Category: Management


The role of IT Senior Management in the Strategic Planning Process



Over time, it has been noted that a large percentage of CIO’s or senior information technology managers are excluded in one way or the other from critical decision making forums most notably the strategic planning process. While this trend recently been seen to be changing, some U.S business organizations still exclude the senior information managers from the strategic planning process. In this text, I look at some of the reasons that may be cited for the exclusion of IT senior management from the strategic planning process. I also advance reasons why IT senior management should be included in the strategic planning process and lastly amongst other things state the justification for the capital outlay with respect to large systems funding.

 The exclusion of IT senior management from the strategic planning process

According to Shav (2003), though the role of the IT senior management when it comes to the formulation of the businesses physical infrastructure as well as network access cannot be underestimated, some businesses still see them as largely a technical team. This is a stereotype which according to Shav (2003) is far from the truth. This opinion could be informed by the general understanding that the technical teams are mostly involved with implementation rather than formulation.

Hence in this regard, the IT senior management is left out of the picture when it comes to the strategic planning process and left to grapple with implementation. As it shall be discussed later in this paper, this may in fact jeopardize implementation efforts. Similarly, IT managers are largely considered to be more inclined towards ‘the technical side’ as opposed to the ‘business side.’ In that regard, the strategic planning process is largely considered to be a business undertaking requiring input from professionals sourced from the ‘business side’. With that, IT senior management is considered to be wearing IT capes whereas strategic planning process requires people adept in business.

 It has also been noted that though he trend is fast changing, a number of businesses do not consider information technology as vital as they do other functions. In fact, information technology in a number of isolated cases is considered as a non-core activity and hence its role in the long term strategic planning process is overlooked (Maizlish et al. 2005). This assertion has been reinforced by the tendency of some business organizations to outsource their information technology undertakings to outsourcing firms.

            Another aspect that can be cited for the exclusion of IT senior management in the strategic planning process is as a result of their not being involved in other corporate functions apart from IT. In that light, their portfolio is seen to be too limited to inform their inclusion in the strategic planning process. Due to the relatively low portfolio of other corporate functions IT managers manage their contribution when it comes to the strategic planning process is put to question as most of the strategic planning revolves around but is not in any way limited to mergers as well as acquisitions.

              Shav (2003) however argues that in the last one decade, things have been looking up for IT senior management both in terms of their recognition as well as involvement in the strategic planning process.

 Reasons for the inclusion of IT senior management in the strategic planning process

            Increasingly, the role if the IT senior management with regard to the analysis as well as identification of the role of IT in a businesses long term growth strategy is being recognized and with this recognition comes their involvement in the strategic planning process. In the modern times, IT has come to be central for the success of a business entity both in terms of enhanced profitability as well as a way of cutting costs. it is hence a strategic weapon and its integration into the strategic planning process is timely if the business is to remain relevant in today’s business environment (Maizlish et al. 2005).

            It is important to note that one of the roles of the IT senior management is to propose the relevant information technology measures that must be taken into consideration if the business enterprise is to achieve its long term goals. A proposal of this nature is vital so that adequate plans can be incorporated into the budget for purposes of implementing the proposals. This underscores one of the reasons why it may be prudent to include IT senior management in the strategic planning process.

                Apart from cutting costs being one of the main priorities of IT managers, the development and innovation of IT in the recent past has brought to the fore other critical functions of the IT senior managers. This includes but is not limited to the enhancement of security as well as the IT infrastructure. Some of these functions are critical for the continued operation of the business and as such, the IT function should be taken with as much seriousness as the other functions. Given the fact that a business can be brought down by a simple compromise of its security, it makes sense today to involve IT senior management in every aspect of the strategic planning process.

            Shav (2003) notes that the tendency of some businesses to overlook some functions within the organizational structure by baring them from any form of participation in the strategic planning process and instead leaving them to do the implementation part can lead to poor implementation and/or even sabotage. This is informed by the fact that majority of those left to implement the formulated programs will inevitably feel left out and hence fail to own the programs. This will in one way or the other stimulate sabotage and hence defeating the purpose of the formulated plans. In the long run the entity may never achieve such goals. IT senior management is vital in the implementation process of specific plans and with that in mind, it may be prudent to involve ham in the strategic decision making process.

Justifications for the large capital outlay

            In most circumstances, large systems funding is linked to strategic information systems planning and in most cases calls for capital dollars funding. This capital outlay is however justified as the globalization trend has brought about IT platforms that are standardized. This is because as things are, strategies informing acquisitions as well as a wide range of other business processes are largely dependent on standardization for purposes of doing away with cases of wastage as well as the enhancement of economies of scale (Maizlish et al. 2005).

           The trends now dictate that IT investments bring in quicker returns and hence their role in improving efficiency is paramount. To come up with stable growth over the ling term, business entities should therefore permit the capital outlay.


It is important to note that with IT set to become a competitive advantage, the role of IT senior management in the strategic planning process cannot be in any way understated. Embracing IT senior management in strategic decision making will hence be a welcome and timely idea for businesses so as to remain relevant in the marketplace.


Maizlish, B., & Handler R. (2005). IT portfolio management step-by-step: unlocking the business value of technology. John Wiley and Sons

Shav, R. (2003). Impacting business: a simple model of IT management. Managebright




 Siegel, M., & Lotenberg, L.D. (2007). Marketing public health: strategies to promote social change. Jones & Bartlett Learning

It is important to note that various authors and experts have over time given slightly different definitions of customer satisfaction as well as loyalty. However, the most practical definition in my own opinion is the one given by Siegel & Lotenberg (2007). According to Siegel & Lotenberg (2007), customer loyalty can be defined as the likelihood of a client staying with a given brand and/or vendor. On the other hand, Siegel & Lotenberg (2007) define customer royalty as the level or degree to which a customer’s expectations are met or exceeded by a company’s or firms products or group of products. In healthcare marketing, Siegel & Lotenberg (2007) note that customer satisfaction is a key indicator of performance within the field of healthcare marketing.

 Berkowitz, E.N. (2006). Essentials of health care marketing. Jones & Bartlett Learning

Berkowitz (2006) argues that with regard to the healthcare consumer, customer satisfaction is far much important than customer royalty. Here, Berkowitz (2006) notes that while other firms working in a non-healthcare field can concentrate on retaining customers hence customer royalty, all the players in the healthcare industry are bound by their code of conduct as well as ethics to put the needs of healthcare consumers first. Hence in this regard, what is important is not customer royalty but customer satisfaction.

 Fortenberry, J.L. (2010). Cases in Health Care Marketing. Jones & Bartlett Learning

Fortenberry (2010) seems to support the assertion above by arguing that customer loyalty is a consequence of customer satisfaction. The reasoning here is that if customers are satisfied by the heath care products utility, that is, its ability to satisfy their needs and wants, then they will be loyal to the same. This argument can be seen to make sense as according to Fortenberry (2010), there is no way customer loyalty can precede customer satisfaction. Hence all in all, customer satisfaction ultimately leads top customer royalty.

 Thomas, R.K. (2007). Health Services Marketing: A Practitioner’s Guide. John Wiley & Sons.

The position held by Thomas (2007) seems to be pro-business. In his view, customer royalty is essential to maintain the relevance of healthcare marketing. This argument seems to favor customer loyalty over customer satisfaction by arguing that customer royalty is what keeps the players in the healthcare marketplace afloat. He continues to argue that though essential, the creation of strategies to enhance customer satisfaction in the long run may be too expensive and hence difficult to sustain in the long run.                        

Mohan, G.K. (2006). Health Care Marketing. Discovery Publishing House.     

        The position taken by Mohan (2006)seems to dispute the one advanced by Thomas (2007) above. In his view, it may be expensive for some players in the healthcare marketplace to realize customer satisfaction but the benefits realized on attainment of customer royalty will end up raking in returns far in excess of the previous costs. This argument is in support of the notion that customer satisfaction eventually brings about customer royalty. Players in the healthcare market place are hence advised to dedicate all their efforts on satisfying, meeting as well as exceeding the expectations of customers so as to guarantee loyalty. This in the long run will be beneficial to all the healthcare enterprises that choose to adopt the same. Mohan (2006) notes that any attempt to fulfill the requirements of customers is rewarded by the establishment of a long-serving relationship between a retailer and its customers. Hence all in all, customer satisfaction is more important than customer royalty.


James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.





Over the years, we have had the internet spawning quite a number of lawsuits against employers. Email accounts for a huge chunk of this which can be traced back to cases of racial as well as sexual harassment emanating from emailed jokes etc. In this text, I look at the email use, internet use as well as privacy policies at my job whilst describing the laws regulating employee email and internet privacy. I also explain why companies implement email and internet policies and what assumptions employees could make as regards their privacy at work. Last but not least, I explain how these policies affect employee privacy at work.  

 Email use, internet use and privacy policies at my job

At my job, when it comes to email use, it is made explicit that the email system remains the company’s property and with that in mind, all the information sourced from the same including the messages, data etc are therefore the company’s property. Hence all the email messages received within the system constitute the company’s records.

 At my job, the information technology department makes it possible for all the employees to use the internet as a tool for work related research as well as a communication source. Given that the internet is a strong tool when it comes to communication and research, the company insists that it be used appropriately and with great responsibility. At my job, emphasis is put on using the internet to source for information that is relevant and applicable within our company’s setting.

             Towards that end, the information technology department carries out periodic reviews of the various sites and information accessed by any particular user. If the review shows that a given used seems to have abused the internet usage policy, the network privileges may be revoked and this could be followed by legal actions. At my job, any action that involves the downloading, uploading or even posting of materials that may be taken to be vulgar and/or pornographic is strictly frowned upon.

                With regard to the privacy policies, the company reserves the right to monitor, evaluate as well as carry out an audit of all he information sourced, reviewed or sent within the boundaries of its system. It is laid out in explicit terms that the company has a duty to protect its business and hence any message including emails sent from its system may necessitate an interception. With regard to email messages, all the users of the company’s system are also informed not to expect privacy of any degree.

 Current laws regulating employee e-mail and Internet privacy

Currently, laws generally allow the employer to review the contents of email messages since they basically own the system. Hence this means the employer can monitor messages sent within and without the company and this includes but is not in any way limited to instant messages as well as email accounts that are web based (Walsh 2009). It is important to note that recently, most companies have had those who work for them append a signature on a policy that regulates their network as well as computer usage while at work. Typically, this policy makes it explicit that the system is to be utilized only for work related issues and this gives the employer a reasonable right to monitor an employee’s usage of the computer as well as the email.

 According to Nash (2009), the freedom from search and seizure absent warrant basically guarantees some privacy with regard to the internet and email usage but this can only be seen to apply for personal files say at home. When it comes to the information contained in the employer’s server, the same privacy enjoyed in the scenario I recount above is not seen to be reinforced by law in any way.

 Reasons why companies implement e-mail and Internet use policies

There are a wide range of reasons why employers implement email and internet use policies. The reasons may be informed by the need to protect organizational resources as well as the enhancement of security. One of the main reasons why it makes sense to implement email and internet usage policies at the workplace is for purposes of safeguarding and enhancing security in relation to the IT network infrastructure. The internet as well as email policy could spell out what can and cannot be done by employees using the organizational system i.e. the sites that cannot be visited in the internet including pornographic sites etc. Some sites such as the pornographic sites are notorious for spy-ware and a wide variety of other viruses that may be detrimental to the company’s IT network infrastructure (Weckert 2005).

 Secondly, some forms of communications sent by employees could affect the company. With the business field becoming increasingly competitive, a leak of organizational secrets could cost the concerned organization dearly and in such a case, it makes great sense for employers to constantly monitor the emails received and sent by employees.

 On the other hand, monitoring the activities of employees including email and internet usage is reasonable as basically employees are engaged by the company to work for it and do all that appertains. With the raising in popularity of internet social sites, it has been noted that employees might end up using to much organizational time and resources whilst engaged at the online interaction sites like face book and tweeter. To ensure that employees do what they are employed to do, it is hence reasonable for companies and other employers alike to implement email and internet use policies.

 Assumptions employees might make about their privacy at work

According to Stanton et al. (2006) far too many employees assume that their email is private. They hence get tempted to use it for private issues other that the organizational related undertakings. Nothing could be far from reality as the employer is allowed to gain access to all the emails sent as well as received and in that regard, any form of electronic data transmission using the organizational resources is subject to scrutiny and monitoring. Similarly, some employees assume that some private undertakings they do while at the workplace i.e. phone calls are subject to scrutiny. However, this is not the case as for any recording of a phone call; the employer has to seek the permission of a competent court of law as opposed to monitoring the email and internet usage.

 Policies and their effect on employee privacy at work

It is important to note that some policies may have profound effects when it comes to employee privacy at work. For instance, video monitoring which the employer is allowed to use at the workplace for security as well as a measure to curb cases on internal theft can make employees feel that their every move is being monitored and hence feel as if their privacy is being infringed upon. While at the work environment video monitoring is limited to some places and prohibited in some i.e. the washrooms, some employees feel I overstays its mandate.


It is important to note that though the implementation of email and internet use policies is reasonable from the employer’s point of view, it should not be taken to the extreme where employees feel as if they are in confinement. In addition to that, though it’s not a requirement under the law for the employer to inform the employees of the monitoring techniques the organization applies, it makes great sense for the employer to discuss the same with the employees so as to avert instances of sabotage.


Nash, (2009). Workplace Privacy: Proceedings NY 58th Annual Conference on Labor. Kluwer Law International

Stanton, J.M., Stram, K.R. (2006). The visible employee: using workplace monitoring and surveillance to protect information assets–without compromising employee privacy or trust. Information Today, Inc

Weckert, J. (2005). Electronic monitoring in the workplace: controversies and solutions. Idea Group Inc (IGI)

Walsh, D.J. (2009). Employment Law for Human Resource Practice. Cengage Learning


Rosemary Clinton is the Author of this paper. She is a senior academic writer and an editor and she offers custom research papers. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and lack of confidence by visiting



As the name points out, a feedback loop has information detailing the transformation consequence being transmitted back to the systems input. The information being transmitted is in this case input data. In this text, I look at what the feed back loop would consist of in the case of Handheld inc. as well as what the causes and effects would create growth in Handhelds market.

 The feedback loop

For purposes of growth, the feedback loop would consist of both positive and negative feedback. This would basically be reinforcing as a negative feedback will result in corrective action being taken for purposes of addressing deviations. On the other hand, a positive feedback would act as a rein forcer whereby future action will be guided in a better and clearer way.

It is important to note that there are several cause as well as effect factors for purposes of growth creation in Handhelds market. For instance, a negative feedback as the cause can result in a number of effects specifically aimed at growth creation. This includes a wide range of corrective actions including but not limited to new designs with regard to the smart phone, marketing campaigns, value addition etc.

 Incase of a positive feedback as a cause, the effects could be varied and could include development of incentive packages to reward performance, development of new product as well as for purposes of future decision making. According to Talbott (2010), for any feedback, controls are extremely important for purposes of maintenance of the system.


            It is important to note that the input data that is sent back to the systems input as a consequence of an action or series of actions should be acted upon appropriately, otherwise the system may stall as the feedback is largely taken to be cumulative.


Talbott, K. (2010). Feedback Loop: Designing Complex Architecture.


James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

Strategic Management as a Way of Coping with Health Care Challenges


                  There are so many challenges facing the health care system and the health care organizations find it challenging to deal with these problems. The best way to cope with the challenges associated with health care systems is through strategic management. Strategic management aims at identifying initiatives taken by general managers and these initiatives involve utilizing resources in order to enhance an organization of firm’s performance.

                     Strategic management also enables an organization such as a health care organization to be prepared for any future challenges that may arise and have specific mechanisms to deal with the challenges. The management will enable a heath care organization to identify its goals, mission and objectives and implement policies that will enable it achieve the stated objectives. It is also clear that strategic management will provide direction to the health care organization.

                  A health care organization that has employed strategic management as a way of coping with future challenges should portray a strategic consistency whereby the actions of the health care organization are supposed to be consistent with what the management team expects. It is therefore clear that strategic management will enable a health care organization to set specific goals and strategies that will help tackle challenges that may arise in the future.

                The strategies have to be reassessed regularly in order to determine whether it is working or not. This will help the health care organization know whether it is on the right direction. It is also a way of determining whether the health care organization is ready to face the challenges that may arise at a given point.       

James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

The Collaborative Mindset



The collaborative mindset involves the subsequent engagement of various key stakeholders of any organization in the decision-making process. It allows the various individuals to air out their views and assumptions concerning various actions that are part of our daily activities. It is by understanding the various ideas and assumptions that are presented by various individuals that a collaborative mindset is achieved. Collaborative mindset is often achieved by appreciating the relationships among workmates in the workplace as well as respecting the ideas presented by others.


1. Collaboration and crucial conversation

Conversations in the form of dialogue, negotiations and discussions are quite crucial in the attainment of the collaborative mindset. These crucial conversations are only deemed as successful after adoption of a respectful mind by both parties who are involved in the conversation. A respectful mind calls for open minded individuals who are wiling and eager to understand the ideas presented by colleagues. Such respect also calls for accepting differences which arise in the course of the debate or dialogue and this should not be accompanied by devaluing of the other person’s opinion. Therefore, prejudice and negative judgment are not part of the crucial conversation as these may hinder any effort that had been put in place by the individual to obtain information Stumpf, and Nevins (1999).

Individuals who are known to carry out meaningful conversations are usually good listeners who take their time to understand the opinions which have been raised by the other party before responding.  People are often offended by conversations which are not productive especially where one was seeking information form the other yet the objectives are not being realized. In order for any manager to carry out meaningful conversations with the other employees the proper channels and attributes of an effective communication strategies must be put in place Gosling and Mintzberg (2003).

 2. Collaborative thinking

Collaborative thinking tends to put in place the various thinking capacities of employees in an organization. It involves giving adequate time to allow the internal and external thinkers to come up with ideas which are relevant to the organization. After the time span has expired, all suggestions are tabled and intense discussions follow such that the pros and cons of every opinion are identified. Leaders of various organizations should respect the opinions presented by various employees such that the fast thinkers as well as those who take time to think are able to complement each other Stumpf, (1999).Collaborative thinking engages ideas from various dimensions such that it allows for achievement of better and faster results.

Incorporation of employees in the decision-making process ensures that all aspects of ideas are considered and it promotes employee commitment as their presence and contribution is appreciated. This motivates the workers as well as enhancing the relationship among the various levels of employees Stumpf, (1999).Brainstorming is a key element of collaborative thinking which is aimed at increasing the creativity of the group by reducing social inhibitions which are exemplified by failure of employees to engage in the decision-making process. Brainstorming leads to generation of new ideas which later on has a positive impact in the development of dynamic synergies Gosling (2003).

 3. Communication & Collaboration

Collaborative communication enables people to communicate effectively even though they may be presenting quite disagreeing opinions. This form of agreement allows the parties which were holding the discussion to avoid conflicts as well as creating suitable ground for applying understanding and respect for the views form different sides Collins and O’Rourke (2008).Dialogue is the most efficient as well as common mode of communication in most organizations. Therefore, it is important for the top leaders in any organization to cultivate dialogue as a sustained organizational practice in the workplace. This involves a clear understanding of the body language of the speaker to avoid mixed signals as well as focusing the listeners mind on what is being said to motivate the speaker to talk. Similarly, communication is never one way such that an indication from the listener that they are following the trail of thoughts being portrayed by the speaker is important Collins (2008).Communication is the key to solving many problems which may turn out to be big with time. Managers who have adopted communication as part of the every day running of organizations are able to understand the problems affecting the employees as well as those affecting the overall organization such that they are always up dated on such issues Stumpf, (1999).

 4. Collaboration &conflict

In the collaborative mindset, it is unethical for managers to solve issues at the workplace by yelling at employees or at fellow managers. This problem solving technique leads to hatred as well as the employees developing a habit of avoiding their colleagues who exhibit the behavior hence, lowering the productivity of the workers Collins (2008).Collaboration calls for equal interest in both groups which are involved in the conflict such that both groups are given equal chances to air out their opinions and after that the opinions are matched with those of the other side. Each side is allowed to embrace the suggestion which will benefit the whole organization and this reduces any prejudice or bad feeling as each side is given an equal opportunity to present its idea Collins (2008).The criterion used in collaborative conflict solving is not only ethical but it also respects the feelings of the opposing sides thus boosting employee-employee relationships.

 5. Trust& Retention

Trust and its retention are quite crucial especially after employees have been through a conflict resolution episode. The solution providers should always be a disciplined individual who appreciates and portrays professional accountability. They should also portray high levels of honesty and competency by carefully listening to both sides of the conflict before laying down the ruling Stumpf, and Nevins (1999).Consequently, they should never take sides as such an occurrence will make the other side of the of the group loose trust in him/her. Therefore, respect for what each party has to say in addition to provision of adequate time to present the defending side is crucial in retention of trust and confidence in the individual. This also incorporates the ability to keep secret the proceedings of the process as well as the details that are presented by both parties such that the parties are able to trust the intentions of the organization when they realize that issues concerting their conflicts are not shared out to everyone Collins (2008).

 6. Collaborative coaching

Collaborative coaching engages the services of a coach and a client working together towards achievement of the set goals and objectives. The two parties work together such that the outcome is determined by the ability of the two parties to identify their weaknesses and strengths towards attainment of their goals Williams, (2009).Collaborative coaching cannot be achieved if the client and the worker are not wiling to arrive at a compromising situation at various times in the course of the session. However, discipline in the sessions as well as respect for the opinions and ideologies presented by either party is crucial in the rigorous sessions which are quite demanding. Application of good communication skills as well as building trust between the two parties is also crucial Williams, (2009).


Collins, S.D. and O’Rourke, J. S. (2008), managing conflicts and workplace                                   relationships. 2nd ed. Cengage learning

Gosling J. and Mintzberg, H.. (2003), The five minds of a manager. Harvard business                    review. Vol. 81(11) , pp. 54-63

Stumpf, S.A. and Nevins D.M. (1999), 21st century leadership: redefining management     education: educating managers in the modern era. Journal of Strategy+ business. Iss.16

Williams, J. F. (2009), A collaborative mindset. Retrieved on May 24, 2010 form


Josphine Morgan is the Author of this paper. She is a senior academic writer and an editor and she offers Professional Custom Essay Writing Services. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and lack of confidence by visiting AmericanWriting.Org

Health Service Organizations and Management



The phenomenon of organizational culture and leadership has continued to be a predominant topic in healthcare and in businesses.  Leadership and organizational culture is the driving force behind the success or failure of an organization.  This paper will examine leadership in a health care facility.  The paper will then present the relationship between leadership and structure, and culture of this organization.


             Nursing literature has not fully covered the constructs of leadership and organizational culture as compared to other field like in business. The available materials major on   the role of leadership especially of the chief nurse executive with little attention to nurse mangers and nursing leadership. Every effective organization has leaders who demonstrate transformational behaviors of leadership.  The nursing managers have the role of creating and implementing a vision to be accomplished by the staff members. They are in charge of empowering the staff members with a vision which will bring positive changes to the health care organization through inside side and outside interaction.

 Role of leadership in an organization

         Health care organization leaders demonstrate appropriate styles and behaviors that best suits the complex and constantly changing system of health care.  Such  changes include change of technology into  more sophisticated ones,  nursing  shortage,  time and cost constrained work  environment,  challenge of achieving  the desired  patient outcomes and increased patients patient acuity (Mathena, 2002, p 136-142.).The role of leaders is to impalement strategies related to achieving the goal of the health care system even with the limited resources.  The roles of leaders in a health care organization motivate staff members to go beyond self interest for the general good of the organization.   The staff members have to be molded into unit based and clinical leaders by the leaders.  They also have to elevate the staff performance (Ohman, 2000; Robbins & Davidhizar, 2007, p 46-54.).Despite that challenges that organizational leaders face they have to develop strategies that will ensure there is high quality of services the health center provides to the patients through cost effective patient care.  Therefore customer’s satisfaction should always be the ultimate goal of the leaders. The leaders have the responsibility of utilizing transformational leadership styles   that will assist the leading team to address the challenges faced in the organization as it aims at achieving its goals (Tourangeau & McGilton, 2004, p 182-189).

Leaders should ensure nursing job satisfaction, retention and healthy work environment.  The nursing unit should high levels of mission traits and adaptability.  The leaders on the other hand have frequently utilized leadership behaviors that will shape the culture of the nursing unit.  This is through adaptive and innovative measures of nursing care.  This is with the aim of maintaining and achieving organizational effectiveness in   the systems of health care delivery. Leaders who practice transformational leadership style enable the staff members to have a clear understanding of what is expected of them and the external forces that affect their practice in nursing. The key role of organizational leaders is to inspire, motivate, and individually consider that the challenges faced by the staff members. The leaders solve problems faced by the nurses at an individual or organizational level. This will allow staff members to have the spirit of self actualization in order to achieve their individual potential for the success of the organization.  Positive skills practiced by the leaders allow the nursing staff members to achieve extra ordinary goals, through enabling and encouraging them to function beyond their self interest. This is despite the various turbulent health dynamic changes experienced in health care provision systems.

                      The relationship between leadership to culture and structure

            The culture of an organization controls the performance of an organization and how effective it will be (Denison, Haaland, & Goelzer, 2003).  Leaders in a health care system play a major role in determining how success the nursing unit will perform.  Leadership is the pivot through which the staff members will perform their duty of acute care in the hospital setting. The priority and strategy plan of every health care organization is to ensure quality, patient safety, cost effective patient care, quality and patient satisfaction. To accomplish this, the nursing unit has to be aligned with the hospital strategy plans so as to achieve the objectives and goals of the hospital.This therefore shows that leadership and organizational culture are two important elements in an organization that should operate as one in influencing organizational performance. Nursing managers and leaders who have used transformational leadership styles have witnessed positive impacts and outcomes of an organization (Robbins & Davidhizar, 2007, p 234-239). These positive impacts include staff retention, and friendly work environment. 

An organizational structure that that encourages constructive organizational culture shows high level of patient satisfaction while that which does not, has negative impacts   to the quality of service offered at the hospital.  It also negatively affects the retention of nurses. This clearly shows that organizational culture and leadership has an overall impact on the performance of the organization.   Denison’s Organizational Culture Model (DOCM) is a conceptual framework that describes the four traits of an organizational culture.  The characteristics of an organizational culture according to the model are mission, adaptability, consistency and involvement (Denison, 2005; Denison et al., 2003) There is a relationship between management style of leadership and the nursing unit organizational culture.  The way the leaders perceive the nursing unit in terms adoptability and mission will determine how an organization will operate. Similarly, the way the nursing unit perceives the leaders in terms of consistency and involvement also affect the performance of the organization. These are the variables in Denison’s Organizational Culture Survey which describes the organizational culture of a health care organization.


        Leadership style in any organization is positively related to the organizational culture of any nursing unit. Good skills of leadership have a positive impact on the culture of the nursing unit.  Similarly, negative leadership has a negative impact of the nursing culture.  The two affect and determine how the organization will perform. The leaders of the organization have both external and international roles to perform in ensuring the customers are satisfied with the kind of health service offered.  They have duties to perform in ensuring the staff members are content through motivation, problem solving and staffs retention.  The governing body has to be aligned with the nursing unit in order for the health care system to achieve its goals and objectives.


Denison, D.R., Janovics, J., & Young, J. (2005). Diagnosing organizational cultures: Validating a model and method. Retrieved from

On May 24, 2010

Mathena, K.A. (2002). Nursing manager leadership skills. Journal of Nursing Administration, 32, p,136-142.

Tourangeau, A.E., & McGilton, K. (2004). Measuring leadership practices of nurses using the leadership practice inventory. Nursing Research, 53, p182-189.

Robbins, B., & Davidhizar, R. (2007). Transformational leadership in healthcare today. The Health Care Manager, 26, p 234-239.

Ohman, K.A. (2000). The transformational leadership of critical care nurse-managers. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing, 19, p, 46-54.

Josphine Morgan is the Author of this paper. She is a senior academic writer and an editor and she offers Professional Custom Essay Writing Services. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and lack of confidence by visiting AmericanWriting.Org


Professional Goal Statement


 I am one of the students pursuing a graduate program and majoring in business management where I have amassed an extensive wealth of knowledge. I am due to gradate very soon and professional goal statement is significant at determining my position five years after graduating from college. This professional goal statement gives an elaborate explanation of the fundamental theory that I have learnt in business management, the practical aspect obtained from internships, as well as, the personal motivation and interest that has made me pursue this program with as much zeal as possible.

 Five years from now, I will have established my own business management consultancy where potential business managers will gain considerably from my extensive knowledge on the field of business management. This will be dependent on the ability to form a partnership with a colleague of mine who also has an exemplary interest in the field of business management. However, if the consultancy will not have picked up, I would like to be in the management of a multinational corporation where I will get a chance to apply my knowledge, as well as, learn from other business managers from other parts of the world.

 One strong point that will be significant in establishing my own firm is my ability to lay strategies which are unique hence from past experience risks and uncertainties are rarely encountered as a result of strategies laid by me. This is attributed to my exemplar planning and organization skills which are also duplicated  in my academic work. However, my one weak point is lack of adequate research skills which will enable me reach out for profit making ventures hence gain more clients, as well as, increasing profitability of the firm. This will be counter affected by having my colleague as a business partner as he is quite good in market research. Most of these business management skills have been learnt in class while others were learnt as hands-on skills.

 Among my personal qualities that will be crucial in determining my success in the corporate world is my elevated degree of patience hence as my firm picks up I will be patient with the profits such that my main aim initially will be to increases the market share despite the minimal profits in the early years. The other quality is that am quite innovative as I remember there was a time during my internship when I suggested that the management of the firm I was working for should revamp their website and mode of packaging to improve on the sale of products. This move was equivocal to increased sales and the firm was able to post high profits that year.

 However, one area which needs working on is the ability to work on my tempers so that in future I can learn new ways of releasing my pent up anger rather than pour them out on colleagues. This is because managers are role models and they shape up the working environment of a place hence it would be disastrous to portray my weak side to my colleagues as team work is bound to fail when this happens. Similarly, as a business manager, colleagues and other employees are bound to enquire, as well as, analyze their leader critically hence the need to learn ways of self-control as a way of gaining respect from those who look up to me. This will also enable me to carry out my managerial roles confidently thus my tasks and undertakings will be successful. 


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Employee Training and Development


Cisco’s systems accounts managers can use technology training methods to acquire new skills and improve existing skills. Accounts managers in Cisco can use Cisco Account Manager Learning Environment. The training method provides accountants managers with new skills in accounting (Noe, 2008).

Apart from the Cisco account manager learning environment, the organization can use  computer based  training methods like interactive video, CD-Rom to teach the accounts  managers. Also, they can use online learning portals and the internet to teach the accounts  managers. The technologies enable the accountants to get information to improve their skills.

Technology has enabled organization to use different methods mobile training methods like I pods and FDAs to teach the accountants managers new skills. The technology training methods help  accountants managers improve their cognitive skills. This helps the managers become more productive. They also help the accountants managers get training at a minimum cost.

The  technology  training  methods  provide accountants  managers with simulation   activities to help them improve their accounting skills. The simulation and virtual reality training help managers improve their motor skills. The  accountant’s managers should have good knowledge in computer and accounting. This will enable them to use the technology training methods well. Also, they  should  have accounting and technology skills and the ability to use the latest  technology.

The  training  will  help improve knowledge, skills and  abilities of accountants  managers. The training method will help the managers acquire new skills and  knowledge. It will also help them improve their skills in use of technology. The managers will gain enough information on how to use the different technologies (Noe, 2008).


Noe, R.A. (2008).Employee training and development. McGraw-Hill


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Managerial Roles


Each of these managerial roles is equally important as the success of a business or organization is dependent on all of them in equal proportion. Adapting an organization to its environment enables it to fit into the industry such that the activities carried out by the managers contribute to the success of the organization. By making an organization adapt to an environment, the manager enhances chances of gaining support from other managers in the same business and to some extent the articulation process is attained with much ease (Mintzberg, 1980).

 Articulation is a major aspect of adapting into an environment as it increases an organizations chance of gaining support from other organizations in relation to their values, mission and vision.

Consequently, the internal structures of an organization are often formulated in line with the values, mission and vision such that the amount of support determines the successful implementation of the internal structures. Thus for an organization to develop a formidable productivity record, the managers have to establish a strong foundation of the organization based on these three roles (Mintzberg, 1980).

 The three roles are inversely dependent on each other such that they are interlinked and laying much effort on one cannot result in effective management hence equal measures should be given to each.

 Good interpersonal skills are required by managers who are striving to come up with appropriate internal structures or those who are trying to gain support to achieve their mission and vision. When establishing an organization into a new environment high degree of decision making skills is required, as well as, knowledge of how similar businesses have managed to adapt to the new environment (Mintzberg, 1980).


Mintzberg, H. (1980), the nature of managerial work. Prentice Hall. 


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