Caproni, P.J. (2005), Management skills for everyday life: the practical coach. 2nd ed.         Prentice Hall.


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Health Campaign 2

 


Introduction
Epidemics of Chronic diseases is today associated with there in every four deaths in America today. This is the challenge associated with health programs promotions. Health promotion and maintenance can be achieved when the health workers concerned with public health fully understand the specific environment and health condition. The health promotions attain its goal when there is provision of a problem analyses and programs for creating awareness of the problem.


Background information
Tampa City, in Florida, is highly populated with African Americans and some immigrants who have been targeted in Health campaigns. Over the years, several health campaigns have been carried out in Tampa. One of them is the Get out and Race campaign which advocated for increased exercising to reduce most of the modern day diseases against the residents. Government departments such as Environmental Health Services Branch (EHSB) and The Center for Disease Control and Prevention have been on the forefront of this campaign. The two departments have incorporated their services in ensuring the success of the campaign to targets age groups of the entire population especially the older adults from the minority group of African Americans whom are at risk of developing diseases related to sedentary lifestyles.The residents of Tampa city face challenges such as inability to access health care for older adults and inferior medical attention to most of African Americans. They are discriminated along racial.The agencies have teamed up to tackle these issues. The Office of Disease prevention and health promotion has played the role of promoting health for the Americans faced with the problem of gaining access to health care. Public Health Service is another has offered the American people with reduced cost of health care and increased access to drugs.


The center of disease control and prevention has the mandate of introducing programs that will enable the community to have easy access to health care. This is done through data indicators showing if a community faces the challenge of inaccessibly to health care. The Office of Diseases Prevention and Health Promotion educates the public on it objectives and expectation from the public.The model and system of tracking accessibility to health facilities has been used to determine the availability of health center services among the entire population of Americans especially the old aged adults. This is because African Americans face financial challenges to afford available health care facilities, also, public health facilities are located away from the urban centers hence it becomes disadvantageous to the ailing people.The Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System has been successful in determining the behavior of the elderly individuals in Tampa County .These behaviors include, smoking and drinking which cause various health problems. The Functional Independence tool and risk assessment has been used to measure the functional and Cognitive abilities of the x-soldiers in the community fought in Iraq and Afghanistan wars. The access to health indicator is through the use of electronic surveillance machines as well as the use of hospital records


Specific issue and nationally identified health objectives
Access to health care for African Americans is an issue of national concern, which affects people whom over 65. The total population of persons more than 65 was recorded as 38.9 million in 2008. That represents 12.8% of the total American population such that it would be difficult to ignore this large group of seniors. Issues concerning access to health care for the older adults, most of the African Americans are greatly discriminated upon along racial lines and mostly end receiving inferior medical attention.Predisposing factors such as economic status of the individuals and their ethnicity are major causes of limited accessibility of health care facilities (Jang, Chiriboga, Borenstein, Small, & Mortimer, 2009). However, with the introduction of the Get Out and Go Racing campaign, more people can access information on ways of adopting healthy lifestyles. The major objective of this campaign is to increase awareness of health care accessibility and ways of minimizing the disparities that have been created in the health care department (Jang et al., 2009).Poor economic conditions for the African Americans mean that most of them are could not access quality health care services as they are not insured. The old above 65 years who are vulnerable to old age dieses are the most art risk because they are faced both wit poverty and inability to accesses medical services.


Agencies involved in the access to health care
The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion developed a health promotion campaign meant to promote health for Americans whom often faced with problems when accessing health care. This objective was formulated on the basis of increasing the span of healthy life, reducing health disparities between Black and White Americans together with increasing access to health services. The different aspects of Healthy People 2000 were assigned to different agencies within the department of Public Health Services. Priority was given to key areas such increased access to drugs as well as reduced costs of health care (Fos, & Fine, 2005).The Environmental Health Services Board provided services, which included benefits of indulging in physical exercises at specific times of the day to increase the body’s metabolism. The department has also included the services of sanitarians and other practitioners to ensure that the residents can access health care services.The Center for Disease Control and Prevention was given the mandate of collecting data that included accessibility of health care as a health indicator of which the ideal program would be introduced to the public, marking the onset of the health care campaign (Novick, Morrow, & Mays, 2008).


Information on leading health indicators such as weight problems and mental health are quite essential in reflecting the health concerns of the public. Data on the quality of environment in which the people live in addition to accessibility of health care facilities was also collected. Social identities, which contribute to disparities in health care provision in America such as gender, sexual orientation and ethnicity, are crucial in achievement of the access to health care campaign (Jang et al., 2009).The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion were given the mandate of spreading information concerning the objectives and the expected response from the public. Various aspects of health promotion are crucial to increase accessibility to health care such as the community’s willingness to adopt health care objectives (Novick, Morrow, & Mays, 2008).Participation of the public in the program has been emphasized by Healthy People in Healthy Communities, which has been striving to provide a pollution free environment together with increased accessibility to health care facilities. Presence of health care facilities across Tampa County has also been made possible by provision of mobile clinics in addition to more qualified professionals being deployed in the area (Fos, & Fine, 2005).


Models and systems used in analyzing accessibility to health facilities
A community tracking study was used to determine the percentage of minority seniors who were able to access available health care services. Information on the number of insured individuals was also taken and the nature of medical care they were exposed to identified. The time taken by medical professionals to respond to cases concerning African Americans was also obtained through observation in a number of health care centers. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention together with a group of public health providers formed Committee 22.1, which carried out research on the identified Health Status Indicators (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1991).Using the community tracking study was equally essential as it showed that there was a very close link between financial status of an individual and accessibility to health care.


This was directly shown by the inaccessibility of health care by individuals who depended on government health benefit schemes because the government spends more money on the health care of those who cannot afford. This increasing cost in health care has been threatening the entire United States economy (Jang et al., 2009).Every individual is given, without opposition by the center, an opportunity to exhibit healthy living habits by adoption of certain physical exercises. Behaviors such as jogging at least once in a day for some few minutes is seen as a way of minimizing diseases hence the problem of in- accessible health facilities will not be so critical. Participation in mental exercises as often as possible is also recommended as well as ensuring that one gets enough rest and sleep at night to enable the body to rest. Information gathered during epidemiological surveillance includes statistic on age, sex, diseases and the specific ways in which that population uses the health care facilities as well as they are accessible (Fos, & Fine, 2005).


Targeted population affected by inaccessibility of health issues
The entire population of African Americans has been facing problems accessing health care in most of the hospitals across Tampa County. However, it is more heartfelt among the seniors as most of them are affected by old-age-ailments. African Americans are especially affected because most are not well off financially hence they cannot afford the same health care facilities that are available for the White Americans (Novick, Morrow, & Mays, 2008).
The Tampa community is made up of mixed races and hence cases of disparities in communal services are not strange. Though most of the entire population is made up of the Hispanic majority, this makes them dominate the whole health care system thus minimizing chances for the minority to access the same.


The minority group also lacks exclusive insurance packages from employers because of the nature of employment and the sector in the industry (Jang et al., 2009).The public health facilities are usually located far away from the urban centers such that the ailing people may find it being a daring task to drive all the way. The seniors especially have to seek for the transportation services because of health condition. Consequently, the general well being of most senior residents is usually not very healthy and they cannot be allowed to travel all alone to health care facilities (Novick, Morrow, & Mays, 2008). The old people need to have access to transport services. The federal transport program should offer public transport as this helps to reduce inconveniences. The idea of volunteers who offer transport is also noble.


 Epidemiological surveillance systems

The Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is used in determining the epidemiology of health issues among the residents and especially the seniors. This system is used by the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion to examine the behavior of elderly individuals so that the cause of various health problems may be identified. Considering behavior includes eating habits, physical activities as well as smoking and drinking habits. The most important aspect of this system is that it is available in Tampa County and it provides information concerning the behavioral activities, which cause certain health problems (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1991).


 Epidemiological tools and risk assessment in other areas

Another epidemiological tool used in assessing other areas of health care include the Functional Independence Measure, which was used to measure the cognitive and functional abilities of soldiers who had been in Iraq and Afghanistan. Similarly it was used to assess the scores and health care costs for recuperative treatment. This method was quite substantial in identifying the effect of rehabilitation on the soldiers after they were done with the war. According to the information obtained by the method, intensive health care in terms of rehabilitation therapy increased the functional ability of the soldiers. Thus, the health aspects of an individual are directly proportional to quality and amount of health care provided (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1991).


Recommendations
In assuring the health of the public, there will be need to focus beyond health status of an individual. The most appropriate approach is one which will deal with the general population. However this approach is expected to face various challenges like systemic problems, challenges to influence societal norms and the fear of change by the community members it is therefore a call for policy makers to adopt much broader perspectives and expanded commitments. This will mean that health will be approached in much broader perspective which will commit the nation to act and understand a full array of factors in Tampa that affect the population health (Matheson & Gillespie, 2008, p 44).To best address cultural, economic and social environments at the local level at Tampa’s and Florida State, there should be national efforts what will add to those of the traditional sector. The health care delivery system and the governmental public health agencies are responsible for achieving effective intersectorol public health system. Public officials who have been elected in the region should also play their role in providing that basic resources to Tampa, like schools, hospitals, devolving agriculture, labor, commerce foreign policy and transportation to the minority groups. (Fairchild& Alkon, 2007)


 Recommended approaches

Various best practices concerning community base intervention on health education can be developed. Projects like integrated service learning into Tampa community are important. Health programs are also meaningful because such programs d o incorporate service learning projects which can have major effect not only in Tampa but the other communities in Florida.MAPP is a strategic approach to improve the health of the community. This is a process which the community will benefit through improved quality of life and health through community wide strategic plans. When Tampa community uses MAPP approach, it w ill seek to achieve optimal health by using and I identifying the available resources wisely. The members will take into account circumstances their in and the unique needs through forming partnership for strategic actions (NACCHO, 2004, p 3)


The federal and local by laws are effective for effectively controlling of people behaviors such as smoking, drinking and use of illegal drugs which are harmfully to their health.The environmental health service aboard can implement and center of disease controls should come up with strategies and provide funds for the intervention strategies (Guilford &Morgan, 2003). The environmental health service board can provide funding for physical exercise among the African Americans so as to increase metabolism. The center for disease control and prevention can provide funding interventions strategies to support the health campaign and develop education programs to teach African American adults on how to change lifestyles so as to prevent diseases associated with old age (Fos & Fine, 2005).


 Alternative approaches

Community-based response will help address the issues as the community will work with other agencies to create awareness in the community and make access to health care available for all. The nurses and other practitioners will help eliminate disparities in the community. In addition, community planning will help the community and other agencies plan how to prioritize needs in the community, and how to allocate funds. Access to health care for African American adults should be prioritized and more funds allocated to solve the issue. Need assessment will help the community bring beneficial health care to the people. Need assessment helps identify needs that need to be one of the priorities, and allocated more resources through need assessment of the community (Degutis, 2008, p 3).Social marketing is and alternative which involves using marketing applications so as to achieve specific behavioral goals for social good. Most campaigns have used social marketing to market their services. Social marketing will help African American change behaviors. It will help African American get access to health care, and reduce ailments associated with old age. Social marketing will help the community teach the African Americans on how to eat healthily, and live well so as to avoid old age infections.


In addition, social marketing will help the public understand the relationship between behaviors and diseases. This will help influence people to take action to control diseases. The African American adults will be taught how certain behaviors can help reduce old age diseases (Novick, Morrow, & Mays, 2008pm 34).In line with the health maintenance and promotion that programs are more likely to succeed with clear understanding on specific health and environmental context. In addition, health promotions are more successful when the analysis problems are provided and programs, taking awareness benefits into account of different levels of influenced. The analysis shows as one of effective and successful program to promote access to health care for old aged specifically the African American individuals.By understanding the health problems that a community faces, several approaches which address the challenges have to be implemented to suit the society. Tampa faces health, social and economic problems which have to be addressed individually to enhance the health and living condition of the community.


 References

Fos, P., & Fine, D. J. (2005). Managerial epidemiology for health care organizations. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Jang, Y., Chiriboga, D. A., Borenstein, A. R., Small, B. J., & Mortimer, J. A. (2009).
Health-related quality of life in community-dwelling older whites and African
Americans. J Aging Health, 21(2), 336-49. Retrieved May 3, 2010, from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19114608
Novick, L. F., Morrow, C. B., & Mays, G. P. (Eds.). (2008). Public health administration: Principles for population-based management. (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Pub.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1991). Healthy People 2000: National
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives. Washington, DC: U.S.
Government Printing Office. Retrieved May 3, 2010, from http://www.cdc.gov/
National Association of county and city health officials(n.d)MAPP website.
Retrieved from
Http://www.naccho.org/map
On May 18, 2010
Degutis, L. (2008, November). The future of public health: Where do we go from here? Nation”s Health, 38(9), 3.

Fairchild, A. & Alkon, A. (2007, August). Back to the future? Diabetes, HIV, and the boundaries of public health. Journal of Health Politics, Policy & Law, 32(4), 561.

Matheson, D., & Gillespie, G. (2008). A vision for the health protection workforce and challenges for the future. Journal of Environmental Health, 70(6), 44.


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Variables

 


 

Introduction

                  A variable is something that can vary or change with time. There are two types of variables, independent and dependent variables. Independent variables can be controlled by the person performing an experiment while dependent variables are variables that are measured by the person performing an experiment. This paper will discuss about the proposed dependent and independent variables and a description of the pan to find instruments for the variables.


 

Discussion

Proposed dependent and independent variables

             The research study aims finding out the effects of work experience on the performance of college students. The study will be conducted by comparing the grades of students who have worked prior to joining college to those who have not worked prior to joining college. In this case, college grades are the dependent variable since these college grades depend on the work experience. The independent variable in this case is work experience. This is because work experience can lead to generation of two independent groups namely, college students with work experience and college students with no work experience (Delta Education (Firm) and Lawrence Hall of science, 2001).


 

                 The instruments to be used for the proposed dependent and independent variables are questionnaires that will be filled by college students indicating the number of years of experience they had prior to joining college. This will enable us identify college students with work experience and college students without work experience. Therefore, it will enable us measure the independent variable which is the work experience. We will also need about 100 college student volunteers who will fill the questionnaires (Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2007).


 

               Test exams papers will be used to obtain the dependent variable which is the college grades. The students volunteers will take an exam test to measure their level of intelligence and the grades obtained will be used as dependent variables. The grades obtained depend on the level of the students’ work experience (Cohen, 2007).


 

                  Since a test will be used as a measuring device for data collection, it is essential for the test to be valid and reliable. In this case, the test is aimed at measuring the level of intelligence or performance of college students. The test question should test the knowledge of what is learnt in class for instance a question on a given course topic. A good example of a way that can be used to measure validity is using a Scholastic Assessment Test and then the use of a correlation coefficient to compare the grades scored by college students in the Scholastic Assessment Test (Litwin, 1995).


 

                   Testing reliability on the other hand will be used to determine whether the exam test is consistent. The best statistic that will be used to test reliability is the reliability coefficient. An example of a method that can be used to test reliability will be to give the same exam test to two groups of students at different times. To know if the test is reliable both groups will score almost similar grades in both occasions (Litwin, 1995).


 

Conclusion

            Every research study should strive to be a solid research study and solidity can be achieved by having knowledge of how to manipulate both dependent and independent variables and controlling aspects that can affect the validity of the experiment.


 

References

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. R. (2007) Research Methods in Education (6th Ed.). Routledge.

Delta Education (Firm), & Lawrence Hall of science (2001) Variables. Delta Education.

Litwin, M. S. (1995) How to measure survey reliability and validity (3rd Ed.). SAGE.


 

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Reassessment and its Purpose

 


 How often students should be reassessed and the purposes of reassessment

             Reassessment is assessing a student more that once and several reassessment procedures require application and payment of reassessment fee. Reassessment should be done as often as possible for instance at the end of each coursework. The various ways of reassessing students are giving them re-sit examinations, giving them remedial work or coursework and allowing students to re-submit their projects. Both postgraduate and undergraduate students are reassessed.


             The purpose of reassessing students is to help teachers and instructors know whether students have understood what they are learning. It also helps them know the areas or topics that students have not understood. Research has also shown that teachers who reassess their students enable them to achieve their goals at a faster rate with ease.


 Definition and discussion of various terms

             Authentic assessment is defined as a type of assessment whereby students are required to show or demonstrate certain skills and competencies. In most cases, they are supposed to apply the skills learnt classroom in real life world.


                Performance assessment is a form of direct assessment whereby a student’s performance is rated using a given performance criteria. It is common for teachers or instructors to ask students to perform a difficult task or create something.


                  Classroom assessment employs observation and note-taking whereby teachers assess students by observing them and telling when they are frustrated, bored, excited, frustrated, motivated and many other feelings.


                 Portfolio assessment is the use of portfolios to show student’s performance and for appraising a student over a given time period. Integrated assessment involves initiation of projects and programs whose role is to integrate various academic disciplines.


           The assessment technique that has been most valuable in my teaching experience is  performance assessment since it has enabled me to rate students according to their performance and help them accordingly.


 

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Engineering Ethics

 


Professional Ethics

            Ethics is a philosophical branch that is concerned with issues of what is right or wrong, good or bad-concepts of morality. There are various branches of ethics; each dealing with a different aspect that concerns ethical issues. Applied ethics is one among the many branches of ethics, and it is pursuit is meant to highlight how moral outcomes are achievable in practical situations. Every professional field has a code of conduct that outlines the ethical conduct expected from professionals registered under its umbrella.


          Engineering ethics is one among the fields of applied ethics; it is concerned with standards that engineers should uphold in their professional practice. Engineering ethics outlines the moral and legal obligations that engineers should have to the public, clients and society at large. The ethical conduct of various engineering professions varies across different zones and engineering professions (Schinzinger & Martin, 2005).  


            The presented case concerning product X has ethical implications, in the sense that the designed product has a short lifespan and its operational failure sets in at a very early stage. The management and design team are aware of the problem, however; some members of the team seem to be willing to go a head with the production and distribution of product X despite the fact that they are aware of its shortcomings. The decision to produce and sell product X has negative implications for both the company and the clients that will buy the product.


             The people that buy the product will not be able obtain value for their money, and the company may get loses through the numerous replacements that it may have to perform. This particular case if carried on as per the implied stand of the team, there will be a breach of the ASME code of ethics that governs the conduct of engineers. This will be against the stipulation that states that engineers should hold with importance the health, safety and welfare of the general public in the performance of their professional duties. Selling of sub-standard products such as product X to the public is not an act that holds the welfare of customers in good faith.


              As per the ASME code the management should not approve of the plan to produce and sell product X, because the design of the product does not conform to acceptable engineering standards. Therefore, the concerned decision-making engineer should disapprove the production and selling of product X.  This may cause loses to the company because the product was expected to attract a large market share of clients. However, this will be better than the company’s possible lose of clientele loyalty if they sell faulty or sub-standard products.


               The possible lose of clients due to the sell of sub-standard products may translate to higher losses than those that may be incurred if the product was not produced. The most prudent action to take is to recall all products that may have been sold and call for a redesign and research that will identify the possible causes of the failures. This response will be positive and in line with the ASME code of conduct set up for the engineering practice.


                The engineer should therefore respond to this problem in the suggested manner because failure to do so will breach the ASME code, and this may possibly attract penalties from the society of engineers. Penalties may include a fine, deregistration or at worse; the action of producing and selling product X may attract legal suits (Schinzinger & Martin, 2005).  Therefore, this line of action is actually not optional, but rather a mandatory direction dictated by the stipulations of the code.


 References

Schinzinger, R. and Martin. W. M. (2005).Ethics in engineering, 4th Edition. McGraw-Hill Publishers.


 

James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

Myocardial Infarction

 


Myocardial infarction is informed by a blood supply interruption to a section of the heart which ends up enhancing the death of cells. In moist cases, such a situation is caused by a coronary artery occlusion and according to Hutchsson (2008) the ischemia which results from this coupled with the shortage of oxygen can lead to death especially is left untreated. There are a number of classical myocardial infarction symptoms which include anxiety, sweating, palpations, vomiting, nausea as well as breath shortness.


 In the case study recounted, we have Joan exhibiting a number of the classical myocardial infarction symptoms which include chest pain, profuse sweating, dizziness as well as shallow breathing. It is important to note that a number of psychological responses could have helped John survive the heart attack. This essentially means that a number of psychological responses could have mounted a defensive mechanism against the heart attack. The first psychological response in this case could be changes in blood pressure and heart rate. In this case, the heart rate could have decreased and this essentially means the cardiac output also decreased. This is essentially because the cardiac output is a function of the heart rate and the strike volumes (Blanchard 2000). Another psychological response that could have helped John to survive the heart attack was an increased muscle tone as well as an increased rate of respiration


 According to Blanchard (2000), the human immune system has a well defined connection with heart diseases including but not in any way limited to myocardial infarction. It is also important to note that the immune system may have played a central role in John’s case. According to Hutchsson (2008), the heart muscle that is disposed off as a result of myocardial infarction could set the immune system in motion. Here lymphocytes are called for and they infiltrate the hearts coverings most notably the pericardium. It is important to note that though clinicians have been focusing of the inflammation cascade last steps, not much thought has been given to the role of lymphocytes during the whole process informing myocardial infarction. However, Hutchsson (2008) notes that the role lymphocytes lay as far as the response to a heart attack is concerned cannot be underestimated. Some of the lymphocytes whose roles is said to be central in this respect include the T lymphocytes.


 When it comes to John’s blood flow, it is important to note that a heart attack impairs the ability of the heart to expand as well as contact which informs other complications which may be potentially irreversible. According to a heart attack may inform a faulty blood flow and even leakages of blood. In the case of John therefore, the heart attack could have brought out a number of problems in valves and given that valves are responsible for the control of blood flow direction, he could have issues to do with leakages. An irregular heartbeat could also have brought about a faulty blood flow as a result of the condition known s arrhythmia. This condition is caused by a weakening of the muscles of the heart hence inhibiting the ability of the heart to pump blood. John’s blood flow could also have been affected by myocardial rupture which essentially means that john could have suffered from internal bleeding as a result of the rupture. 


 References

Hutchsson, S.J. (2008). Complications of myocardial infarction: clinical diagnostic

imaging atlas. Elsevier Health Sciences

Blanchard (2000). Myocardial Infarction. Cengage Learning, 2000 


 

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Perfect Storm

 


            Retaining  group members with high  competitive value and knowledge is a well recognized challenge that is critical (Delong, 2004:Frank Finnegan, & Talylor;2004, p35). Such members are known as knowledge workers  with high degree of expertise , experience and education. Their jobs in the team involve distribution of knowledge and knowledge application as well as creation. An IT firm which  I am a member is a facing a high employee turnover. This disrupts the size of the firm and disrupts its activities. 


 One of  the strategies that our firm  can undertake is on giving moral  to the  members. Three quarters of the members have said that they are less engaged in the performance of the company’s activities. They have no choice and look out to the leaders  to take an appropriate step.  Second strategy is that, the leaders should consider future labor shortage in the Field of IT. This is because most students have opted  to do other courses which are not overpopulated in the corporate world. Our firm  leaders should; therefore should consider ways of retaining and developing the skills of IT workers


before the job market swings back  to job seekers advantage as was experienced in 199 to 2000.  Labor shortage is based on the assumption that the economy grows at a rate of 2to 3 percent annually with the size of workforce growing at a rate slightly higher than  one percent(Karoly &Panis, 2004, p 105 ). In the past, growth  of economy meant that the employers could  add more employees  so as to catch up with increased demand of services and products. The solution  to this according to economist is to create more jobs in the near future.


 Reference

Karoly, L & Panis. C (2004)the 21st century at work: forces shaping the future workforce and workplace in the United States, Rand Corporation, Publisher p 105

Delong , D(2004) lost knowledge : confronting a threat of an aging workforce, oxford university press, New York’s 35


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