Category: Literature and Languages


Week 3: Meaning Vocabulary Lesson Plan

Week 3: Meaning Vocabulary Lesson Plan

Lesson Topic: Meaning Vocabulary.


Language: The student should be able to:

• Define the meaning of various vocabularies as well as apply them in the right context within sentences in order to portray their meaning.

Content: The student should be able to:

• Learn how to use the proper labeling for different objects that correlate to various units and themes presented in the class.

 Learning Strategies:

• The presentation of pictures and objects stimulates different ideas about actions and the objects of pictures presented. This lesson will employ the use of these objects to help the student formulate and internalize vocabularies that can be associated with the objects presented during the lesson.

Key Vocabulary: Etiology.


• A box has a lid and an assortment of pictures and objects such as toys representing various objects and features. These objects may include plastic kitchen items meant for child-play such as plastic spoons, ladles, cups, plates, jugs. These are meant to help children in practical recognition of items during naming activities.

Motivation: (Building the Background)

• Present various assorted objects and ask the student what comes to his mind when they view the various objects. Let him name the objects or pictures and offer alternative names for those objects and pictures as well as actions related to them.

• Thereafter, tell him that the week’s lesson is going to be about defining and understanding the use of various vocabularies associated with objects, actions and professions in life.


• Theteacher should choose various objects or pictures that are related andhelp thestudent name them as well as name actions that are related to them as well as descriptive words. Thereafter, the teacher should explain the etiology of these vocabularies and how they may be related to the object, picture or actions and characteristics related to the picture or object.

• Explain how various vocabularies are coined in relation to objects, characteristics and related actions.

 Practice and Application:

• The teacher should collect various objects, toys or objects that relate to specific units or themes, and put them in a covered box (for example, you could make a collection of kitchen equipment of all types). The student should then be asked to move forward and pick an item from the box. The student should then identify the object by name and identify its characteristics, use and the actions for which it is used as well as related terms. Thereafter, discuss about the attributes of the object in terms of color, size and function.

 Practice Activities

The teacher should suggest a number of topics and lists of the subtopics. They should be given in various visual formats such as a train engine as the topic, and carriages as subtopics, a ladder  as a topic and subtopics on every rung, a flower as a topic and  petals as subtopics or alternatively  a spider as the topic and the  web as subtopics spread all over the web. The student will be required to add to as many words as s/he can possibly recognize in the subtopics’ sections.

 For example:

Animals (dog, cat, hen, rat, bird) Colors (red, white, black, blue, green) Furniture (table, bed, chair) Occupations (teacher, doctor, cook, dentist) Food (milk, fruits, bread, juice). The student should list all vocabularies that come to mind according to his/her scope of grade learning.

The teacher should select charts with pictures or assortments of related objects and ask the student

to name the objects. The teacher should offer assistance where difficulties arise. More examples on

how to develop such exercise and activities may be found in books such as “Teaching Literacy in

Third Grade”, by Almasi et al.

 Conduct word defining activities and contextual use by reviewing short stories and literary pieces such as poems. The teacher can read out loud, samples of poems. Thereafter, the teacher can offer the student a copy of the poem and ask him/her to read it again. After reading out loud, ask the student to visual a picture of the poem or what is described in the poem. The poem chosen should be one that uses words to paint a picture by use of vivid description. In order to brainstorm for the poetry session, the teacher can begin by first reading familiar rhymes covered in lower grades and even nursery school as a way to introduce the session. The may start by using samples of “Jack and Jill” or “Old king Cole”. More examples on how to handle poetry lessons may be accessed from books such as “Give them poetry !: A guide for sharing poetry with children K-8”, a publication by Sloan.

 First stanza for Jack and Jill

Jack and Jill went up the hill

To fetch a pail of water

Jack fell down and broke his crown

And Jill came tumbling after.

 Old King Cole poem

Old King Cole was a merry old soul, and a merry old soul 

was he;

He called for his pipe in the middle of the night
And he called for his fiddlers three.
Every fiddler had a fine fiddle, and a very fine fiddle had he;
Oh there’s none so rare as can compare
With King Cole and his fiddlers three.

 Review and Assessment:

• The student should be offered clues that he should use to identify the various objects and attributes by the use of clues provided. He should then list attributes and terminologies associated with their use and characteristics. This should be used to assess how well the student understands vocabularies related to various items or features represented by pictures (Bader, 2009).


• The student could be instructed to choose a collection of related items or pick a certain profession. After which he can be asked to state all vocabularies related to the collection of items or practice of the profession. Listed terms may include tools, activities, personnel involved and technical jargon related to the field of practice or collection of items.

• The teacher can take the student around the school in selected areas, and instruct the student to write down vocabularies related to objects, items and features that he sees.       





Many linguists as well as authors have over time noted that studying language is diabolically difficult. In a traditional perspective, language is essential for the communication as well as construction of meaning and hence to cognitive scientists as well as linguists, language remains to be largely taken as the mind’s window. In this text, I define language and lexicon as well as the various features of language. I also explain the four levels of language structure and processing and lastly expound on the role of language processing in cognitive psychology.

 Language and lexicon: a definition

According to Boeckx (2009) language as a term does not have an assigned meaning. As such, its meaning largely rests with the context and application. However, language has gained recognition as a transmission of an individual’s feelings as well as thoughts through a combination of signals that can be regarded as arbitrary. These signals include but are not limited to symbols which are written, gestures or even vocal sounds. It is good to note that for such a system or combination of signals to work, there must be well established rules for components combination. It cannot also be lost that such a combination of signals must be used by a given society, individuals or grouping.

 Jarvis et al.  (2008) defines that when it comes to linguistics, a language’s lexicon is made up of its vocabulary as well as its expressions and words. Lexicon in one way or the other acts as a link joining knowledge depicted in a language and the language itself. In every language, there exists a distinct vocabulary. However, for every language, there is a provision of grammatical processes for purposes of giving its combination of words meaning. It is important to note that for each language, the lexicon is an essential support for all its probable uses.

 Features of language

According to Boeck (2009), over time linguists have come up with several distinct features of language which in one way or the other can be taken to be occurring in a variety of languages. Below, I discuss some of the common features of language.


This language feature denotes the ability to use language to talk of not only the current happening or the current situation but also a wide range of other happenings in the past, present as well as future. All this happenings can be real, imagined or otherwise. For example, while engaged in a game of chess, one can talk about not only the game but other things related or unrelated to the game.


According to this feature of language, there is nothing that connects a sound or word with its actual meaning or in a real world situation. What this essentially means is that by just looking at a word, one cannot come up with its meaning. For example, there is nothing to tell an individual that the word ‘handball’ in English has the same meaning as ‘handyspiele’ in German. Hence for one to derive meaning from words that can be considered to be arbitrary, knowledge of the language in question is essential. However, there exist some exceptions to this feature as according to Jarvis et al.  (2008) there are some exceptions to the same as there are some symbols that are iconic and whose meaning can be understood without the prerequisite knowledge of the language in question.

 Cultural transmission

According to this feature of language, the fact that we are all brought fourth into this world with the same vocal tracts does not dictate which language we are going to speak. What this essentially means is that if a child is born in America and taken to china as a toddler, he or she will speak Chinese but it will still sound American.


This feature of language means that despite being born and acquiring the mother tongue, we can basically learn any other language or even a wide variety of languages. Basically, unlike animals, human beings have no genetic limitation as to which language they can use.

 The four levels of language structure and processing

According to Boeckx (2009) language structure as well as processing can be taken to have four levels namely pragmatics, syntax, meaning and lastly sound. Below is a brief description of the four.

 Syntax is mainly concerned with bringing out the meaning of the structure of sentences that are considered acceptable grammatically. According to linguists, native speakers of a given language though unaware of it have well defined knowledge as well as competence of the structure as well as processing of a given language. To aid this, there are well developed phrase strictures as well as a variety rules regarding phrase strictures which work hand in hand with rules of lexical insertion to bring out a coherent sentence structure.

 With regard to meaning, a given language must pass on the required meaning. An entire sentence must be constructed in a way that passes on the intended meaning. That is to say that the structure of the sentence must be relevant to demonstrate meaning. The words in the sentence must in one way or the other be interrelated at the sentence level.

 When it comes to sound, there are two areas to look into i.e. production and perception. In this regard, sounds should be combined in sequences that are not only seen to be permissible but also are indeed permissible. Phonological rules come in handy in the spoken output segmentation.

 Pragmatics are concerned with the various rules of social language. Pragmatic rules help in or enhance giving of organized stories, procession of a wide variety of language use as well as the utterances of things which can be taken to be related in one way or the other. In another way, programmatic can be taken to be a way where meaning is informed by the context.

 Role of language processing in cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology investigates the human cognition. Cognition can be taken to be a grouping of all the mental abilities of an individual. This may include understanding, reasoning, thinking, remembering, learning as well as perceiving. Boeckx (2009) argues that cognitive psychology is basically concerned with the way we acquire as well as utilize information and/or knowledge.

 Language processing is the basis on which cognitive psychology is anchored. This is because without the ability of an individual to process language, he or she cannot utilize the information gained if it will be acquired at all. Hence it can be said that language processing aids cognitive psychology.


It is important to note that while cognition can be said to be concerned mainly with the generation of meaning, language is concerned mainly with the determination of the generated meaning. Hence both language and cognition can be said to be related in more that one way.


Boeckx, C. (2009). Language in Cognition: Uncovering Mental Structures and the Rules behind Them. John Wiley and Sons

Jarvis, S., & Pavlenco, A. (2008). Cross-linguistic influence in language and cognition. Routledge


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Personal Mythology


Myths refer to traditional stories encompassing a belief regarding some facts or phenomena, shared by a community or group of people and are part of that community’s cultural identity (Wikipedia, 2010). Myths are usually concerned with some being or event without determinable basis of facts or natural explanation. Different cultures use different myths for purposes such as attempting to explain the world they live in and natural phenomena, to express admiration of character, satisfy need for role models and to try and understand life and death mystery.

There are cultures that are more associated with myths such as the ancient Greeks and Egyptians. Myths are more pronounced in the Greek culture where there are numerous stories on Greek gods, goddesses, deities and heroes. Traditional narratives such as the twelve labors of Hercules, Archile, the Trojan War, Perseus, the Terror of Medusa and the Three Hundred men of Sparta are common stories in the Greek society (, 2010). These myths have been well documented in books and films and are widely appreciated by the Greeks even today. Perhaps another culture that comes close to the Greeks in terms of myth connection is the Egyptian culture.

There are many traditional myths that prevailed in the ancient Egyptian culture such as the story of Re, Isis and Irisis, the seven years of famine and Egyptian view of the Trojan War. Popular myths that I am well familiar with are the myths on creation. Different cultures have their own creation stories. The most common American creation stories are the big bang myth, primal chaos myth and the Bible creation story (Myths Encyclopedia Forum, 2010). There are modern day myths such as the popular dooms day 2012. Myths have not had much impact on my personal and professional life as they are not emphasized in my society.  

         References (2010), Ancient Classical History, Retrieved on September 29, 2010, from Http://

Myths Encyclopedia Forum (2010), Myths and Legends of the World, retrieved on September 29, 2010, from Http://

Wikipedia (2010), Mythology, retrieved on September 29, 2010, from Http://


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Greek Influence on Roman Empire


The Romans acquired the Greek military technology and developed the most organized military system at that time. In terms of culture, The Roman cultural foundation was based on Greece. The Romans adopted the Greek alphabet to form their Latin version. Roman writers, artistes and painters followed Greek models of writing, arts and painting respectively. Before the mid third century Roman literature was virtually non-existent (Noble, 2010).

The Roman actors improved on the genres already established by the Greek predecessors. Like Greece, Rome basic social structure was based upon agricultural economy composed of aristocrats and free farmers. The Roman economy resembled that of Greece. Aristocrats controlled large estates while smaller holdings belonged to free farmers. The Family structure of Romans followed the patriarchal pattern of classical Greece.

Rome adopted Greece policies on slavery. Slaves were used to provide labor in the agricultural and mining industries. The political system of the Roman Empire also borrowed a lot from the Greek empire as both relied on local authorities to exert control over their vast empires. They also relied on military force and clear legal regulation to exert control (Noble, 2010).   


Noble, T (2010), Western Civilization: Beyond Boundaries, Vol 1, 6th Ed, Wadsworth Publishing Company, U.S.A


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A Day when Luck Prevailed


           That Tuesday seemed just like any other day though it was one of the most important days of my life. I work up at the crack of dawn and hurriedly prepared myself because I was to go for an interview whose positive response would change my life. The interview meant a lot to me especially at that time when I had been jobless for quite a long time. The previous night had been one of my longest nights, spending several hours rehearsing and formulating imaginary questions in my mind. Vivid images of my interviewer sitting in front of me kept running through my mind. I believed in myself and knew deep inside that I could achieve whatever I wanted.

          After spending a few hours preparing myself, I went to the bust station so that I could catch the earliest bus to town. There were quite a few buses that went to town daily from my hometown and that is the reason why one had to be early enough to catch one of the earliest buses. I waited for a few hours and was filled with joy when one of the buses that went to town arrived. I boarded the bus with my heart still leaping with joy. As soon as the bus started going, I realized that the driver was driving at a pretty high speed. I and other passengers started complaining and asking him to reduce the speed but the driver could not heed to our wishes.

              I felt so sad and suddenly had a bad feeling deep inside. No sooner had I realized what was happening than I saw our bus skidding and falling sideways. I heard the anguish cries of my fellow passengers and children crying for help. No sound could come through my mouth despite everything that was happening. I guess I was shocked and could not believe what I had just seen. I saw a child who was seated beside me crying in pain and felt touched. I immediately carried the child and got out of the bus through the window.

               So many people and reporters had surrounded our bus and were asking several questions regarding the accident. I answered where I could and told them that I had to be in town for an interview despite what had just happened. Many people were shocked to hear that and advised me not to go in the situation I was in. First of all my clothes were tattered and one of my shirt sleeves had blood stains. Despite their warning, I decided to board another bus heading to town and went for the interview.

           The interviewing committee was shocked when I entered and informed them that I was there for an interview. I explained to them what had happened and why I was in that situation. I could tell that some of them understood while some still believed that it was a mistake for me to come for an interview in that situation. Despite all that, they decided to ask me a few interview questions which I answered confidently.

            One of the questions that I was asked is to talk about myself and I told them that I was a very determined person who had to accomplish whatever task at hand despite the situation that I was in. The biggest surprise of my life is when the committee informed me that I had passed my interview and had landed myself my dream job. That was the luckiest day that I will live to remember.     


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The Midsummer Night Dream


 The Midsummer Night Dream

 The film, a midsummer Night’s Dream was released in 1999.  It was directed by Michael Hoffman. The film is an America adaptation from Shakespeare’s play A Midsummer Night Dream.  This is one of the five first major cinema adaptations of the play. Others were  silent film of 1909  directed  by Charles  Kneer,  the 1935  film  by Max  Reinhardt  and Czech  animation  of  1959 by Jiri Trnka  and the 1968  British film by Peter  HALL.The major stars  were Kevin Kline acted as Nick bottom,  David  Strathairn as  Theseus   the Duke of Athens,  Sophie Marceau  as Hippolytia  the queen  of  amazons  betrothed  to Theseus.  John Scions as Philostrate. Dominick West as Lysander who was in love with Hermia. Christian Bale acted as Demetrious also in love with Hermia.  Anna Friel acted as Hermia and in love with Lysander.  Claista Flochart acted as Helena who is in love with Demetrious. 

Bernard as Eugeus and father to Hermia.  Stanley Tuccci as Puck, Michelle Pfeffer as Titania.The film is set in a classical Athenian backdrop. Shakespeare explores the universal theme of love with its attendant complications of frustration, depression, confusion passion, lust and marriage, the plot of the story runs with three parallel stories; the world of the Fairy King and Queen and their servants, trials and experiences of two sets of lovers and a group of rude craftsmen attempting to stage a production of a play entitled “Pyramus and Thisbe” to be played at the wedding of the Duke of Athens.Shakespeare utilizes his creative imagination to present wonderful lyrical expression of Shakespearean themes of love and dreams. Symbolism has played a major role in authenticating the play.  A midsummer Night’s Dream has symbolisms like Athens, woods, moon, craftsman’s play, and love potion just as well as the characters Theseus and Hippolytia.

They represent the abstract ideas that give the play a deeper meaning.The dramatic structure that the playwright is the uses is mythological imagination   like the use of fairies magic and classical mythology.  There is also the use of supernatural elements in presenting the theme of love.  This film was taken in Tuscany and Lazio and also at Cinecitat Studios in Rome Italy. The action  of the play is a  transformation  from  Greece  and Athens  into a fictional Athena  that is  located  in  a  region  of  Italy known as  Tuscan.  Mentions of Athens that are in the text are however maintained.The film utilizes incidents music for the past stage production done by Felix Mendelssohn’s.Michael Hoffman presents a film that depicts the Universe as being inhibited by satyrs, fairies and dwarfs of various kinds.

They are the mischievous folks  that live in the forests and  a times  come into the the life  of  the mortals  fiddling  freely with  destinies  and  affecting  the  mortals  with  their magic. The scene opens with bustling preparation of the wedding to come. This wedding  feasts  is  in celebrations of  Hippolytia and  Theseus  represented  by Sophia and  David  respectively.  Then later, Hoffman drifts away from Shakespeare plot by finding his own voices in fetching synergy of the modern and ancient.  Of operatic and Shakespearian and of pagan and Christian. The setting is in Tuscan village called Monte Athena in the turn of the centaury. This stands in place of Shakespeare Athens.  Outside, there is a little  developed  village  are numerous  forests  ruled  by the fairies like  Oberon who is Repett  and Titania  acted  by Mitchell. They are jealous of the love of the mortals and plan to create disorders. 

And with their love  portion, they cast  foolish  pair of  mortal  duos  Helena  and Demetrious and  Hermia  as  Lysander. When viewers see this film what comes to mind is that the film is more of an opera or operatic.  The costume designer of the film is by Gabriel   Pescucii and the production designer is by Luciana Ariighi.  The cinematographer is Oliver Stapleton. . The film is anchored by Simon  Boswell  which  is  whole an  imitation  of  Italian  opera.  The  music  has  Stapteleon   lush    with warm  photography  that  audience  are drawn  into a  romantic  and lighthearted  mood.  Hoffman has managed to stay in the Bards marvelous language despite the over the top production values.  The casting is okay   with special, kudos to the scene -stealing Kevin Kline and Garbo-esque Michelle Pfeiffer.  They are the finest comic actors of this play.

The final scene’s antic comedy came out as being anticlimactic.  This is because at the end Nick Bottom -the Weavers conquered the audience instead of Kline as the ridiculous character.The film has managed to understand Shakespeare intentions in presenting the unpredicted nature of humanity.  The director successfully managed to create an atmosphere of magical realism through effective lighting and costume. There are both  shines  and fails,  opulent décor,  lush  and  golden  -hued  which  are the lighting  schematic  supplement  in this film.The lighting supplement of Shakespeare’s soaring verse    occasionally prevents some scenes from becoming fully comic.  The message to the audience is a representation of the unpredicted nature of man. Rupert Everett as Oberon and the King of fairies    acts like a god like creature   who is above alls   as ever sneering into the lives of the mortals.



Time out London (2010) A Midsummer Night Dream

On June 1, 2010

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Yellow Wall Paper


 The allegory of the cave is also known as Myth of the cave. It is an allegory used by the Greek philosopher Plato in his literature work The republic. The author has used allegory to show “our nature in education and want of education”. In the book, Plato gives different views. For example, he imagines of people who have no freedom at all. This is because the people are chained in a cave, and they spent all their time in the cave. The people spent most of their time in the cave looking at a blank wall. In addition to watching the blank wall, the people also watch shadows that are projected in the wall by things that are passing in front of a fire. People in the cave attribute to the shadows. The author imagines the shadows being close to prisoners who are almost seeing reality (McQuillan, 2000). In the book, the author compares a philosopher with a prisoner who is freed from the cave. The philosopher later understands that the shadows in the walls are not reality. The allegory of the cave helps the reader understand the yellow wall paper.

This is because the yellow wall paper uses symbolism to convey the message to the reader. The yellow wall paper has used the same concepts used in the allegory of the cave. This essay uses the allegory of the cave to analyze the yellow wall paper (McQuillan, 2000).

The yellow wall paper is a short story written by Charlotte Perkins. The author has used the story to illustrate how people perceived women in 19th century. The author in the work illustrates how people viewed women mental and physical health. The story is written in first person view and the author has used series of journals to convey the message. The story talks about a woman who is confined in a bedroom by her husband. The husband prevents her from working so as to recover from a mental illness (Gilman, 2008).  

The narrator does not agree with her husband’s decision to prevent her from working, but she hides journals so that she can read. The story shows the effects of confinement on mental health of the narrator. The house has nothing to stimulate the narrator, so she becomes obsessed by the patterns on the wall, and the color of the wall paper. The narrator spends most of her time trying to observe the wall papers, and the color. She even imagines there are women creeping behind the patterns of the wall papers. She later accepts that she is one of them. The narrator of the story tries to show how women are oppressed in the society. The author has used symbolism to convey the message and show oppression. The main theme in the story is oppression and freedom (Gilman, 2008).The allegory of the cave helps the reader understand the yellow paper. This is because it helps one analyze people who are chained, the symbolism in the work, and the meaning of the text.

There are several characters in the yellow paper that are chained. The main character who is chained in the story is the narrator (Gilman, 2008). This is evidenced by the fact that her husband has decided to lock her in a bedroom. The husband locks the narrator in the bed room so that she can recover from a temporal mental illness. He forbids the narrator from reading the journals and doing any other work. The narrator spends all her time in the bedroom as the husband monitors her not to escape. The narrator feels disturbed by her husband’s decision and she always spent her time observing the pictures, and color. The narrator is chained in the story and she has no freedom to carry out her own activities. This makes her life dificuity and she feels more oppressed, and disappointed. She thinks she would be better if left to interact with other people.

This is shown by the following quotation. The quote shows how the husband has chained the narrator (Gilman, 2008). “ So I take phosphates or phosphites–whichever it is, and tonics, and journeys, and air, and exercise, and am absolutely forbidden to “work” until I am well again.  Personally, I disagree with their ideas. Personally, I believe that congenial work, with excitement and change, would do me good.ut what is one to do?   did write for a while in spite of them; but it does exhaust me a good deal–having to be so sly about it, or else meet with heavy opposition”.The author has used the narrator to show how women are chained in the society. This is because women have no place in the society. Most people in the society undermine women. They have no freedom to express their views and carry out their own work. This is illustrated by the narrator’s comments as shown in the above quotation.

The narrator does not have freedom to be with her child and interact with other people in the society. Her husband ignores her views when she suggests that she is not comfortable when isolated (Gilman, 2008).The allegory of the cave helps the reader understand the symbolism used in the story. The author of the yellow paper has used symbolism to convey the message. He has used the wall paper and the yellow color. The author uses the yellow wall paper to show oppression. The narrator always vies the yellow paper, and she says they irritate her (Gilman, 2008). This is because of the color and the pasterns. She even imagines of women creeping under the yellow papers trying to escape the shadow. The narrator starts creeping behind the yellow paper. The yellow paper shows oppression as the narrator feels relieved when her husband opens the door. This shows how women are oppressed in the society.

They have no freedom to express their views. The narrator is isolated from her child and other members in the society. In addition, she does not receive proper diagnosis. The women creeping under the yellow paper illustrates how women are oppressed in the society, and how they are fighting hard to free themselves. This is illustrated by the following quotation (Gilman, 2008).“ I kept on creeping just the same, but I looked at him over my shoulder.   “I’ve got out at last,” said I, “in spite of you and Jane. And I’ve pulled off most of the paper, so you can’t put me back!”        Now why should that man have fainted? But he did, and right across my path by the wall, so that I had to creep over him every time!”The puppet handler in the story the Yellow wall paper is John and Jane (Gilman, 2008). This is because John holds the narrator and the narrator has no freedom.

He locks her in the bedroom, and prevents her from seeing the reality. He even oppresses her and forbids her from carrying out various activities like working, writing and interacting with the child, and the society. He uses the mental illness to lock the narrator in the room so as to recover. This is shown by the following quotation. Jane also restricts the narrator from having freedom.        “I’ve got out at last,” said I, “in spite of you and Jane. And I’ve pulled off most of the paper, so you can’t put me back!”The quotation shows that John and Jane are the puppet handlers who are preventing the narrator from achieving her dream, and interacting with her child and the society (Gilman, 2008).The narrators helps makes the reader see the light. This is because she uses the yellow papers and the color to show how women are oppressed. The narrator does not like the house, the wall paper, and the color. She feels irritated by the wall paper and the color.

The narrator shows how her husband oppresses her by separating her with the child, the society. The narrator wants to be active in the society, and become a mother, but the husband prevents her by loving her in the house. The author has used the story to show how women were viewed in the 19th century. The narrator helps us see the light by escaping from the yellow wall papers like other women. She is happy at the end of the story as she has secured her freedom. The narrator shows how women need to be given freedom to work become mothers etc. Moreover, the narrator reads the wall paper, and she finally finds an escape. This is shown by the following quotation. “I’ve got out at last,” said I, “in spite of you and Jane. And I’ve pulled off most of the paper, so you can’t put me back!” (Gilman, 2008).


Gilman, C, P. (2008).The Yellow Wallpaper and Other Stories. Filiquarian Publishing, LLC

McQuillan, M. (2000).The narrative reader. Routledge, page 37

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Contractual Agreement Memo


I am writing this memorandum to you to explain the events which led to breach of the contract.

One of the most evident ethical issues in the scenario is adoption of a false agreement on the part of Salesman. Buyer was willing to make the earnest payment upon being granted a two extension but Salesperson never requested the same for the client form the seller. Consequently, the seller and Salesperson went ahead and sold the real estate to another client who raised a higher fee for the same. This is quiet unethical because Buyer had not shown any unwillingness to pay a higher sum and alternatively, Salesperson did not communicate to Buyer about the new development.

It was also very unprofessional for Salesperson to ignore the urgency of Buyer in obtaining the written document which had details of the contract (Cortesi, 2003). This scenario calls for action to be taken upon Salesperson so that in the future business deals, he may respect contracts even if they are verbal. This will save customers from the agony of chasing money lost in deals which look dubious. Consequently, the unprofessional behavior portrayed by Salesperson may cost the trust many potential customers (Cortesi, 2003). Salesperson terminated the contract with Buyer because the two day extension expired without receipt of earnest payment from Buyer. This was a breach as they had agreed that the money would be availed by then.

However, Buyer could not present the payment because Salesperson had not availed the written document which had directions of the terms of contract. Therefore, both parties contributed to breach of contract (Allbusiness, 2010).   Formalities associated with contracts do not require that they be written at all times such that the agreement between Buyer and Salesperson which was verbal qualified to be called a contract. This makes any agreement to involve into business a contract even if no statement is issued to either party. Legal regulations thus consider any form of agreement as a contract regardless of the situation and business deal at hand (Allbusiness, 2010).During the formation of an agreement and its transformation into a contract, the conditions laid by both parties must be complete so that the agreement may be certain as well as to remove any vagueness that may be clouding the agreement.

In the scenario between Buyer and Salesperson, their agreement was never completed because Salesperson did not present Buyer’s intention for an extension (BNET Editorial, 2010).Legality of the object being sold is another crucial element of any contract such that a potential customer may terminate a contract when they realize that the business deal is illegal. This leads to breach of contract on the part of the customer as they expect the seller to present legal items while in real sense it may not be legally possessed (Allbusiness, 2010).The buyer in this case may involve the services of a lawyer so to carry out the legalities associated with breach of contract. After indulging the services of a lawyer, she may then decide whether to sue the company as a whole or the major participants who were directly involved in the situation (Cortesi, 2003.


Allbusiness (2010), suing for beach of contract. Retrieved on May 18, 2010 from:    , Inc

BNET Editorial (2010), understanding marketing ethics. Retrieved on May 18, 2010         from:

Cortesi, G. R. (2003), Mastering real estate principles. 4th ed, Dearborn Real Estate. 

James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

Compare and Contrast Athens and Sparta


One of the key similarities is that both Athens and Sparta were city states in Greece. The other similarity is that both the Sparta and Athens people were greatly changed by the Persian war.  However, it is important to note that while Sparta was ruled by the military, Athens was more of a political state which was involved with its economical matters and stature.

 The other difference is the location of these two city states and the inhabitants. Sparta was located in Peloponnesus in the southern part of Greece and inhabited by the Dorians people who had earlier on defeated the Laconia people. Athens on the other hand was located in Attica at the northern part of the Peloponnesus. The Government of Athens changed from a monarchy into an aristocratical government.

 It is also important to note that even though Sparta and Athens had two different forms of governments, Sparta is the state that eventually emerged victorious and this is a major difference between these two city-states. Athens resulted or moved into a golden age due to dependency in economy while Spartans still upheld their harsh military way of life. Spartan society was unyielding and rigid and its young male citizens eventually became solders while women were raised into mothers of more solders. There was suppression of sentiment and individualism and the only time that Spartans had contact with the outside world is when they had intentions of a conquest.

 The Athenian society on the other hand had more freemen and fewer slaves but with time, the economic divide became worse and this led to freemen being sold as slaves leading to overthrowing of the old aristocratic rule. A major valued part of the Athenian society was trade with the outside world especially with craft and this is in contrast with the Spartan society that did not value manual labor on craft.

 Macedonian Conquest

Philip II of Macedonia came to power in 360 B.C and defeated most of the neighboring enemies of Macedonia within a period of less than a decade. Phillip II made a lot of reforms which led improvement of siege machinery and catapults and this led to his army being at the forefront with regard to military technology. Philip unified Macedon and expanded it in the west and north and then eventually conquered Thrace and Thessaly.

He defeated an allied army of Athens and Thebes in 338BC at the Battle of Chaeronea. He then convinced many city-states to ally with him and these city states did that by joining the League of Corinth. Phillip was however assassinated by Pausanias of Orestis after entering a war against the Achemaenid Empire.

 He was succeeded by his son, Alexander who defeated Darius III of Persia and led to complete destruction of the Achaemenid Empire and hence earn the Great epithet. It is evident that Alexander’s reign changed the phase of Asia and Europe. Alexander strengthened the military power and led an army across the Hellespont located in Asia. Alexander eventually conquered the empire of Persia ion Egypt and western Asia.


Noble, T. F. Western Civilization: Beyond boundaries (6th Ed.). Cengage Learning, 2008.

Kaltas, N.E, Onassis culture centre and Ethniknon Archaiologikon Mouseion (Greece). Athens-Sparta. Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation (USA), 2006.


Janet Peter is the author and is associated with which is a global research papers 24/7 provider. If you would like help in essays, research papers, term papers and dissertations, you can visit


Realism and Imagination in Christmas Everyday



Imagination is a concept in literature where individuals enhance their ability to form mental images or concepts although not necessarily through any of the sense. Imagination as a part of learning in human beings allows the mind to create images which are virtual hence allowing people to make sense of the world. Imagination is an innate capability such that not all people posses the same degree of imaginative thoughts or abilities while others can carry out exceptional imagination.

Realism on the other hand is seeing everything or every aspect as it is in the world without having to carry out any form of fantasizing. It involves taking all as they exist without entertaining other thoughts regarding their nature. In the narrative “Christmas Everyday” there is a wide range of realism and imagination narrator such that this essay strives to identify these figures of narration as they have been used in the narrative.


Christmas everyday

Christmas everyday is a story about a little girl who had engaged in a habit of asking her dad to tell her stories everyday before breakfast. It seems that most of the stories were based on small pigs hence on this particular morning she declined an offer of the story with the same character and instead asked for a different setting. She hurriedly obliged when her father decided to share a story on a small girl who had wanted to be granted Christmas everyday.

This was a turn for the little girl who sat patiently as she listened to a story that involved a fairy tale granting the small girl her wish of having Christmas everyday. The celebratory mood which was evident during the first day turned out to be misery as the Christmas period went on for about six months and everyone was desperate (Howells, 1870).

 The desperation was due to lack of meaning of Christmas as people go tired exchanging presents while resentment for the small girl when the secret leaked was traumatizing as her greedy nature made other townsmen suffer. However, after she had learnt her lesson, she asked the Christmas fairy to reconsider the present in exchange of one Christmas per year. As a concluding remark, the father told the young girl that the entire story was all a dream although the lesson had been perceived by the young girl hence she stopped probing her father for more stories (Howells, 1870).

 Imagination in “Christmas Everyday”

The first instance of imagination in this narrative is the Christmas fairy that is seen as the sole giver of Christmas to those wishing to have extraordinary celebration days throughout the year. Fairies and more so Christmas fairies are imaginations of gentle creatures that are thought to posses a pair of wings hence they can move from one corner of the world to the other to fulfill the wishes of young children.

Fairies are used to demonstrate gratitude and to award children who are exceptional at home or at school. Hence the fairy rewards them for their good deeds as in the case where the small girl had to send letters which were elaborate as compared to those she had written earlier on. This seemed to be a good idea as the Christmas fairy eventually answered the letters by granting her wish (Howells, 1870).

 The other element of realism is incorporation of Santa Claus in the narrative as ways of enhancing the dreams come true for the small girl. Santa Claus is often depicted as a white man with a very long white beard, a red hat, riding on a sledge that is pulled by dogs and holding a large stocking full of presents for good children.

This figure is said to appear on Christmas Eve after children have gone to sleep and he drops the presents into the stocking that is placed by children on the chimney stack. Santa Claus is an imagination as parents are often responsible of placing the presents as a way of ensuring that the children’s imagination of Santa does not diminish (Miles, 1876).

 Consequently, the idea of having Christmas everyday is an imagination that is way beyond comprehension as it would be quite unreal to have each day as Christmas. Usually all the days of the year are the same and the activities that people engage in are what determines the nature of day it is. In this case, has the presents stopped flowing, Christmas could have ended within a few days.

However, the natives of that town had to proceed with exchanging presents despite the fact that they did not need them hence most of them were strewn all over while poverty crept into the town due to increased purchase of presents. Thus in the real world, the citizens of that region should have absconded their purchase of presents after they realized that it would be Christmas everyday hence avoid making unnecessary expenditures (Restad, 1995).

 Similarly, it would be difficult to fathom the nature of damage which had been caused by the excess Christmas shopping as the people had to buy presents for each other everyday. The extent to which the purchases were bought led to reduced trees such that in the course of time the people had to use rags to make the Christmas trees while the presents were put in barns or thrown out of the streets.

Consequently, it would be difficult to imagine poverty that is caused by the intense purchasing of presents which were not needed by those who were given. Though the duty of police is to maintain law and order, it is hard to understand their new role as cleaners or in arresting those who could not dispose their presents properly (Howells, 1870).

 Disposing presents is an illusion which is far fetched as with the eradication of Christmas everyday, the natives of the little girls country could have withheld some of the presents while the children could have stored the candy for future consumption. Human beings are known to be in control of major scene and events that occur in life yet this one proved them as weaklings as they were unable to control their actions in the period during which there was Christmas Everyday (Miles, 1876).

 Realism in Christmas Everyday

Christmas is an event that occurs one every year and it is characterized by plenty of celebrations, exchanging presents, as well as, Santa Claus visiting children with hordes of presents. There are various items or themes which must be present at any Christmas day celebration such as a Christmas tree that is mostly cut from he tips of conifers then laced with candy and snow balls.

Presents are also a major fete during this period while turkey is one delicacy that characteristic of Christmas. Hence the real Christmas is depicted as a harmonious combination of these elements coupled with joy and happiness (Restad, 1995).

 The conduct or behavioral aspect of the young girl when she was promised of a Christmas the next day and each other day that followed was quite in place for young children. Children are always excited of having to celebrate Christmas as there is a sense of exchanging presents while expecting more from Santa Claus. The elders are however not amused by the tradition hence their actions are only aimed at striving to make the children happy (Miles, 1876).

 Consequently, stomachaches and other ailments are common during this period due to increased consumption of food, as well as, over consumption of high fat or food with plenty of sugars. This makes people and especially children unwilling to wake up early the day after Christmas. Fatigue is also common while disappointment for children who lack present is also a common phenomenon (Restad, 1995).

 The other element or realism is the moral lesson learnt by the small girl after subjecting an entire town to such a humiliating episode. This is exhibited by the move by the small girl to contact the Christmas fairly to revert to the normal way of life. This makes the narrative significant to children who are always requesting for items they cannot handle (Howells, 1870).


The narrative discussed above demonstrates how human beings are able to mix realism and imagination in their daily lives to make life interesting. Consequently, it is a crucial way of executing moral lessons to the young children who may possess the personality traits of requesting for unreasonable presents.


Howells, Dean W. “Christmas Everyday” retrieved on September 30, 2010 from:  1870

Miles, Clement A, Christmas customs and traditions, Courier Dover Publications, 1976

Restad, Penne L. Christmas in America: A History. New York: Oxford University Press. 1995. 


James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

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