Category: History


The Impeachment of President Clinton

The Impeachment of President Clinton

Thesis Statement:
This paper will present a brief story on the events that took place during President Clinton service leading to his overall impeachment.



William Jefferson Bill was born in August 19, 1946 with the name William Jefferson Blythe III. From 1993 to 2001, he ruled as the 42nd president of the United States, at the age of 46.  His father was a traveling salesman and died three months before his birth  from an automobile accident. Bill was raised by his grandparents after his mother Virgian Cell left to New Orleans to study law. The grandparents Eldrigde and Edit operated a grocery store they owned. 


This was the time during which the Southern region of the United States was characterized by racial segregation. Bill grandparents however sold goods to all people  on credit. Bill’s mother married Roger Clinton  after completing her nursing school Roger Clinton and his brother had  a dealership business dealing with automobile Arkansas Hot spring where the whole family moved in 1950. Clinton at Hot Springs, he attended St. Jones Catholic element, Hot SpringsHigh School and RambleElementary School.


 All his academic life, Clinton was considered as an avid read , active student leader and musician. He won his position as the state band which made him to consider doing music as his current. But by age 16 Clinton had decide he wanted to work as an elected official in public life. For him to become a public figure in 1963, he was influenced by two main aspects. First was the  listening of  the I Have a Dream speech  by Martin Luther King in 1963 and second inspiration aspect was his visit to the White House as a Boys Nation senator to meet John F Kennedy the presidents(Bill, 2004). This motivated him to attend EdmundAWalshSchool off Foreign servicemen  a t GeorgetownUniversity. He later attended OxfordUniversity to study economic politics and philosophy but he studied at YaleLawSchool.


 It is here that he meets Hillary Rodman and the started dating they got married in October 1975 and Chelsea was born in February 27 1980.  After graduating from Yale, Clinton taught bas a professor at ArkansasUniversity and was later elected governor of Arkansas in 1978. At the age of 32 years old Clinton became the youngest serves US governor.  He lost his seat as governor after mixing his ambitions with social conservatives and business leader (Hayden, 2001). He enter developed his reformed minded agenda which after two years he was able to portray  him self ability to be a leader leading to him  being chosen the president and  he  gave the promise that his administration would be the most ethical in the  world and history..        


Causes for impeachment

Clinton has come to be considered as the musts investigated presidents in the world. He was involved in various controversial aspects right from the start when he became a public figure of a senator to presidents. He went against the conservatives by supporting   a campaign from the gay community to serve in the US military.  This is the  promise that the  president  has made but later he bakeoff from the of  the  promise and instead developed the policy of don’t ask- don’t tell which’s  still a controversial aspect.


The House of Representatives impeached Presidents Bill Clinton on December 19, 1998 and later acquitted by the senate in 1999. The reason for this impeachment was issues related to obstruction of justice, perjury and malfeasance in office due to the law suit by Paula Jones and his scandal with Monica Lewinsky. The trail proceeding was based on the perspectives of the parties, where four democratic representatives were for the impeachment a no democratic senators was for conviction. On the perjury charge, 45 senators voted senators voted guilty while 55 senators were on the not guilty vote (Washington post, 2008). This impeachment marked the second in America’s history of the presidents after 1868 impeachments of Andrew Johnson (Kaplina and Moran 2001).


Counsel investigations were carried out by the Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr. The investigation was approved by Janet Reno, the attorney general on the United States. The  counsel conducted investigations on the presidents alleged abuses such as the  misuse of FBI files,  firing the travel agents of the white house, and  his conduct during the lawsuit on sexual harassments by Paula Jones a former employee from Arkansas government.  In the process on investigation Starr came across a tapped phone conversation which was provided by Linda Tripp. The conservation was between Monica Lewinsky and Presidents Bill Clinton. Lewinsky, who was then 22 years, was working in the White House as an intern.  They were discussing on oral sex which called for the need to know whether the two were involved in a sexual relation. Asked where the two had something going on, presidents Clinton denied the allegations (Kaplina and Moran, 2001).


Further evidence was seen when Clinton covering up the state mail by removing the hard drive of computers and all the email record he had sent to Lewinsky. The congress received the Starr findings which was a lengthy report known as the Starr report. The reports gave detailed information between Lewinsky and Clinton based on the conflicting testimonies given but both Lewinsky and Bill as well as damming in  of the hard drive of the computer,  the Starr counsel  gave a conclusion that perjury had been committed by Clinton. The Starr report further gave information through its proceedings and report to be used for serious political readers and for the late night comedians. The report was however criticized for spending $ 70 million by thee democrats and providing a substantiated only the obstruction of justice and perjury. The Starr critics also accuse the council for providing highly politicized contend for leaking information to the media which violets the code of ethics. The report was also criticized for providing lengthy description of pornography just to humiliate but not of any relevance to legal case.


Main people in the scandal

After the Starr findings were leaked to the media. Presidents Bill Clinton came forward to say that he did not have sexual relations with Miss Lewinsky.  The deposition given by Paula Jones also tested the same point from Clinton dining not to and will never have sexual encounters with the woman. After several months, he came clean to admit that the   relationship between him and Lewinsky was not appropriate and that on several   occasion he had engaged in oral sex with her.


The House of Representatives was the main party that contributed to the impeachment of Clinton. The extensive and completed report from Ken Starr, the House of judiciary did investigation of it’s on to prove the wrongs done by the presidents. The House of judiciary committee neither presented related hearings before the 1998 elections but still, one of the major issue of election was impeachment the democrats took up there seats in the congress.  By mid term elections, the republicans still the majority control of the House of Representatives in the United States of Representatives. But after the mid term elections it was predicted that the democrats would loses the number of seats and the election itself. Newt Gingrich announced his resignation from the congress he was the speaker of the United States House of Representatives. He resigned in January 25, 1999 from the congress.


The post election,” lame duck” session saw the imitation of the impeached proceedings the hearings by the committee was the floor of debate but perfunctory. Bob Livingston the speaker designate who is chosen by the Republican Party congress was to replace the former speaker Newt Gingrich also resigned from his role as the speaker. Clinton did not leave the office and pleaded with Livingston to reconsider his resignation. With the passage of the H Res. 611in December 19, 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives based on his grand jury to perjury with a vote of 228/ 206 vote. His impeachment was also as results of justice obstruction which was passed by a vote f 221/229. Other articles for his impeachment like the Jones case   and the other based on accusation of the president’s power miscue were defeated. Presidents Clinton after Andrew Johnson became the fists presidents who had been elected in the US (Busby, 2001).


It is evident that Clinton’s administration was characterized by various controversial events as well as his personal conduct. These are the aspects which gave a highway and opportunities through which his political opponents would damage his career. The firing of the white house travel office were fired out of the white house by President Clinton because he fired the without a reason.


The mysterious murder of  the deputy White Housel Vince Foster who  had for a  long time been the friend to the president became a highly controversial use especially after months later when the federal instigators raveled  that they  had  not  allowed to  gain access  to the Fasts white house. Other accuses of the presidents include buying land or build their carnation home on a land meant for building vocational homes.


These among many other controversial issues surrounding led to the Republican Controlled house Judiciary commute to plan and consider    the need for a formal impeachment.  This marked the first process of removing Clinton from Office.


The aftermath of the impeachments process agonist the president is seen in the continent of court citation ( Fried &Cole 2004, pp 77) This  happened in 1999  when Clinton was being acquitted  by  one of  the senate Susan Webber Wright  the  federal  judge cited Clinton for being disrespectful to obey her order  to  truthfully testify  in  the  sexual harassment lawsuit by Paula Jones. Clinton was therefore to pay $ 90,000 as fine he was also advised to visit the Arkansas Supreme Court to assert the validity of the punishment


Clinton’s disposition on his dispossession was to take an oath of saying the truth on his case with Miss Lewinsky Before lea caving the office in 2001, Clinton was to be suspended for five years under the Arkansas law license as part to end investigation on him. According to speculation, Clinton was suspend from the bar of the United States Supreme court which he had chosen to rule


Failure to demonstrate any charges, Paula Jones lawsuits on harassment was dismissed but Clinton had to pay Jones $ $850,000. Politically the impeachment of Clinton was shown  in  the 1998  and 1999 polls conducted which showed   that  almost  one third  of  Americans supported  the  conviction of Clinton half of  the American supported the  impeachment  of  the president while others were against the idea of the senate to  retain Clinton in office (Depalma,1999, pp 21-30). The subsequent  impeachment of  the  president following  the scandals with Monica Lewinsky lead Americans to question moral character, honesty and integrity this determined the next  presidential election based on honesty and moral  culture. The daily Princeton after the 2000 election and the start of Clinton –era scandals, became the meaning reason as to why Bush was voted in based on his moral character (Busby, pp 2001).



Anthony Depalma, 1999 The Clinton Impeachment,” New York Times, February, 16,     
    2009, Vol. 141 Issue 10, p18-20,

Amy Fried, Timothy Cole (2004)Presidential Impeachment and Institutional Dynamics in the
    Iran-Contra Affair and the Clinton-Lewinsky Scandal”
    Congress & The Presidency, Vol 31 Issue 1(Spring2004): Vol. 31 Issue 1,
    P77-98, 22p

Robert Busby(2001) Defending the American presidency. Houndmills, Basingstoke,
    Hampshire; New York: Palgrave.  

Leonard V. Kaplina and Beverly I. Moran (2001). The Clinton Impeachment & the Presidency
    in the Age of Political Spectacle. NYU Press,

Joseph R. Hayden (2001) Covering Clinton: The President & the Press in the 1990’s,
    Greenwood Press,  

Clinton, Bill (2004). My Life. Random House, Inc..


Politics Administration Dichotomy

Politics Administration Dichotomy

One of the most important models in public administration is the politics administration   dichotomy model. The model is used to show the boundaries in public administration as an intellectual field. It is also used to show the relationship between the officials who are elected and not elected administrators in the society. The politics administration   dichotomy model has impact on public administration in the country. It impacts the relationship between the elected administrators and non elected administrators. Most people have criticized the politics administration dichotomy model. They argue that the model is not relevant to the current conditions. The main shortcoming of the model results from using the model to describe actual behavior during policy making process. The politics administration dichotomy model defines the roles of each part well. In this   cased politics concentrates on developing policies in the country. On the other hand, administration focus on implementing   the policies developed. The politics administration dichotomy has become a major issue in the society. People have different views about the model (Pardeep, 2007).

 Some think the politics administration dichotomy is not effective as it affects the roles played by different parties. For example, the elected officials might affect the implementation of policies by administrators. Others think the model is effective in managing the relationship between elected leaders and administrators. The model allows the administrator to remain neutral. The administratoris not involved in politics and police making. It is difficulty for politics and administration to remain separate as they have to work together. This affects democratic processes and activities in the country as the elected officials and the administrators are not able to work independently. It leads to delay of serve delivery. This in turn affects how people view representative groups and other groups in the country. For instance, most people might view the government to be unaccountable to the citizens. They might also view the administrators to be unaccountable (Pardeep, 2007).


Pardeep,S.(2007)Administrative Theory.PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.


Virginia Planter and Slaveholder

Virginia Planter and Slaveholder

1) The philosophical ideals embodied by James Madison

Madison James (1751-1836) was the US fourth president as a Virginia slaveholder and planter. He, Alexander Hamilton, a Federalists Papers co-author, and John Jay fought for the implementation of a strong, constitutionally made central government.  The Bill of Rights was first written by James Madison who was a staunch human rights advocate.  Madison advocated for the independence of America through his speech and his famous article the “Summary View of the Rights of British America”.

 He worked as a delegate of the Continental Congress where he was the appointed person in charge of drafting the territorial provisions which included the Ordinances of the North West region. His main interest after a long experience in political involvement both in and outside America, he began to develop intellectual a philosophies on his views of the disregarding issues affecting the nation. In Madison’s political career, he further showed his philosophical ideologies especially on the aspect of religious freedom. This aspect was well documented in the Constructional Convention of 1787, making him an active participant in the ratification and planning of the America’s constitution (Madison, 1989, pp 811)…

 (2) The similarities and differences of Articles of Confederation and the Constitution

The “Article of the Confederation” was the US first constitution which indicated the operations of the Federal governments. One aspect on this article was that it suggested how the federal governments would be called under one unified name, “the United States Of America. Despite this constitution being of great benefit to nation, its main weakness was seen before the revolution’s end.  This weakens was that the article had given so much power to the federal governments in the fear of developing a central strong authority to oversee the operations of the states governments. For example, on the aspect of tax collection, the congress would ask states to bring in financial contributions since it lacked the authority of directly levying taxes. The Constitution on the other hand had well drawn requirements on the role of the executive branch which was act as the laws enforcer and the requirements of laws interpretation by a court system. The congress under the constitution was to be the national government’s sole organ. As the president, Madison James signed the constitution (Madison, 1989, pp 811)…

 (3) Madison James major argument on the ratification of the Constitution

Madison main aspects for the constitution ratification were through his philosophy and principle of the Bill of Rights. His philosophy was on the theory that the newly formed American republic required balances and checks so as to ensure there is individual rights protection based on the majority rule. His bill of rights was adopted into the Constitution. Madison support for the constitutional ratification was through his agreement on the aspect that all the America’s states should be give equal opportunity for voting in senate members but despite of this, his best options was his consideration of developing a draft constitution during the course of the ratification process (Madison, 1989, pp 811).

             Madison finally singed the constitution on September 17, 1787.  This however did not come easily. It was a matter of revising the Confederation Article which some delegates were in support of. The members of the congress who were also the convention members were Gorham, Madison and King.  They are the federalist who supported the constitution. Their claim was opposed by the anti-federalists was on the central government which was given additional powers. The anti-federalists were afraid that the constitution would be the highway to the development of a tyranny power under the central government. This aspect was mainly influenced by the British government which by then had recently violated the civil rights, both during and before the revolution.

 On behalf of the nation, Madison opposed the US financial plan given by Alexander Hamilton but he knew that the financial plan would be of great benefit to the Northern financers interests. He therefore became the founder of the Republican Party which was the first’s party of its own kind in America. The Southerners and the Northerners came into a major conflict of divisive fissures in the 1830s. Madison with the United States interest at heart, he fought against the rights of states and he maintains that all the regions should remain under one unity (The White House President, 2010).

(4) Argument against the ratification

 Since Madison was the founder of the Bill of Rights which specified the individual rights of an individual citizen he advocated for the ratiocination of the constitution.  The constitutional amendment was based on free exercise of one religion. This was through his article which spoke of the separation of the church from government. He was against the government action of imposing on individuals the Christian religious believes. His support for the ratification of the constitution was also because of the legislation to enact its first revenue. He opposed the financial proposal given by Hamilton because he felt such arguments would lead to bestowing power and wealth   to the financers from the Northern region.


The White House President (2010) James Madison.  Retrieved from

On December 17, 2010

Madison, J (1989) Jonathan Elliot’s Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution, Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 as Reported by James Madison. pp.811




The colonist in Virginia was mainly business men and entrepreneurs who focused on profit making in trade. The colonists comprised of company owners, merchants, and entrepreneurs in the Virginia Colony.  The colonists faced various problems such as mainly mosquitoes due to swampy land and unhygienic water. They died from various diseases which made governing of the colony to be a big challenge for them. The main   body ruling the new settlers was the Virginia Company which chooses leaders. The colonist’s lives were characterized by gold hunting on daily basis and preparing Jamestown future. The colonists came from England.  Many of them came in search of gold but no gold was found. Through John Smith, the colonists were encouraged to venture into businesses and in agriculture (Virginia Colony, 1606).The colonists in Plymouth colony also came from England.

They came to Plymouth mainly in escape of religious persecution as well as economic problems in England. They the pilgrims were mainly members of separatists which is one of the Puritan sect. they believed in herbal remedies, witches, astrological virtues and fairies. The colonists were not in search of gold like the ones in Virginia but instead ventured into both communal and private firming.  They interacted with the early settlers who are the Indians (Bradford, 1650).What influenced the behaviors and activities of the two groups of American land is the reason for immigrating. The Virginia colonists were mainly adventures in search of prosperity (Gold).  The pilgrims in Plymouth colony were is search of a place where they could   practice their tradition, believes and religion with no fear of execution. With the difference of the behaviors and thoughts among these English people, they were able to trade with each other. There difference would arise in their beliefs and religious values.


Virginia Colony, 1606:

William Bradford: from History of PlymouthPlantation, c. 1650:


The Federal Welfare Reform Act of 1996

The Federal Welfare Reform Act of 1996.

 The “Federal welfare reform act of 1996” is officially and alternatively known as the “Personal responsibility and work opportunity reconciliation act (PRWORA). The act got President Clinton’s signature appended in August 1996 and was passed into law. The legislation had been as a result of pressure mainly mounted by the Republicans who wished to have the (ADC) “Aid to Dependent Children program” amended. The program was a 1935 initiative meant to help poor families-especially single parent families (Cravens, 2010). Partly Clinton gave in to the amendments due to campaign pressure, and the offer to repeal the legislation was part of his campaign. The roles of the AFDC greatly increased since the 60’s to the 90’s and criticism of the scheme also grew by the day. The era in the 90’s was characterized by individualistic ideologies which flourished in the capitalist world view, and conservatives saw the program as one communist plot.

The apparent communist appearance of the whole program seemed to be against American values, and this formed the basis of their argument (Cravens, 2010). Those that argued against the program claimed that beneficiaries of the program were growing independent each and every day and that they regarded the whole welfare idea as their rightful entitlement. They further claimed that the enrolled families had no incentive to seek meaningful employment because they could depend on the program and thus encouraging laziness. The dependency created was also blamed for the rise in illegitimacy within single mother families. The fact that single mothers could depend on these programs seemed to encourage single motherhood and thus, the program was cited as an encouraging factor that led to broken marriages.

However, some studies and claims from those that were for the program seemed to favor the program by claiming that it had go a long way in fostering the cultural, economic and legal independence of single parent families under the program. However, the increasing generosity which could allow mothers to get paid to stay at home and take care of their children did not impress many people. Despite the seemingly racial and gender tone of the argument those against it managed to win, and thus a reform had to be initiated (Cravens, 2010).Finally, as moderates, liberals and conservatives attained a common alignment in the 90’s more and more people became against the plan, and this culminated into a reform that required the heads of welfare beneficiary families to make an exchange of work for a certain time of work.

In this period the beneficiaries are expected to be working towards getting a better job so that they could exit from the welfare program (Cravens, 2010). A time limit of two years per session is offered under the program with possible return, but one is not expected to be on the program for more than five years. There are strong incentives from the federal government for states that make compliance and eliminate the high numbers of beneficiaries. The signing of the law ended AFDC and most of its benefits (Klerman, Karoly & Grogger, 2002).In North Carolina the influence of the act is characteristically akin to many other states, with a recorded heightening of single parents employment rates and a growth in their income under the work exchange program. This has subsequently reduced food stump usage (Klerman, Karoly & Grogger, 2002). Most of the observed changes of a positive nature mainly lie in the measure of economy related factors. However, social impacts are seemingly low in Raleigh-North Carolina (Families, 2010).


Cravens. H. (2010),. Welfare reform 1996, retrieved on 3rd January, 2010 from
Klerman, A. J. Karoly, A. L. and Grogger, G. (2002),. Consequences of Welfare Reform: A research synthesis, retrieved on 3rd January, 2010 from
Families U.S.A (2010),. Minority Health Initiatives, retrieved on 3rd January, 2010 from


Political party systems of the US and France

Political party systems of the US and France

Although the US has two political parties, it seems to be only one part because both are governed by similar corporations’ meaning that they have little effect when it comes to the elections. This means that when elections come, the two parties are favored such that they will actually produce weak government in the long run. On the other hand, the two strong US political parties the democrats and republicans combine power during elections to ensure that the third parties have no effect to the elections. In France, there are two strong political parties one on the left-wing and the other right-wing which shares the executive. Similarly to the US, France is not able to produce a good government because of sharing some interest between senior parties.

 The structure and function of chief executive

Iran is a prime ministerial country with a cabinet which brought by the Majlis. The supreme leader of the Iran has different functions such as declaring war and peace in the country, he appoints, accepts and dismisses any resignation, in charge of referendums, and in charge of solving differences the force among others. In Mexico, things are different simply because the executive is headed by the president. The presidency in Mexico is such powerful to appoint and dismiss any other government official without any question.

 Function of religion in the political systems

In Iran, religion and politics have grown hand in hand. This means that religion has a greater role in providing the political system with leaders and on the same point giving advices on how to rule the country. The success of the political system can be traced in religion activities. In France, the government has actually believed religion such that they use religious aspects to justify what they want to do. 





Renaissance was a cultural movement. The movement spanned the 14th century and the 17th century. The Renaissance movement first started in Florence in late middle ages   and moved to other part like the Europe. Renaissance included several things like   painting and education reform. Most people consider Renaissance as a bridge between the middle ages and the modern period. Renaissance resulted to revolutions in many   areas. For example, it saw reforms in social political areas. Renaissance is known for its artistic development (Noble 2008).


 The European rulers used Renaissance art and culture in different ways. The education reforms of the human reforms and the innovation of art between 1300 and 1550 gave ruler and popes a chance to use culture to define their powers. It also gave rulers and popes an opportunity to celebrate their authority. Various things like art, literature and politics resulted from Renaissance Italian courts. For instance, rulers used Renaissance art and culture in politics .Most European leaders used Renaissance culture and art to justify   their political powers. This made it easy for the leaders to become   rulers and also overthrow other states. They also used the Renaissance art and culture in   governments. The use of Renaissance culture and art in politics was evidenced in courts. The political leaders in the courts employed Renaissance culture and art in their activities in the court.

For instance, the courts employed artists and humanists who were motivated   by classical civilizations. Most people employed in the court imitated values and styles   that were developed in the courts of northern Europe like the court of burgundy. Attendance in the courts was important in Europe. Most rulers in Europe used the attendance at the courts to get revenue and influence other people. Most kings and leaders from great territories were in interested in recruiting people to work in their courts .They viewed this as a away to influence their powers and control them. Court in Europe was considered signs and images that could be manipulate easily so as to achieve their political objectives. The Renaissance culture in Europe was supposed to reflect the reputation of the leaders. During political occasions and personal ceremonies, the leaders organized tournaments that focused on themes drawn from their myths (Noble 2008).


During, the late 14th century and 15th century, there was tremendous growth in the   political power and burecratic power of European leaders due to Renaissance culture   and art. The European leaders used the courts to create a unified culture in their territories. For instance, the leaders manipulated the Renaissance culture in the court of   Mantua so as to achieve their political goals. In the court of Mantua, the leaders used the Renaissance culture and art to increase their political powers and the size of their   territories. For instance, the Gonzagas had to use Renaissance culture and art to improve   their political powers. At first, the Gonzagas faced problems from the ruling families in northern Italy. The Gonzagas had to build a territory that would not be affected by the enemies. Also, they had to gain recognition of their rights so as to overcome the problems. The Gonzagas used culture and art to get power. Hence, the Renaissance culture and art played an important role in enhancing political powers of the leaders in Europe (Noble, Strauss, &Osheim 2010).



Noble, T.F., Strauss, B., &Osheim,D.Western Civilization: Beyond Boundaries: Volume A: To 1500.Cengage Learning, 2010

Noble, T.F.Western Civilization: Beyond Boundaries.Cengage Learning, 2008


Consolidation of Political Power, 1450-1500

Consolidation of Political Power, 1450-1500

 No one could reject the speech of the king by the year 1500. The issue here was that all those were staying in the kingdom were ruled by the king and that they were part of what he owned in that kingdom. In fourteen and fifteen centuries, the Germany, and Italy had a powerful government which protected them during the war which was all over. This means that those two countries had no worry of what was happening, (Noble, et al, 2010). The issue was much different in England and France because the issue of the so called war which was experienced in a number of years had a great effect on their monarchies. With the help of consolidation of powers, those two countries were able to come up with a strategy of building a strong foundation of armies who helped them to survive in the period which completed that century, (Noble, 2004).

 The strategy of consolidation of power became more common such that Italians were able to adopt some of strategies from the France during times of war. France was in a position to move them from the fear of war with the help of what they called the consolidation of the monarchy power. The king by then came with the issue of the paid armies who performed best unlike those who were there during 1400. Royal commanders were in charge of the strongest army which Charles VII developed in Europe. This step was much better because it brought the idea of power consolidation which was only the key aspect which any country could had used by then in coming out of that war fear. That arm was big enough to support the country and provide maximum protection from any war activity. In respect to consolidation of political power, Charles went a step in making his judicial big enough to accommodate any problem that may arise, (Noble, 2004).

 With the help of his son, Charles was in a position to come up with an idea of creating provincial parlements. By this we mean that the law courts which served Dijon. All the local and custom courts which were formed were required to go under registration to as to make the system which they were creating strong enough. Bearing in mind that the law courts which were formed were based on political and financial aspect, each and every one wanted to join the system to benefit which resulted to a firm army which was created. By the year 1500, France had made an impact in its strategy because it had dealt with the issue of political power by consolidating any aspect which it believed could be of importance, (Noble, et al, 2010).

 The issue in England by then was much different. Henry VI was not in a position to come up with strategies of consolidating their power. He was extremely weak such that Edward overthrew him and gave him that power, (Noble, 2004). Edward never got supporters because the place had a lot of alternatives which could be used in dealing with the problem. The condition in Norway and Sweden was much better as compared to England. The consolidation of power here was majored in the council which ruled during that time. Countries like Poland and Lithuania were much better because they maintained high relationship with Europe unlike to Russia which helped them in having strong armies, (Noble, et al, 2010).  


Noble, T., Strauss, B., Osheim, D., Neuschel, K. & Accampo, E. Western Civilization: Beyond Boundaries: Volume A: To 1500: Cengage Learning, 2010

Noble, T. Western Civilization: The Continuing Experiment, Volume A: To 1500: Houghton Mifflin, 2004


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