Category: History

 

Birth Control in the 20th Century

Birth Control in the 20th Century


Introduction

Birth control is used to refer to measures adopted mostly by women to prevent fertilization or to terminate growth of embryos at various growth stages. In the past birth control was a taboo and women were alienated from mainstream society for having participated in any method of birth control. However, since the 20th century emerged women have developed modern ways of controlling births such that they now have an upper hand on their sexuality. This has been seen as a violation of the feminist rights of the 1960s.  Consequently, legalization of birth control as well as other developments in birth control has posed major positive and negative impacts on women due to the ethical considerations of the move.


 Discussion

There are a number of birth control techniques which have been used by men and women for quite a long period of time. Top on the list are the procedures which control fertilization also called contraception that are adopted before intercourse while the contragestion are used to reduce chances of the embryo implanting. Similarly, abortion is another form of birth control where the embryo or fetus is forcefully removed from the uterus. These techniques of birth control can be used singly or in pairs to maximize the chances of preventing birth of unplanned babies[1].


 History of birth control/ancient birth control measures

In the ancient Egypt birth control and infanticide was widely used thought most of the measures were restricted to women. The acacia gum was used to kill sperms once they were deposited in the woman’s reproductive system. This spermatocidal is still used in the present day contraceptive creams. Similarly, a mixture of honey and soda ash was placed at the uterus to kill sperms so is lactation which was advocated for up to three years following birth of a child. Various plants had extracts which were used in abortion procedures such as the silphium plant which grew in the present day Libya such that it was the most expensive birth control measure in the 1st BC century. Safe dosages of dates, willows, myrrh and rue as well as Queen Anne’s lace were also used by women to undertake infanticide or abortions in the ancient times[2].


 In ancient China, men used coitus obstuctus to prevent release of sperms which a more permanent birth control for women was prepared by day long heating of oil and quicksilver. This 7th century BC concoction was ingested orally to cause sterility in the woman.The ancient Indians had a variety of contraceptives such as vaginal suppositories made up of ghee, rock salt and honey. Quite a number of the Indian birth control potions were made up using herbs and plant extracts. From the Bible in the book of Genesis withdraw was used eminently by the Israelites for instance when Onan slept with his deceased brother’s wife but he never intended to sire a child hence he spilt the semen on the ground. Similarly, the early Islam’s of the 10th century used suppositories which blocked the female reproductive system while coitus interruptus was common among the men. Examples of the suppositories were cabbages and elephant dung which were used singly or in combination to prevent entry of sperms into the female reproductive system[3].


 The provision of birth control for men and women to promote social equality was established in the period 1872-1952 by the Soviet Union. At the same time, birth control education was availed for all adults while in France women were fighting for reproductive rights so as to end the ban on birth control. While liberalization of birth control among French women was enacted in 1965, in Italy the women gained unrestricted access to birth control details in the 1970s. Similarly, the condom has been around as a barrier method for a long period of time though it was initially used as a way of controlling sexually transmitted diseases and not as a birth control measures[4].


 Birth control in the 20th century (the United States of America)

The 20th century has seen the birth control measures evolve and get more global cognition such that women are now in a better position to control their sexual activities. In the late 1920s, researchers carried out sufficient studies on several heritable mental disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. The studies supported the heritable theory that had been stated earlier and members of the eugenics society called for all mentally handicapped to be sterilized or else restricted from marriage. The laws supporting the move were abolished in the mid 20th century after 60,000 Americans had been rendered sterile. The individuals who were already suffering from epilepsy and the imbecile were also prohibited from marriage so as to prevent passage of the undesired genes to the offspring[5].


 Subsequent research in the 20th century proved that those who were physically and emotionally unfit originated from backgrounds that were not only poor economically but also socially poor. The Nazi government supported the forceful sterilization of the unfit individuals and the entire campaign was branded as feasible as well as humane. Similarly, with emergence of genetic engineering technology, researchers have developed “genius sperm banks” where Nobel Prize winners donate their sperms to the banks and women chose the donor they would wish to father their children. This modern birth control measure ensures that only genius children are born while those from imbeciles are aborted right after conception. This way any woman are able to use contraceptives to reduce chances of conceiving children with men who lack the genius qualities and seek the sperms of the genius[6].


 During the 20th century another league of feminists who were pushing forward for provision of information on birth control so that women could make informed decisions. The women formed a movement by the name “American Birth Control League” whose aims and activities were aimed at arming the 2oth century woman on ways of incorporating safe birth control measures to prevent unwanted births. The activities of the movement were inclusive of legal advisors, scientists and health professionals who would enlighten the American public on the negative effects of uncontrolled births[7].


 During this period when the American birth control movement had just been formed, the founder Margaret Sanger developed a pamphlet which advocated for women to enjoy sex at their own consent without being forced to abstain due to fear of pregnancy. This concept was controversial at that time but today this has been the epitome of all birth control policies which emanate from women advocacy movements. This movement advocated for worldwide use of contraceptives among women so that they could have total control over their bodies without regard of their counterparts demands. The 20th century facts about birth control was inclined towards disintegrating intercourse from procreation such that women could be liberalized to control the number of children the gave birth to. Conservative groups during the 20th century criticized the role of birth control techniques by quoting that they not only contributed to sexual immorality among women but also led to unethical concerns such as abortion[8].


 How gender has limited and expanded women’s opportunities during the 20th century

Gender limited the opportunities extended to women in the 20th century by making them powerless over decisions based on their bodies such as the issue of procreation. Although their husbands were allowed to use contraceptives when they had intercourse with their mistresses, their wives had no option but to risk getting pregnant as they did not have efficient access to contraceptives[9].


 Similarly, some feminists argued that contraceptives led to increased sexual immorality as during the same period of time women were not supposed to air their sexual desires publicly. This resulted to frequent instances of marital rape which contributed to loss of self-esteem among women and eventually they were burdened by the task of bringing up their huge families. Such women who had been subjected to marital rape and subsequent child-bearing sessions could not stand in public to support the contraceptive advocacy. At the same time they lacked the opportunity where they could engage in gainful employment as most of their time was occupied by upbringing of the children.


 On the other hand after incorporation of birth control as part of the women’s right’s the entire gender was able to pursue male dominated careers and professions hence reduced the overdependence on their husbands. This was made possible by the fact that women in the 20th century could use contraceptives to decide when to give birth or else to hold back child-bearing until they had accomplished their academic goals. Having an upper hand in their reproductive capacity made this possible while at the same time they were able to engage in sexual intercourse to fulfill their feminine desires[10].


 Consequently, having been educated sufficiently, these women had an opportunity to bear fewer children as they were equally knowledgeable of the effects of bringing up a huge family. Hence women were able to give birth to the number of children that they could provide for comfortably therefore, playing a significant role in reducing the poverty rate in society. Women who were on contraceptives as well as financially independent were able to get pregnant when it was convenient for them then proceed to bring up the child on their own. It was during this era that the single and independent women emerged. This category of women was characterized by financial independence such that they only needed men to give them babies or else they proceed to sperm banks to get babies[11].


 Impacts of ethical concerns on women’s opportunities

A number of ethical concerns were raised over the use of contraceptives by women in the 20th century. One of the ethical concerns was based on the moral aspect of using contraceptives as it was seen as a way of increasing immorality among women. Similarly, women who were on contraceptives were denied opportunities in religious positions as their conduct was against the doctrines of religion[12].


 There were also ethical issues regarding the role of women in society which was initially supposed to be procreation and giving birth. However, this was disrupted by the religions virtues which call for the single role of sexual intercourse as being procreation and not pleasure. Hence the church condoned use of birth control measures by asking the faithful to fill the earth. This was a disadvantage to women who were left on their own to control any occurrences of unwanted pregnancies[13].


 There are a number of ethical concerns of use of birth control measures especially among religious groups. Women and men are encouraged to use the facilities if their health is not compromised but then the use of contraceptives is not encouraged if conception has already occurred. Abortion is discouraged at all costs from all mainstream religions such that women who take part in abortion related activities are often alienated from the religions until they repent. For instance according to Buddhism, preventing conception is allowed as it is considered ethical but terminating pregnancy is not ethical[14].


 Aspects of birth control

Advantages

Birth control has resulted into many benefits especially to women who have now developed a sense of freedom from the task of bearing children every year. This has enabled them to pursue their dreams career wise so that they also contribute significantly to the family income. This has been advantageous to society as the poverty levels which were earlier realized as the man of the house was the sole breadwinner. Today with an extra hand contributing towards the family kitty, families have been able to provide sufficiently for their children. Similarly, this has resulted into better education opportunities for the children as the parents are able to provide adequate support to establish a better future for them. Birth control has enabled countries to regulate their populations courtesy of their women who have carried out measures to control the number of births[15].


 The other advantage derived from birth control is the ability of the techniques to allow women to venture into mainstream activities of public interest. Such activities are not restricted to politics but they are spread out to benefit the entire society. The freedom presents women with a better control of their sexual lives hence making them more productive as child bearing does not drain their reserved energies[16].


 Disadvantages

Birth control has raised various suspicious topics on the ethical concerns of contraceptives in liberalizing women. This has led to increased number of single women hence the institutions of marriage has lost its importance. Similarly, these women have been blamed for the increased immorality as they tend to engage in extra marital or premarital sex which breaks existing marriages[17].The birth control mechanisms have been attributed to erosion of religious morals as contraceptives are against the biblical role of sex which was given as an act towards procreation.


 Conclusion

Birth control has been around for quite some time ever since the beginning of the world although the modes of birth control have changed immensely. The 20th century feminists helped shape the use of contraceptives as they brought light to the topic after governments embraced the idea as a way of promoting controlled birth rates. Despite the advantages presented by the birth control techniques on women a lot of controversial issues on the ethical aspects of preventing conception or terminating a pregnancy have been raised. In conclusion, women have been the key determinants of the direction taken by birth control measures and techniques since the ancient times.


References

Marshal, Cavendish Corporation. (2003), America in the 20th century, Volume 12. Marshall Cavendish

Riddle, John M. (1992). Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the Renaissance.Cambridge, MA: HarvardUniversity Press

Skouby, SO. (2004), The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care  “Contraceptive use and behavior in the 21st century: a comprehensive study across five European countries.” 9(2):57-68.

[1] Marshal, Cavendish Corporation. (2003), America in the 20th century, Volume 12. Marshall Cavendish

[2] Skouby, SO. (2004), The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care  “Contraceptive use and behavior in the 21st century: a comprehensive study across five European countries.” 9(2):57-68

[3] Riddle, John M. (1992). Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the Renaissance. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

[4] Skouby, SO. (2004)

[5] Marshal, Cavendish Corporation. (2003)

[6] Skouby, SO. (2004)

[7] Riddle, John M. (1992)

[8] Riddle, John M. (1992)

[9] Marshal, Cavendish Corporation. (2003)

[10] Marshal, Cavendish Corporation. (2003)

[11] Riddle, John M. (1992)

[12] Skouby, SO. (2004)

[13] Marshal, Cavendish Corporation. (2003)

[14] Marshal, Cavendish Corporation. (2003)

[15] Skouby, SO. (2004)

[16] Riddle, John M. (1992)

[17] Marshal, Cavendish Corporation. (2003)


 

Functions of the OH-58 Kiowa Helicopter

Functions of the OH-58 Kiowa Helicopter


Introduction

          Helicopter gunship  has  been  there  since  1960.The  helicopter  gunship  started   being  used during the Vietnam war. Various countries used   helicopters for different purposes. For example, the countries used helicopters for transportation purposes. Also, the countries used   helicopters as weapons to attack the enemies. The  helicopters  had  different  types  of  weapons  that the  attackers  used  to attack the  enemies. For example, the   helicopters had   bombs, rockets and other weapons. The helicopters were used in the Vietnam War were   used for various   purposes.


          For example the helicopters were used to evacuate wounded troops. Also, the  helicopters  were  used  to  provide  medical  services  to  the wounded troops. The helicopters had different equipment to be used in the evacuation process. Apart from the Vietnam War, helicopters were also used in Korean War. The helicopters were used to transport troops and observe the target. The  use  of  helicopters  as means  of  transportation  and  observation   has  become  common in United  States  and  other  countries. The United  States  government  has  encouraged  use  of  helicopters   in  fire arm  control  and  observation  purposes. The  United  States  government  developed  the  OH-58 Kiowa   helicopter to   overcome  problem  the military  officials  faced  during    military operations.


         The  government  wanted  to  make  military operations  effective by using  helicopters  as  fighting  weapons. This resulted to the development of the OH-58 Kiowa helicopters. The OH-58 Kiowa helicopters play   various roles. For example, the helicopter is used in transporting troops. The helicopter is used in observation and fire arm control. This paper analyzes the functions and purpose of the OH-58 Kiowa helicopter.


 Function and purpose  of the OH-58 Kiowa helicopter

A military helicopter is a helicopter that is built for military use. The function of the military helicopter depends on its design. The military helicopters have various designs that are in line with their role. For example, transport helicopters are different from attack helicopters. There are different types of military helicopters. That is attack helicopters and observation helicopters. Other types include transportation helicopters and training helicopters. The helicopters play different   roles like transportation, observation and training. Also, the helicopters are used to attack the targets. The OH-58 Kiowa helicopter plays the  roles played by the different categories of military helicopters (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996).


 The Bell  OH -58 Kiowa  is a  group of  single  engine , single  rotor  helicopters  used  for  military  purposes. The Bell OH- 58 Kiowa helicopter is used for different purposes. For example, the helicopter is used for observation. Also, the helicopter is used for utility and transportation. The  OH -58  helicopter  was  manufactured  by the Bell helicopters  to be used  by the United States  Army.


The helicopter was manufactured according to the 206 A Jet ranger helicopter (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996). The United States government has used the OH -58 since 1969. The latest  model  of the OH-58   is  operated  in  an armed  reconnaissance  role  in support  of  ground  troops. The latest model is OH-58 Kiowa Warrior. The OH-58 has been exported to other countries like Australia and Canada (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996).


 The OH – 58  Kiowa  helicopter  was  developed  by the Bell helicopters  to  help the  United  States  government and army  carry  out  various  functions. In 1960, the  United  States  Navy asked   various   manufacturers  in the  country  to  construct  a  light  observation  helicopter (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996). A  total  of  25  helicopters manufacturers  were  asked  to construct  the  light  observation  helicopter  on  behalf  of  the United  States  Navy.


The  Bell  helicopters  entered  in to the  competition  with  other  helicopter  manufacturing  firms. For  example, Bell  entered  the  competition  with  other  firms  like Hiller  Aircraft  and Hughes  tool co. Bell  won the  competition  after  submitting  a D-250  design which  was made  to be YHO-4. In 1961, Bell and Hiller won the competition and were allowed to develop the helicopter (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996).


 The OH-58 Kiowa helicopter has been used in different countries apart from United States. The OH-58 Kiowa helicopter has been used in Haiti, Somalia and Gulf of Arabia. The OH- 58 helicopter performs different functions in these countries. In 2002, the OH-58 Kiowa helicopter was deployed to Bosnia. The helicopter was part of the Natos forces (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996). In addition, the helicopter was also used in Iraq to support military operations in the country. A total of 120 helicopters were used in Iraq (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996).


 OH-58 Kiowa can be used as an attack helicopter. An  attack  helicopter  is a  kind  of  military  helicopter  that  is  designed  to  carry  weapons  used  to  attack  targets. There are different types of weapons used in   attack helicopters. The weapons include   auto cannons, machine guns and rockets (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996). Other weapons   include missiles   like Hellfire. Majority  of  the   attack  helicopters  are  able  to  carry  out   air  to air  missiles. This is mostly carried out for self defense. Attack helicopters   play different roles. First, the helicopters provide direct and accurate support    for the personnel. The   helicopters provide support for ground personnel. Second, the   helicopters are used to destroy the enemy’s target (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996).


            The OH-58 helicopter was the first helicopter to have a glass   cockpit. The cockpit    has   multiple   target   tracking   systems. Also, the   cockpit   has a   moving   target indicator   that shows the location of the target. In addition, the cockpit has an aviation   night vision system. Lastly, the   cockpit has a helmet mounted display. The displays provide different functions. For example, the displays are used   to control communication and   get situational information. They also provide video services. The  video  recorder   is  used  to  store   thermal  imagery  and  television  information   collected  from the   mission.OH-58  Kiowa  helicopter  like  other  military  helicopters  plays  various  functions (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996).


 The main mission of the OH-58 Kiowa helicopter is in the scout attack role. The  OH-58  Kiowa  helicopter  has the  capability  to be  used  in  military  operations  like  fighting. This  is  because  the  OH-58  Kiowa  helicopter  has  weapons   that  can  be  used  to attack  enemies  during  military  operations. Moreover, the OH-58 Kiowa    helicopter is equipped with general quick change weapon pylons. The   helicopter   has two quick change weapons pylons. Each of the pylons    is can be armed with two Hellfire missile. In addition, the pylons can also be armed with Hydra 70 rockets. The   two pylons can hold a total of seven HYDRA 70 rockets. The rockets are used during military operations to attack enemies. The  OH-58  helicopter  has  two  air  to  air stringer  missiles .


The  missiles  are used  during   attacks  as  they  are  effective (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996). The helicopter has a fixed   forward   machine gun. The  systems  in the  helicopter  are  used  to  gather  to  information  to be used  during  the military  attacks. The OH – 58  helicopter  has  been  used  in  several   countries  to    attack  the  enemies. For example, the OH-58 helicopters have been used in Iraq to attack enemies. The   helicopters  have  proved  effective  in  some  countries  while  others  have  not  been  effective. The  OH-58   was  developed  to  replace  other  types  of  helicopters   used  in  war  attacks .The  helicopter  experienced  many  attacks  in  Iraq  as  it  was  not  effective  in   fighting  the  opponents (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996).


 The OH-58  Kiowa  helicopter  has  other  systems  that  help  in  scout  attacks. The   helicopter   has communication and navigation systems that are used in    scout attacks. The systems allow the OH-58   Kiowa helicopter to operate day and night. The  systems  also  allow    the  military  officials  to  get  information  about  their  targets. This  makes  it  easy  for  the  military  officials  to  attack  the  enemies. It  also  allows  the  military  officials   to  carry  out  their  duties  even  in  unfavorable weather  condition. The navigation  system  of  the OH- 58  Kiowa  helicopter  provides information  about  the  targeted  locations. The information   collected is digitally to other helicopters. This   helps the military officials prepare well to attack the enemies. The  digital  communication  system  in the  helicopter  has  helped  convey  information  from  one point  to another (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996).


For  example, the  communication  system  has  allowed  military  officials  to  transfer  information  digitally  to  other  locations. The  communication  system  and  the  navigation  systems  have  proved  effective  in  wartimes  as  they  have  helped  the  United  States  military  operations participate  in  different  wars  and  attack the  targets. The   communication  systems  and   navigation  systems  have  helped  transfer  battle  field  imagery  from  one  location  to another. The    systems  have  provided  real  time   transfer   of  information  on the  current  situation  in the  battle  field. For example, the systems have provided situational awareness to command and control elements (Polmar, 2005). This  has  helped  military  officials  determine  which  commands   and  controls  are  effective  and  which are  not (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996).


 Apart from  the navigation  system  and  communication system, the   laser  designator  system  has  helped  provide  autonomous  designation  for the  weapons  used  in the  attacks. For  example, the system  has  provided  autonomous   designation  for  the   hellfire,  rockets and  missiles  put  in the  helicopter. The OH -58  helicopter  can be  deployed   by air  and    becomes  operational  within  few  minutes. The OH  -58 Kiowa  helicopter  is  being  developed  further  to   become  more  effective  in scout attacks (Polmar, 2005).


 The OH-58  helicopter  was  first  used  in 1987  during the   tanker  crisis  in  Persian  Gulf. The helicopter was used to attack the enemies and protect shipping. The  helicopter  has  also  been  used  in other  operations  like Afghanistan and  Desert  storms (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996). Though, the OH-58 Kiowa   helicopter is effective, it   also vulnerable   to small arms fire. This  is  because  the  helicopter  does  not  have  a  heavy  armor. This  makes  the  helicopter  vulnerable  to  small  arms  fire  from the  enemies. For example, several OH-58 Kiowa helicopters have been shot down during the Iraq attacks. The helicopters have been hit in combat operations in Iraq (Polmar, 2005).


 The helicopters  are  used  in  military  operations  to  help  identify  the  target. Military   personnel used balloons   for observation purposes. They later started using light airplanes like Taylor craft L-2   to observe the target. At first, observation helicopters had some limitations (Polmar, 2005). Most helicopters depended on the cockpit for visual activities (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996). The eye was replaced by the optical sensor system. The optical sensor system allowed the helicopters to identify the targets easily. Before, the optical   sensor systems were developed; the military personnel used visual observation. There are various   types of optical sensor systems used in helicopters for obsxdrvaztikon. For example, the military personnel use   infrad camera and   television for observation purposes. The camera and the television   are mounted in amount together with multifunction lasers. The  lasers   act as  laser  range  finder  and  target  designators for the  weapon systems  in the  helicopter (Williams, 2005).


 The main weapons   in the helicopter are sensors and communication equipment. Early observation helicopters were able to call the artillery   fire and air strikers. The modern helicopters   provide guidance to the crew   during an attack. For example, the helicopters   provide guidance for different weapons   like bombs and other kinds of missile (Williams, 2005).   


 Further, the OH-58 helicopter is used in fire control and observation. The  helicopter  has a mast  mounted  sight  that  is  located  above the  rotor  blades (McGowen, 2005). The  mast  mounted  sight  enables   the  helicopter  to  operate  day and  night. This  makes  it  easy  for  the  military  officials  to  identify  the  enemy. Also, the   mast  mounted  sight  enables  the   helicopter  to   destroy and attack  the   targets  at  the  right  range (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996). It allows  the  military  officials  to  attack  the  enemies   using the  maximum    range  of the   weapon  systems. It also  allows  the  helicopter  to  attack  the  enemies  without  exposing  the  helicopter  much. This prevents the helicopter from being attacked by the enemies. It also helps   the military officials carry out their duties effectively.


The mast mounted sight has a sensor (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996). The sensor  is    made  up  of    a high  resolution  television  camera   that  is  used   to  detect  targets  located  in  long  distances. The camera   gives a long range detection of the enemies (McGowen, 2005). It also has a   thermal   imaging   sensor that is used   in navigation. Also, the   thermal imaging   sensor is used to detect enemies and   attack them. Additionally, the   sensor has a   laser range   finder   that is used to   locate the    target. The   laser range finder guides the   hellfire missiles   during the   attack. It also   provides designation   for copperhead artillery   rounds. Lastly, the sensor has a   bore sight   assembly. The foresight assembly is used to   provide sensor alignment   for the flight.


The   sensor  has  helped  the  military  use  the  helicopters   in  observation  the  targets  and  also  attacking  them. This  is  because  the  military  officials  are able  to  monitor  the  targets  well before attacking  them. This enables them to attack the enemies effectively (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996). In addition, the   sensor  has  enable  the  military  officials  to  collect  information  about  the  target, their  location  and  the  distance. Also, the  sensor  has  helped  the  military  officers   control  the  firearms  used  to  attack  the  enemies. For  instance, the  military  officers  are  able  to  control  the  missiles and  other  weapons  according  to  the  range  provided  by  the  sensors. The  sensors  allows  the  officials  to  detect  the   enemies using  different  ranges. For  example, the  officials  can  detect  the  enemies  at  a  maximum  ranged (McGowen, 2005).


 The thermal  imaging  system  is  currently  being  upgraded  by  the  DRS  technologies. This  will  enable  the  thermal  imaging  systems  to  provide  more  information  about  the  target. The thermal imaging systems are being upgraded to improve   detection and   range. This  will make  the   helicopters  more  effective  as  they  will  be able  to  provide  effective  services. The helicopters will be able to detect the targets   at the right range (McGowen, 2005).


 Transport helicopters are used by military in different countries   to   transport troops during war activities. The   transport  helicopters   are  used  to  transport  cargo   used  to  support   military  activities  and  training  in  the  country. Transport helicopters are also known as   utility helicopters (McGowen, 2005). In large  militaries  the   helicopters  are  designed   for  military  operations and  other  commercial  helicopters  are   used  to  transport  cargo. There are various benefits of using   transport helicopters during military operations. First, transport  helicopters  make  it  easy  to  transport troops  and   cargo  from  one  areas  to another  without   landing. The operation does   not require a runway for the helicopters to takeoff and land (McGowen, 2005).


The cargo can be carried inside the plan or surfside the   helicopter. The load to be transported is   suspended   from an   attachment point   below the helicopter. The  troops  can  be  picked  from the  ground  and  also  unloaded   on the ground. In case of danger, the helicopters use devices to   load and    unload the troop (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996). For example, the helicopters use rope lines to load and unload the personnel. Transport helicopters also provide air assault operations. This involves   transporting large numbers of troop’s and equipment   within the shortest time possible. This  makes  it easy  for the  helicopters  to  transport  many  troops  to the  right locations. The OH-58 Kiowa helicopter is used as a transport helicopter like other transport helicopters (McGowen, 2005).


 The OH-58  Kiowa  helicopter  can be  equipped well to carry  out  various  functions  like  transportation  and  utility (Bonds &Miller, 2002). The helicopter   has and equipment kit that is installed outside the helicopter. The  helicopter  has a  cargo carrying  hook  that  can carry  a  total  of  2,000lb.The  helicopter  can  be used  to carry  out  emergency  evacuation  and  transport  the  casualties  to the  right  location. The OH-58  is  equipped  with  various  systems  and  tools  to  help  in  transportation. The systems enable the helicopter to carry out transportation services. Most  of  the  helicopters  used  in  military  operations  are  used  in  transportation (Bonds &Miller, 2002).


          Before the Vietnam war helicopters were mainly used to evacuate troops wounded. The  helicopters  were  used  in  Korean war  to  evacuate  wounded  troops (United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996). The helicopters   have been used   to   transport troops from one area to another. The United  States  government  used  helicopters  to  transport  troops  during  the  Vietnam way. the  helicopters  proved  effective  in  providing  transport  services  to  the  military. The   helicopters  are  still  being  used  today  to  transport  troops  during  attacks (Bonds &Miller, 2002).


         The OH-58 Kiowa like other helicopters has been used to transport troops. The  helicopter  has   been designed  well  to  help  transport  the  military  forces  from  one  location  to  another. This has enabled the military to achieve its objective. For  example, the  helicopter  has  been  used  in  Iraq  and  other  countries  to  transport  the  military. The  OH-58  has  been  used  to  transport  large  numbers  of  troops  to the  target  location. The  helicopter  has  been  able  to  load and  unload  the  troops  using  various  methods. For  example, the  helicopter  has  used  load  the  troops  on the  ground and   also  unloaded them (Bonds &Miller, 2002).


                Moreover, the OH-helicopter  has  been  used  to  evacuate  troops  who  are  wounded  during   attacks. The OH -58  helicopter  has  been  effective  in  providing   evacuation  services  because  it  is  well  equipped. The  helicopter  has  various  equipments  than  can be  fixed  when they  are  needed (Bonds &Miller, 2002). For  example, the  helicopter  has  a  stretcher  that  is  used  to  transport  people  who  are  wounded  during  war  time. The OH-58 Kiowa   helicopter   has enabled military officials provide   assistance incase of crisis. The OH-58   helicopter can be used to transport   supplies during   attacks. For  example,  the  helicopter  can  be  used  to  transport  supplies   from  one  country  to  another(United states Congress house committee on appropriations, 1996).


The  helicopter  can  transport  more  than  320  kilograms  of  supplies  to a  distance of  185  kilometers. The OH-58 helicopter can be used   for insertion   of troops   for    security mission. The   helicopter allows only an insertion of six troops. The OH -58 Kiowa helicopter has been used   to transport cargo from one region to another. The  cargo  to be  transported  is  hanged  on a hook  that  is  located  outside  the  helicopter. The hook can only carry    a total of 2,000lb (Bonds &Miller, 2002).


 Conclusion

Militaries have used different types of helicopters in their military operations. The helicopters are used to carry out different functions. For example, the helicopters are used for transportation   purposes. The helicopters transport military personnel from one region to another. Also, the helicopters transport cargo together with the personnel to the required destination. The helicopters are designed well to help transport personnel and cargo. For example, the helicopters have hooks to transport cargo. In addition, the helicopter   is used in observation of the   targets. The helicopters have sensor system that is used to observe the target. The  sensor  system  allows  the  military  personnel,  to  observe  the  enemies  at  different  distances. It also allows the   personnel to gather information about the target. The  helicopters  have  communication and  navigation  systems  that  help  gather  information about  the  target  and  attack the  target.


Also, the  helicopters   have  different  types  of  weapons  that  are  used  to  attack  the  enemies. The helicopter provides guidance to the crew on how to use different weapons. The helicopters help   in identifying commands and controls. It  helps  the  crews  determine  the  right  commands  and  control  to used  to attack  the  enemies. The OH-58 Kiowa helicopter performs the functions states above. This is because the helicopter is used for transportation purposes. The helicopter transports military personnel and supplier from one area to another. Also, the  helicopter  is  used  in  controlling  fire arms and  observation .The helicopter  guides  the  crew when attacking  the  enemies. It also  provides  enough  information  about  the  enemies and  the  commands  to  use. This enables the military officials to achieve the goals set.


 Reference

Bonds,R.,&Miller,D.(2002).llustrated Directory of Modern American Weapons. Zenith Imprint

McGowen, S.S. (2005).Helicopters: an illustrated history of their impact. ABC-CLIO

United states Congress house committee on appropriations.(1996).Department of Defense appropriations for …, Part 4. U. S. Govt. Print. Off.

Polmar, N.(2005).The Naval Institute guide to the ships and aircraft of the U.S. fleet. Naval Institute Press

Williams,J.W.(2005).A History of Army Aviation: From Its Beginnings to the War on Terror. Universe


 

Terrorism

            Terrorism


Terrorism activities in the world have become a major issue. This  is because  of  the  adverse  effects  they  have  on the  citizens ,countries and  economies. For instance, terrorism attacks cause destruction of property in the countries affected. In addition, terrorism cause deaths and slow economic growth in countries affected. For  example, the  country  affected  spend  a lot  of  money  repairing  the  damages  caused  by  terrorism (Winks, 993).


It also spends a lot of money preventing terrorism activities. This in turn leads to terrorism. The  terrorism  attacks  in  Iraq  have  caused  destructions  and  deaths  in neighboring  countries. The terrorism attacks in Iraq result from various factors. Historians  argue  that  the  terrorism  activities  in  Iraq  result  from  poor  governance. For the  last  ten  decades  the  country  has  not  experienced  good  governance.


There  are  various  groups  in the  country  that  have caused  political  conflicts. The groups like Al-Qaeda have always wanted to rule the country. This has resulted to conflicts in the country and terrorism activities. Terrorism results from various factors like oppression and inequality.


The Iraq government has not provided enough resources for its   citizens. Some  of  the  areas  in  the  country  do not  have  enough  resources. This  has  resulted  to  competition  for  resources  in the  country  due to inequality. Historians argue that inequality in the country has contributed to increase terrorist activities. Also, the  citizens  have  experienced  oppression  from  the  government  and  other  illegal  groups  in the  country. The circumstances do not guarantee the citizens to be involved in terrorism activities (Spielvogel, 2008).


 Culture could  have  prevented  terrorism in Iraq  as the  citizens  could  have  learned  how to appreciate  each other  despite  of the  limited resources. The various groups in the country do not appreciate other groups and this has led to conflicts between the groups. It could also have  resolved and stopped it  from repeating  again  because  the  citizens or groups  could  have  learned  how  to live together (Alder& Pouwels, 2007).


 Reference

Alder, P.J.,& Pouwels, R.L. (2007).World Civilizations: Since 1500. Cengage Learning

Spielvogel, J.J. (2008).Western Civilization: To 1715.Cengage Learning

Winks, R.W. (1993).World Civilization: A Brief History. Rowman & Littlefield


 

Assassination of Malcolm x

American History


Phase 4 task 1

Assassination of Malcolm x

 Malcolm X was an African –American Muslim also known by the name El Hajj Malik El- Shabazz. He was a human rights activist, public speaker and an African-American Muslim minister.  He advocated for the human rights of black Americans by indicating that white Americans had the harshest terms of crime against the back Americans. He was accused by his detractors as preaching black supremacy, antisemitism and violence. He is considered as one of the most influential African-American in history.  He traveled through out the Middle East and Africa; founding black nationalistic Organization of African- American Unity and religious organizations like the Muslim Mosque, Inc.


While in  prison, Malcolm  X had joined  the Nation of Islam; a religious  organization  with the goal of resurrecting the mental social , economic and spiritual condition of  women  and men  in  America  from the African-American origin. This was in 1946 while serving his sentence of eight to ten years in prison. After his release   and leaving the Nation of Muslim, Malcolm X was assassinated while giving a speech in New York.This was in   Manhattan ‘Audubon Ballroom’ on February 21 195. Malcolm X was speaking to a meeting of the Organization of Afro- American Unity of about four hundred people.  Disturbance broke and a man rushed forward and shot Malcolm on the chest. He was pronounced dead at 3:30 pm after his arrival at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital (Kihss, 1965).


 Assignation of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr

According to Gallo Poll of 2000, Martin Luther King Jr. is considered as a prominent American Civil Rights leader.  He is also the second most admired person of the 20th centaury.  He achieved in raising public consciousness by establishing himself as one of the greatest orators and through civil rights movement in the US history.  This was through his efforts of the 1963 March on Washington where he gave his “I Have a Dream” speech.Martin Luther king was assassinated on April 41968 after delivering his ‘I’ve Been to the Mountaintop’ at Mason Temple. Later that day he booked room 306 at the Lorraine Motel. This is according to his best friend Reverend Ralph Abernathy (US Department of Justice,


2008)The assassination took place at 6: 01 p.m. There was a shot at the second floor balcony of the motel.  The bullet went through his right cheek towards his spinal code before logging on his shoulder.  King was found by Abernathy lying on the floor.  He was pronounced dead after an emergency chest surgery at St. Joseph’s Hospital at 7;05 pm. Events after the shooting are not clearly known  for Jackson  who was the main witness has been accused of exaggeration. Kings’ death led to nationwide riots. President Lyndon B Johnson declared April 7th a national day to mourn the civil rights leaders and he also advised Americans to continue Kings Idea of non violence.


 Reference

 United States department of justice (2008) VII. King v Jowers conspiracy allegations.

            Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/crt/crim/mlk/part6.p\

             On April 29, 2010

Kihss, P (1965) Malcolm X shot to Death at a rally here, New York Times. Retrieved

          From

          http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?r

          On April 29, 2010

History.Com (1665) Malcolm X shot to death – February 1965. Retrieved July 16, 2009,  

              From history.com Web site: 

               http://www.history.com/genericContent.do?

                 On April 29, 2010


 

American History

American History


Phase 3- Task 1

Summary of events that lead to the dropping of the bomb

In the final stages of the world war 11, the United States dropped atomic bombs in Japan’s cities Nagasaki and Hiroshima. This was the year 1945. The decision was arrived when Japanese government refused the ultimatum given by the Postdam Declaration of President Harry. S Truman (Rezelman, Gosling, and Fehner, 2000). The president ordered the nuclear weapon to be dropped on the city of Hiroshima on August 6th 1945 commonly known as the “little boy”. A second bomb attack three days later on Nagasaki. The two attacks in history warfare with nuclear weapons had acute effects. It killed 60,000 to 80,000 people in Nagasaki and 90,000-166,000 people in Hiroshima. Japan surrendered to the allied powers six days after this devastating attack.


 During the World war 11, The Japanese had a program to develop nuclear weapons to protect them against perceived threat especially from the US. Just like the German nuclear weapon it suffered from problems associated with the inability to head off the Manhattan project development. The Manhattan project development was a codename for atomic bomb development during the Second World War (1942-1946). It was a project headed by the US with full participation from Canada and the United Kingdom.President Truman’s decision to attack Japan came after considering several factors. This was no doubt a difficult decision to arrive at. The United States had suffered much causality during the war, yet Japan showed no interest to negotiate. Prisoners of war who were US citizens continued to be mistreated and molested till death. 200,000 of them were being murdered every month in Asia. The general government believed that bombing Japan was the only way for them to surrender.


 Truman feelings towards Stalin’s true intention

When Truman became America’s president in April 1945, he was prepared to support the Grand Alliance. He had sympathetic feelings towards Stalin (Leffer, 1996. p 134-35). Soon, there differences arose due to the murdering and raping rampage of Red Amy towards the American s in the Eastern Europe. Stalin had the intention to communize Poland juts like other acquired territories. This sphere of influence was resent by President Truman and other US leaders. This predictable move alarmed Washington Leaders including the president.  This lead to Truman proclaiming in his March 12th  1947 speech  that the Unite States foreign policy would henceforth support free people to resist outside pressure or attempted subjugation by armed minorities.  This was in reference to Greece and Turkey which were under threat of Stalin’s dominance. Truman situated aid to Turkey and Greece to help them have alternative ways of life (Powaski, 1998p 72)


 Phase 3 –Task 2

Brown vs. the Board of Education of Topeka

This court case marked a landmark in the United States education system by declaring a law on public schools to be for both white and black students.  This decision was arrived at because of earlier court ruling of Plessy v. Ferguson (1898).  It was unanimously agreed that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal therefore the de jure racial segregation was seen as  a violation of  the Equal  Protection Clause of the 14th amendment  in  the US constitution.


 The Topeka, Kansas school system

The Topokea, Kansas school system was for the black American students. The board of directors filled a suit that called for the school district to change its policy of racial segregation.  The Topokea Kansas School operated under the 1897 Kansas law that called for districts to maintain separated learning facility for elementary schools for white and black students.  


 Plessy v. Ferguson

This case was a landmark in The US supreme court that came up with the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’. This remained a standard doctrine until the 1954 Brown v board of education decision by the Supreme Court.  Plessy v Ferguson was a suit that had arranged for Homer Plessey’s arrest. This arrest was to challenge Louisiana’s law of segregation.  


 Oliver Brown and NAACP

Oliver Brown was an African American parent and a welder of Santa Fe Railroad shops.  He was also an assistant pastor at a local church. He had a daughter called Linda at Monroe Elementary a segregated school. As a direction from NAACP, all parents were required to enroll their children in schools at the closets neighbored for the whites in 1951. The parents including Mr. Brown were denied this and directed to black American schools (Cj Online, 2010)


 Thurgood Marshall,

Thurgood Marshall was the first African American jurist to serve at the Supreme court of the United states. He is best remembered for his successful arguments that lead to the victory of Brown v Board of education. Other justices in the Supreme Court were Burton, Black, Douglas and Minton. They had the aim of overturning Plessey


 Orval Faubus

Orval Faubus was the Arkansas governor in 1957. This case leads him to call his state as a ‘National Guard to block black student’s entry to little Rock high school’. 


 The Florida legislature

 In 1957, the response from Florida towards the case was mixed.  It passed a legislature of interposition resolution that branded the decision null and void.  Florida governor LeRoy Collins refused to sign the document although he had joined the protest against the court decision.  


 George Wallace

He was the Alabama Governor in 1963. He personally blocked the door to Foster Auditorium of the Alabama University to prevent black students from enrolling (Veterans of civil rights movement, 2008)

The case decision on Brown, v. board was an effective courts case that helped to begin a process of equal education and integration.


  Reference

 Powaski, R (1998) The cold War:  The United States and the Soviet Union. 1917- 1991,

         oxford University press, New York, p 72

Leffler, M (1996) Inside Enemy Archives: The Cold War Reopened, Foreign n affairs,

                p 134-35

Rezelman, D, Gosling, F and Fehner, T(2000) the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, the

            Manhattan project: an interactive history. Retrieved from

             http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/index.htm

             On April 29, 2010

Cj online (2010), in-depth Brown v board case. Retrieved from

            http://cjonline.com/indepth/brown/historic-spots-map.shtml

            on April 29, 2010

Veterans of civil right s movement, (2008) 1963(January –June). Retrieved from

              http://www.crmvet.org/

              on April 29, 2010

Globalization in Africa

Globalization in Africa


 Introduction

            Globalization is a process which leads to the integration of the worldwide economy. Further, globalization can be defined in a broader way as the process of diffusing culture in the world due to different aspects which include communication, trade, the environment and travel. Therefore, globalization refers to where one, a country or continent does better in the consumer satisfaction in comparison to their competitors. This is in terms of the quality of the goods as well as the services. Thus, there is the creation of infrastructure and network that allows for efficient competition in the worldwide market which is increasingly homogeneous. Therefore, globalization is something that is ongoing and owing to the technological advancements, globalization is evident in every day life in the world.


 Discussion

            As a characteristic of globalization, trade intensifies at the border and thus leading to increases in foreign investment and financial gain. Further, it results to promotions in the process of fast liberalization and technological advancements (Daouas, 2001). In the recent years, globalization has helped in the increases in growth but this has not been so for the entire world. This means that there are some countries and continents in which globalization has not been effective. For instance, in the developing countries and on most of the continent of Africa, globalization has been characterized by imbalances. In these countries, these imbalances have impeded the process of development and also led to the aggravation of poverty. This marginalization that exists in these countries can be shown in the way the own a small share in the world trade and foreign investments. 


However, despite the fact that at times Africa experiences an international environment that is not favorable, it has recorded some rates of growth. African countries thus work towards the control of their inflation rates and also increase the per capita. Though Africa still lags behind in globalization, they can increase their integration in the world economy and this can be achieved by making accelerations on reforms. For instance, Africa can create the best conditions through which private investment thrives and this can be through the promotion of trade both foreign and domestic (Ikeme, 1999). By redefining the role that the state performs, the economies of the African states can also become better. This is because it leads to improvement in the climate of business and transparency which encourages more private investment.


 By increasing their integration in the world economy, Africa benefits a lot. For instance, by both domestic and foreign trade, the continent and specific countries will gain a lot of revenue. This is essential because it helps in the improvement of the country’s economy. Transparency in the African countries can also be enhanced following globalization. Where there is transparent management and leadership, the economy is bound to be better. For instance, through globalization, the African countries are become close to the other continents and the entire world. Therefore, there is greater monitoring from the international community thus resulting to better governance and the reduction of evils that the governments can do on the citizens for example corruption. This way, the resources in the country are better managed. With good governance, there would also be increased chances of other countries and continents involving in trade with the African countries and thus increasing their income. For development in any nation, education is very essential.


In Africa, one of the drawbacks to growth is poor education. This can however be improved through globalization and being open to the policies of the free market. By playing significantly in this market, there would be a great positive effect on the education systems and levels in Africa. This can be attributed to the revenues that the African countries would get and thereby help in financing their education systems. Further, globalization results to advancements in technology. This way therefore, there would be the integration of technology in classroom teaching and this improves the education of the country. This also prepares the learners to be fit in the future markets (Prempeh, Mensah, & Adjibolosoo, 2004).Social cohesion increases following the process of globalization. Due to the exchanges that go in the market, the countries would better their relations and also the relations with the international community. For example, with the availability of increased resources, there would also be lower rates of exchange for the local currencies. Therefore, this also helps in boosting the economy.


With the good relations that would be established as a result of globalization, the international world would help in the development of the African continent. For example, they can offer advices on trade and also governance which is a great determinant in the way a country performs. Globalization fosters business co-dependence and treaties of trade. This can result to huge changes in the social, economic and political set ups in the continent of Africa. This is because globalization also involves the government and other international organizations (Yusuf, Evenett & Wu, 2001). An example of the international organization that relate to the world trade and globalization is the World Trade Organization. These are organizations which create laws and enforce them on the states. Therefore, the outlook of the governments in the individual nations will change due to the laws of these international bodies which are created because of globalization.Globalization results to interdependence. However, this interdependence is not symmetrical. This means that the benefits that come with linking to the global markets and the costs associated with de-linking are not distributed in an equal manner.


For instance, for the countries that are industrialized and these include the United States, Japan and European Union, their relations with each other are interdependent. On the other hand, in economic relations, the developing countries are independent from each other and dependent on the countries that are industrialized. According to Rena (2008) reporting on a 2005 panel of organization international labor, the problems that the developing countries face are not solely because of globalization but the deficiencies that exist in their governance. Africa suffers from the inequality of globalization. For the last 20 years, forty among the poorest nations in the world, most of which are found in Africa have experienced no growth. Many people in these countries put up with poverty though their governments have used the advice offered to them by the wealthy countries and the consultants from the World Bank. Due to this poverty, the people in Africa suffer greatly. They are used as a means of providing cheap labor in the wealthy nations. Thus, there is a growing gap between the poor and the rich.


Though the global market is rapidly growing, it does not lead to a development that is parallel both socially and economically. This has further led to the protection of property and capital rights more than the labor rights. Thus, the finance and trade global rules can be said to be unfair in that they lead to the creation of effects that are asymmetric when comparing the industrialized and developing countries. Globalization can be seen as a liability for the continent of Africa. Politically it has led to sovereignty being eroded. This is because of the development policies and strategies that have been imposed on African countries by the World Trade Organization, the World Bank as well as the international monetary fund (Addis Ababa, 2002). Further, this has resulted to less people participating in the political and social lives within their countries. Globalization also results to domination of culture from outside. Africans have a rich culture but globalization leads to the rapid loss of the cultural identity. Because of the advances in technology that come with globalization, Africa continues to have greater levels of unemployment as well as poverty.


 Conclusion

            Globalization is very essential. However, for the positive effects of globalization to be felt all over the world including in Africa, there should be equality. Ethics should also be followed in globalizing the economy of the world, the politics and culture. This implies that globalization should be democratic, holistic and centered on the people. All nations should be respected and treated with integrity. For instance, the states in Africa deserve respect and should thus be accorded this respect. This way, globalization will be beneficiary to the entire countries world wide. Therefore, the negative effects for example dependence on developed countries which is evident in Africa will also be minimized.


 References

Addis Ababa, (2002). The challenges of globalization in Africa. Retrieved on February 25, 2011 from: http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/CAFRAD/UNPAN008264.pdf.

Daouas, M. (2001). Africa Faces Challenges of Globalization. Retrieved on February 24, 2011 from: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2001/12/daouas.htm.

Ikeme, J. (1999). Sustainable Development, Globalization and Africa: Plugging the holes. Retrieved on February 25, 2011 from: http://www.afbis.com/analysis/Jekwu.html.

Prempeh, K.E.O., Mensah, J. & Adjibolosoo, S.K. (2004). Globalization and the human factor: critical insights Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Rena, R. (2008). Globalization still hurting poor nations. Retrieved on February 25, 2011 from: http://www.africaeconomicanalysis.org/articles/gen/globalisation_0507.html

Yusuf, S., Evenett, S.J. & Wu, W. (2001). World Bank e-Library: Facets of globalization: international and local dimensions of development. Vol 415. World Bank Publications.


 

Philippines Coastal Region

Philippines Coastal Region


 Migrants to the Coasts: Livelihood, Resource Management, and Global Change in the Philippines by James F. Eder

The coastal ecosystem of Southeast Asia is under siege threatening the wellbeing of millions of people who are dependent on it for their livelihood. Massive environmental degradation mainly caused by overexploitation of coastal and marine resources is what characterizes the Southeast Asia coastal areas. In this book James Eder attempt to use anthropology knowledge to solve these problems. Environmental problems in Southeast Asia are mainly due to a conflict between conservation and needs of the local people. This book mainly focuses on PalawanIslands in Philippines. Eder has identified problems brought about by this conflict and has tried to identify ways of achieving a balance between the local needs and biodiversity conservation needs.


There is conflicting global pressure that has encouraged local communities to exploit coastal resources on one hand while there are other forces advocating for conservation of coastal resources. Eder also attempts to highlight how the local people attempt to cope with global changes.Understanding the problem is key to developing successful strategies for dealing with the problem. Eder in his book has made a good account of the environmental problems that are experienced on Palawan Island, Philippines. As global pressure encourage local people to fish more, fish resources dwindles and this forces the fishermen to resort to harmful methods of fishing. Other local have turned to alternative means of earning their livelihoods such as farming.


Eder in attempt to come with solution studied what might have brought about these problems. Greater economic competition and pressure to earn a living are the major sources of the degradation conflict. This book examine how local communities particularly those in Palawan are responding to global changes. After defining the problem, Eder tries to find solution by looking at these issues in the perspective of the local people. The author has emphasized involvement of local communities in finding way forward for the existing problem. Eder shares the belief that by understanding the local communities in the coastal region an amicable solution can be arrived at. The book has also indicated how ethnicity, gender and evangelical religious convention contribute to changes in the economic strategies.


 Environmental Degradation in the Philippines Coastal Zones

Local communities in the Philippines have traditionally been fishermen. Before the 1950 a peaceful coexistence prevailed between the local fishermen and the coastal ecosystem. The coastal communities only depended on fish for subsistence consumption while their population was low enough not to cause threat of depleting the coastal resources. After the 1950s, things began to change. The population of the coastal communities soared leading to increased demand of coastal and marine resources. These are such as fish for food and coral for building, trade and ornamental purposes. Decline in fish population and destruction of coral has been recorded to be the result of this is rapid increase of population.


 Global changes also contributed to the magnification of these environmental problems. With development and globalization increased pressure was piled on the locals to further exploit the coastal resources. Global changes shifted the communities concern from just meeting their subsistence needs to concerns about economic competition, educating of their children and securing a better future. The communities turned from substance fishing to commercial fishing which further diminished the fish stock in the Philippines coastal areas. Globalization also led to increased demand of Philippine fish in foreign markets.


Tourists visiting the Philippines region and consumers thousands of miles away from Philippines, have increased demand for fish and fish product and in order to meet this demand locals have resorted to fishing more and more. Some have begun using destructive fishing practices in order to get increased fish harvest. Illegal commercial fishing, destructive fishing practices and lack of alternative sources of livelihood have become the biggest sources of environmental degradation in the Philippines coastal region.  


 Other economic activities began to thrive in the Philippines coastal region. Among them are tourism and agriculture. Though these activities have reduced dependence of local communities on fishing, they have not served to reduce the environmental degradation. Tourism for example, has led to an escalation in the demand for fish and fish product leading to further diminishing of the fish resources. Tourism activities such as scuba diving, water surfing and snorkeling have also led to other form of environmental degradation. These are such as destruction of corals and interference with the way of life of coastal and marine flora and fauna.


Agricultural and tourism activities have also led to pollution of the coastal and marine environments through effluent from tourism establishments, littering by tourists and pollution by agricultural chemical washed into the sea from agricultural lands.  The governments and other organization have initiated conservation projects to try and solve these problems but most of these projects seem to be failing. There appear to be a conflict between conservation efforts and local communities’ needs. Therefore it has become essential to involve communities in designing future conservation projects. This is what James Eder has emphasized on in his book.


           

Reflection Journal

Reflection Journal


There are several key points covered in Sunal and Haas (2008) readings. One of the basic points is the importance of having historical knowledge. It is vital for each and every person to have knowledge about their pasts and their locations or places in world history. Instructors can use an activity of asking students to bring photographs of them when they were young. The key goal of this classroom activity is to allow students to learn and appreciate their pasts. The key objective of the history discipline is to enable students to gain insight and knowledge of mankind or human past. It is advisable for instructors to consult local community members and incorporate them in classrooms so that they can help students to learn more about the past events (Sunal and Haas, 2008).


The other key aspect covered in the reading is the importance of geography as a discipline. There is so much to learn from geography besides locating places and assigning them appropriate names. Geography is the central part of the entire subjects learnt in classrooms. The various aspects that this subject covers include climate, politics and even culture. Comprehending the way through which the weather works is important in the field of industry which accounts for the fulfilling of human needs. There are several tools and techniques that can be used by geographers in the course of studying geography. For example geographers interested in studying weather and climate can use weather instruments such as rain gauges, barometers, thermometers, windsocks and many other tools.


Geography is based on different approaches and it is common to find the use of literature review, interviews and observation methods in the course of data and information collection (Sunal, 2008).A student-centered instructional approach is recommendable when teaching geography or history. In this type of approach, students are allowed to engage in classroom activities and take part in major discussions. Using the globe with students is a good activity that can enable students to effectively learn and gain knowledge of the world and several other geographical places and locations. Using illustrations and practical examples during instruction is more beneficial compared to the use of purely theoretical concepts.The other point that has been highlighted is the study and importance of economics. The study of economics revolves around the answers that people used to obtain regarding the inability to obtain all the material wants and needs.


Students should have knowledge and comprehension regarding the importance of economics in the society, in there families, lives and even globally. The other key aspects that students should know is the importance of making fair and sound decisions as well as making optimal use of the available scarce resources(Sunal, 2008).Based on my experience in education, I believe the concepts covered in these readings are applicable in instruction and classroom. First of all, there is the need to encourage students to appreciate their origins and past. This is especially useful during history and geography instruction. The other useful approach that can be applied during instruction is a student centered form of teaching whereby students are allowed to take part in the classroom activities. Decision-making skills are also important to students in all aspects of their lives. At various points in life, students may be required to make critical decisions.


  Reference

Sunal, C. S., & Haas, M. E. (2008). Social studies for the elementary and middle grades. A constructivist approaches (3rd Ed). Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon


 

The Struggle Of Kurdish Nationalism In 1980s

The Struggle of Kurdish Nationalism In 1980s


 Thesis

Kurdistan is the core root of the so called the Kurdish nationalism which resulted from the independence. In the late 19th century, a certain movement came together with the aim of getting their own state. The Kurdish landowner was the first person to establish the Kurdish nationalist movement which wanted independence of the so called the Kurdish state. Actually the struggle under which the Kurds went through was not simple as many thought simply because the majority were against the idea of having independence. The struggle of Kurdish nationalism in 1980s forms the basis of our thesis which will help us in conducting our research, (Ahmed & Gunter 2007).Before the end of the 19th century, the Kurds felt that they wanted a free state. This is the reason as to why the Kurdish nationalism started so as fight for the independence of the Kurdish state. The struggle of Kurdish nationalism never started immediately but it only came later in 19th century having Kurdish landowner being the leader of the movement.


After the ottoman centralist policies, Kurds felt that creating a movement would bring some sort of togetherness although it never happened. Some of the Kurds were not for the decision to acquire independence and that become the starting point of the struggle of the Kurdish nationalism. The reason behind forming a movement whose intentions was to fight for independence was that the Sheik thought that other countries never recognized that country. According to the leader, all other countries had a mandate to know that the Kurds lived in an independent country. When the leader of the movement demanded for the state’s independence, he wanted other countries authorities such as Turkish and Persian not interfere with the country’s way of development, (Ahmed & Gunter 2007).The struggle of Kurdish nationalism in 1980s is all about our research work. So as to get the whole idea about our research topic, I will interview four scholars who shall provide me with information in relation to what happened in 1980s.


The first scholar will be Olson, R who will actually gives us brief information on the Kurdish nationalist movement which was formed to fight for independence. We will get to know how the movement was formed and what steps were taken to ensure that each of the citizens was not against the idea of looking for independence. The second scholar will be Ahmed M who will in line with Olson helps us understand how the Kurds movement was formed and intentions of the movement. The third and the fourth scholars will be the Berberoglu and DeRouen. Both of these scholars will provide us with important information about the conflicts that rose during the struggle of Kurdish nationalism in 1980s, (Ahmed & Gunter 2007).The idea behind formation of Kurds movements was only to get independence and to make other countries not to exercise powers over the Kurds. I think that the Kurds were in one way or the other treated as minor by other countries and that is why they were to fight for their independence. Some Kurds were not for the idea simply because they thought that they could not made it in getting full independence, (Ahmed & Gunter 2007).


   Reference:

Ahmed, M.A., &Gunter, M.M. (2007).The evolution of Kurdish nationalism.Mazda          Publishers


 

Recovering the United States Economy

Recovering the United States Economy


 

The United States economy at the time when President Obama was sworn in was experiencing the worst recession in more than fifty years. The number of jobs lost was more than 2 million with the economy weakening each day. The economy was however reinstated through incorporation of fiscal and monetary policies that resulted in an increased household consumption, food stamp, as well as, support for small businesses which has seen employment pick up once more. The economy was revamped through stabilization of all major sectors of the American economy such as financial and automobile industries to reduce occurrence of uncertainty. Similarly, though the employment rates are still low, the GDP has slowly risen and it will be a matter of time before the normal is attained. The United States economy is therefore dependent on the long term fiscal policies laid by the economists in the country.


 

Top 10 items with highest value from the US to China

Computer and electronic products US$10,057,116,368

  1. US$5,707,988,712

Transportation equipment US$ 7,932,820,359

Machinery except electrical US$ 4,815,391,502

Primary metal manufacturing US$ 1,151,873,159

Paper US$ 933,373,842

Electrical equipment 874,213,024

Food US$882,426,703

Fabricated metal products US$546,231,304

Plastics and rubber US $370,734,803


 

Top 10 items with highest value from China to the US (2007)

Electric apparatus and parts, 8,292,160

Computers 23,239,995

Computer accessories, peripherals and parts 28,092,735

Telecommunications equipment 12,569,256

Apparel and household goods-cotton 13,003,851

Footwear of leather, rubber, or other materials 11,162,632

Furniture, household items, baskets 13,948,772

Household and kitchen appliances 9,042,147

Toys, shooting and sporting goods, and bicycles 27,583,318

Television receivers, vcr’s & other video equip. 12,906,905


 

U.S. unemployment rate in 2008 and 2009

The unemployment rate in the United States grew with a 2.7% margin such that the number of legible citizens in the employment category drastically reduced as more people lost their jobs. The change could be attributed to the economic recession which hit the country towards the end of 2007. The poor economic times could have contributed to the raise in unemployment as major firms had to lay down a good number of their employees due to increased cost of production. The slow growth of the economy has seen more employees being laid off while the adjustment programs have also contributed to the high number of previously employed individuals loosing their jobs.


 

Hi

Which two years are you referring to in no.3 as the source has 17 years.

 Then would you please clarify which part this section falls in. “If 6% unemployment rate is considered as full employment, what monetary and fiscal policies would you have suggested to obtain both full employment and balance of payment equilibria in each year?”

The other question is on the nature of diagrams which have been refereed to in the order. Are they the graphs and pie charts.

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