Category: History

 

Extinction Rates of Species

 


Biological scientists define extinction as the end of a group oftaxa due to the death of the last individual of that particular species or organism.

Extinction has largely been witnessed in variety of species and this can attributed to both environmental factors and human factors. Scientists say that the largest threat in the extinction of species is contributed by man’s destruction of the habitat whereby the home of a species or the ecosystem is destroyed and this has been witnessed mainly in the waters when we put chemicals inside. It has been seen that 17 out of every 22 crocodiles become extinct due to this type of habitat destruction. (Grinning Planet 2004)


 Excessive hunting has also triggered most recent extinction rates of animals such as the rhinoceros which are being hunted for the horns, others include lions and tigers. We have also seen that due to the destruction of the environment by man has caused climate change and global warming contributing to extinction of species as suggested by botany specialist Peter Raven who says that 25% of different plant species in the world become extinct due to pollution and climate change (Grinning Planet 2004). Other causes are predating, natural selection/competition and disease.


 These areas should be of major concern to us in order to look for the control and conservative measures of co-extinction where we witness extinction of parasites due to extinction of hosts or issue of predators and preys. We should also take into our concern on the processes of speciation i.e. arising of new varieties of organisms through evolution and also the Lazarus taxa where species assumed extinct reappears abruptly. (Wikimedia Foundation Inc 2010).


 References

Grinning Planet. (2004). Endangered species/species extinction – Causes, statistics and trends.

Wikimedia Foundation Inc – Wikipedia (September 2010). Extinction


 

Rosemary Clinton is the Author of this paper. She is a senior academic writer and an editor and she offers custom research papers. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and lack of confidence by visiting ResearchPapers247.org

The Dynasties of China

 


Introduction

The Ming dynasty ruled china from 1368 to 1644 and it proceeded the fall of the Mongols. In this text, I will address a number of issues including but not limited to the Ming dynasty emperors power base, factors contributing to the raise of the Ming dynasty, the role of women in this dynasty, Europe’s failure to achieve Asia’s success in terms of coming up with a stable society as well as the rise and the fall of Mongols. 


The Ming dynasty

Gascoigne (2003) notes that the Ming dynasty has been billed as arguably humans’ history’s greatest orderly government era. This dynasty constitutes china’s last dynasty and it was largely under the control of the Hans. One veritable power base of the emperors of the Ming dynasty was a superior navy and a strong army which according to some estimates had troops numbering about a million. In the 14th century, monarchs had a way of strengthening their rule using superior military strength and utilizing spies for purposes of power consolidation. Gascoigne (2003) also notes that ensuring that ones supporters were appointed to powerful positions was a strategy by monarchs to strengthen their rules.


Similar factors are what Gascoigne (2003) attributes to the raise of the Ming dynasty. The role of women in the Ming dynasty was not well defined. In fact, Li, an individual who advocated for the treatment of women as equals in the society was jailed and died in prison much lasted while still serving for what was labeled peddling of ideas considered to be “dangerous”. Li was advocating for women to be considered for better education amongst other things that kept them at par with their male counterparts. It is important to note that over time, women especially those possessing rudimentary education were viewed as promising audiences to a variety of vernacular Chinese arts performances as well as literary works.


The Ming dynasty had several accomplishments which have been well recorded in history. For instance, their building of the Great Wall was no mean feat. The Ming dynasty was also able to develop culturally and this can be seen from the development of novels tailored in the common language of the people as narrated by Chinese story tellers. In fact, it is not uncommon to find a Ming dynasty novel being read in the current day and age. The Ming dynasty is also credited for a number of other achievements including but not limited to writing of extremely important encyclopedias with crucial information an a wide range of fields.


It is good to note that there exists some connection between the raise of regional dynasties and European renaissance. During the European renaissance just like during the raise of regional dynasties, there we numerous dramatic changes and inventions. The other connection is the political domination upon the society and the development of the urban commercial attitude. It is important to note that the main reason why Europe did not achieve the success of Asia to a stable society was due to the infiltration of foreign culture coupled with the post war effects.


Conclusion

The raise of the Mongols was in a large way informed by their military ability, skills in organization as well as ability at war. The fall of the Mongols was informed by amongst other things refusal to acculturate to the social traditions of Mongol the various disciplines. Adoption of foreign ideologies has been describes as one of the chief causes of the decline of Mongols.


References

Gascoigne, B. (2003). The Dynasties of China: A History. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers


 

Rosemary Clinton is the Author of this paper. She is a senior academic writer and an editor and she offers custom research papers. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and lack of confidence by visiting ResearchPapers247.org

LAW OF CONTRACT

 


Introduction

In law, there is a presumption that every individual is entitled to enter into a legally binding relationship with any other party. However, there exists some exceptions to this presumption and one of these exceptions is the one that bars people of a certain age from entering into a legally binding contract. In this text, I explain the ethics as to why individuals of a certain age are not allowed to enter into a legally binding contract.


Law of contract: the ethics behind age exceptions

            Those who have not attained the age of the majority are called minors and they are effectively barred from entering into contracts except for some specified purposes i.e. for necessities. One of the main ethics based reasons for baring minors from entering into contractual relationships is to avert an instance where they might end up being manipulated as a result of their scanty understanding of the law at an early age.


Richards (2009) notes that for commodities not considered to be necessities, any contract entered with minors is null and void. This is done in the full understanding that some unscrupulous individuals may try force minors into legally binding contracts for pleasure items for business or personal gains whereas it is clear that the minors may not need such items. However, for necessities such as food, the law barring minors from entering into a contract is wavered to protect the minor from suffering unnecessarily but they may be voidable at the minor’s option (Richards 2009).


 Conclusion

It is important to note that the spirit of the exceptions in the law of contract as regards people of a certain age is to protect them from being manipulated by parties bent on taking advantage of their naivety or otherwise.


 References

Richards, P. (2009). Law of Contract, 9th Edition. Pearson Longman


 

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Oil Spill

 


               On Tuesday April 20th 2010 there was an explosion by the Deepwater Horizon which sunk. The drilling rig caused oil to spill into the Mexico Gulf.  Federal  agencies  like the ASTSDR and  CDC and  other federal  agencies   and  the department s  of  state health  have  worked  together to recommend measures in protecting  pubic health.  These  departments are working with  medical  professional  and  emergency response  to check  on  any health  hazard and  issues  related to the oil spill. ATSDR and CDC are on the opinion that the residents pay attention to state and local health official’s safety and health recommendations.  The democrats  party  has been  criticized on  how  it  handled  the issue of  the Gulf  of  Mexico  oil  spill.  President  Obama  denied  the claims  that Bp  had  shown  more  initiative  than  the government  in  regard  to the  disaster response. 


He  says  that  this  is  not true  yet  what  the people, saw  was that  the US  government was plagued with  confusion  and indecisions  on  how  to deal with  one of the worst  oil disaster  that that  has  ever hit the US. Political critics have  predicted  that this  could  damage  the Democratic Party  electoral  chances  in  November mid  term  congregational  elections(City A.M, 2010)  The republicans are pointing fingers at the Democratic Party over the oil spills.  Dan Haley states that Obama’s administration is part of the problem since Salazar is included. The oil industry and the US government have been one for generations. The republicans are on the idea that   the government should take over BP and the Gulf oil spill.  it  has failed   to marshal  an  adequate responses  in  a months  time  to that crisis’s . 


The republicans accuse the government for failing be effective not only is in this last disaster but also in drilling leases else where (e letters, 2010)The parties educate its members, the public, and the government about its concerns or mission through catalogues, e journal, and database material available in the national archives.  The Republican Party is one of the two biggest political parties in the United States of America.  The republicans are also known as the conservative.  It is also known as G.O.P meaning the Grand Old Party.  It uses the elephant as its symbol.  The party is chaired by an African American Lawyer and former Lt Governor of Maryland.  The party stands f or beliefs like abortion should not be legalized, they are against gun control, they support death


penalty and supports wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. These views are aired through media,   parliamentary proceedings, magazines, web and national gazettes. (Republican National Committee 2010). The Democratic Party   is the other main party in the US.  In every four years the party holds national convention to agree on their candidates for presidency. The Democratic National Committee coordinates the various activities of the Democratic Party through the fifty states in the US. The symbol for the Democratic Party is the donkey. The democratic are some times known as the progressive or the liberal.  The party is further divided in to the left wing liberals and the moderates (The Democratic party 2010).  


 Many of the democrats support pro-choice, progressive income tax   withdrawing  of  US  troops  from Iraq, believe in  Keynesian  economic  ,health  care reform and need  of  government to do  something on  global warming. This information is passed to the people and members through the democratic committee which channels it views through media and national gazettes.  Both party committees plan the party’s presidential nominations and promote party candidature through financial and technical support.  The parties  work  with  the states, the ,national  as  locals  party organization  in  the election of  officials, constituencies representatives and candidates  . The officials are responsible to respond to the views and need of the national and there respective electorate.


 Reference

 Republican national committee (2010) THE Republican Party of the United stares. Retrieved from

http://www.gop.com/

On June 1, 2010

The Democratic party (2010) the DEMOCRATIC PARTY

http://www.democrats.org/

On June 1, 2010

City A.M (2010) Spill could hurt democrats. Retrieved from

http://www.cityam.com/news-and-analysis/spill-could-hurt-the-democrats

On June 1, 2010

e letters, (2010) questioning  Ken  Salazar’s  behavior’s  behavior  in  wake of  oil  spill. Retrieved from

http://blogs.denverpost.com/eletters/2010/05/31/

On June 1, 2010


James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

Political Instability

 


Introduction

Political instability involves a situation whereby a country undergoes political unrest such that the country is not at peace while property and lives are lost in the process. Domestic political instability is caused by various issues such as lack of transparency in the government as well as other circumstances involving ethnicity especially in major countries which have multi-cultural citizens. Domestic conflicts usually lead to a number of negative events coming up as a result of the instability associated with wars and insecurity. Despite the efforts put forward bah major political bigwigs in the world, more and more countries are greatly affected by political instability.


 Discussion

Causes of political instability

Environmental problems such as the recent global issues are a major cause of political instability in most countries which are adversely affected by the condition. Global warming is a diverse problem which affects the human activities of various countries and as most of them are dependent on activities such as farming which is exceptionally affected, the problem becomes quite threatening. Countries have disagreed on the levels of acceptable green house gases which should be emitted into the atmosphere and at times some countries have been solely blamed for exceeding the levels (Gupta, 1967).  Citizens prompt their leaders to issue regulations on such industries which produce harmful emissions that threaten existence of human life and failure to carry out the policies creates conflicts through emergence of political activists who incite the citizens. Lack of understanding between legislatures and their international counterparts on the issue of global warming leads to conflicts which are not only domestic, but also international as different countries in the same region may differ on the levels of green house gases produced by either (Gupta, 1967).Political corruption in election has been a major cause of political instability especially where the concerned leaders lack accountability of the corruption. Generally political corruption reduces the efficiency of providing basic public amenities as it erodes the institutional capability of the government.


When a government indulges in corrupt deals, the public loose their trust in it and as a way of showing their distrust, the citizens may engage in war which will be poorly timed as at that time the efficiency of the government to provide security is thwarted by corrupt deals (Gupta, 1967).Political corruption undermines good governance such that the instability caused by resistance of the poor governance may take longer to stop as the mistrust will be highly evident among the people. Poor utilization of a countries resources and embezzlement of public funds may also trigger political wars as a way of protesting against the misappropriation. However, political instability due to embezzlement of funds is usually organized by other political activists and through proper dialogue in addition to necessary actions being undertaken by relevant authorities, this form of rebellion is usually contained before becoming bigger (Gupta, 1967).Countries which have been faced with political instability due to political corruption usually experience slow and stagnant economic growth which takes a long time to recover. Occasionally, the embezzled funds are never recovered while misallocated resources are subdivided once more to reduce conflicts.


Some countries which undergo political instability due to political corruption call for change in country leadership while overturning of such a corrupt government is quite common (Gupta, 1967).  Political ethnicity which is commonly referred to as negative nationalism is a major cause of political instability. Negative nationalism calls for individuals of certain ethnicity being in political offices and during that time members of the same ethnic group are bound to benefit tremendously.  A common example of political instability is the genocide which was seen in Bosnia between 1992 and 1995 after the 1990 parliamentary elections which led to a national assembly dominated by three ethnically-based parties. The three parties which were composed of individuals belonging to three ethnic groups had formed a loose coalition as a way of removing the communists from political power.After the country was declared sovereign in 1991 a referendum followed which was boycotted by a large number of Serbs which led to the voting being in favor of the proposal and thus, Bosnia and Herzegovina became independent states.


This was only for a short period which was full of tension and sporadic military incidents such that when the war began in 1992, the country was ready and the hatred between the ethnic groups was intense Gutman, (1993).Ethnic wars are caused by negative ethnicity and increased nepotism such that the members of the ethnic group from which the president originates from always believes that it is their time to share the public cake. This makes people aggressive when carrying out campaigns or when a member of their ethnic group fails to cliché the top seat.  This also happens when one ethnic group believes it is superior to the others and the country ends up in political turmoil if the problem is not rectified early enough Gutman,(1993).Countries which suffer from frequent ethnic wars are less likely to progress economically as the hatred exhibited across ethnical borders inhibits collective nation building Gutman, (1993)


.Similarly the damage caused by such wars as well as the scars left behind takes a longer period to reconstruct.Rapid population increase and high levels of unemployment have been blamed for causing political instability in Melanesia. The citizens are disgruntled by lack of proper government policies which may prevent the rapid increase in population of the Melanesians and especially because there are no jobs for all citizens. Lack of adequate jobs for all reduces the ability of everyone to fend for his/her family hence creating more problems including discontent among the Melanesians. Most individuals dislike the idea of having to rely on relief food and services such that they would rather engage in other activities even if illegal to provide for their families. This discontentment and lack of jobs causes the residents to engage in idle talk as there is nothing much they can do other than sit around all day hence they have adequate time to plan for wars Butkiewecz, and Yanikkaya, (2005)


.A government which is unable to provide for the needs of its citizens is seen as a failure and the Melanesians engaged in domestic war as a way of making their grievances known to the government and the entire world. The only way in which such a government can instill peace in the country is by providing jobs for all in addition to putting strategies in place which will check the overall population growth of the country. This is a form of assurance to the Melanesians that everything will be okay as well as a sign that the government is in control hence the war is avoided and stopped such that the country is able to regain its political stability Butkiewecz, (2005).The status of a society also determines the political status of that country as presence of an unstable society which is denied the basic democratic rights is more likely to trigger political instability. A society which is allowed to exercise its rights in a democratic way is less likely to engage in war as the needs and problems affecting the people will be catered for adequately before they become real issues of national concern.


Consequently, societies which are less developed or else those which do not engage in major income generating investments are more prone to getting into political wars (Gupta, 1967).The stability of any give society is a key determinant of the stability of the country as several societies make up an entire country. Therefore, stability in all societies’ leads is paramount to stability in the whole country. Similarly, societies which have experienced political instability are less likely to engage in the same as the effects and aftermath of such wars is not a very appealing site (Gupta, 1967).The level of democracy is also a key determinant of political status of a country especially when handling issues that are concerned with provision of basic human rights and equal presentation of all citizens. Promotion of equality in terms of gender and ethnic groups may reduce quite a large number of wars caused by political instability (Gupta, 1967).


 References

Butkiewecz, James, L. and Yanikkaya, Halit.  Sociopolitical instability and long run economic growth: a cross country empirical investigation. Journal of policy modeling.   (2005) Vol. 27, pp. 629-645

Gutman, R., A witness to genocide, the 1993 Pulitzer prize-winning dispatches on the “ ethnic cleansing” in Bosnia. (1993), New York: Macmillan

Gupta, Anirudha  Roots of political instability in Africa. Economic and Political weekly, June 10 1967. pp 1041


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The United States Constitution

 


 Analysis of the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution

The first amendment on the US constitution is the freedom of expression of religion and the press. This part of the constitution prohibits any form of inhibition of speech, worship as well as the ability to assemble people peacefully. This allows for all Americans to speak freely and worship any where they feel comfortable in the whole country The United States Constitution, (2010). The fourth amendment is concerned with unreasonable searches and seizure of property as well as people. It calls for law enforcers to be issued with a search warrant describing the specific place to be searched as well as its extent in addition to a description of property or individuals that will be seized. Therefore, everyone has a right to request for evidence form the officers a slack of a warrant shows that the security and privacy of the individual will be violated


The United States Constitution, (2010).The Fifth Amendment assures citizens that at no time shall they be held liable for a capital offence unless the Grand jury calls for the same or else when the said person committed the crime while in public service. Consequently, a suspect should not be called upon to testify against of for him/herself. Individuals who are found guilty are also compensated for any deprivation of property and liberty which is taken from them.  The sixth Amendment calls for quick trials which do not drag for years as well as incorporation of an impartial jury such that the trail is carried out in the same place where the crime was committed thus saving plenty of time.


The accuse will also be given an opportunity of looking for witnesses who will support him/her as well as allowing a direct confrontation with the witnesses who are against the suspect. This creates room for the jury to have a clear picture of both sides of witnesses. The Assistance Counsel is also obliged to help the accused in his defense which allows for the accused to have his crime read out so that the accusation is clearly understood as part of the rights of the accused.Amendment number fourteen states that all individuals who are born or those who have taken up US citizenship through naturalization are American citizens as per the jurisdiction and they are thus obliged to all the rights that are availed for all residents regardless of where they reside in the country.


This calls for equal provision of public resources to all while at the same time the states are not supposed to deprive the residents of any form as well as lack of security for certain individuals The United States Constitution, (2010).However, during elections the right to vote is dependent on the number of male citizens who are above twenty one years of age during the voting period. Those who have participated in any criminal activities in addition to rebels are denied the chance to cast their vote. Consequently, individuals who have taken part in criminal activities as well as those who have provided support to enemies of the congress be elected in the position of senator or as a representative in Congress.


The same verdict applies for individuals who have committed similar crimes being chosen as president or vice-president electors unless Congress votes by two-thirds of each separate entity of the house can this clause be changed The United States Constitution, (2010).Debts which are incurred by United States citizens during rebellious activities against the country are not paid by the government but rather the individual should, bear the cost. The country therefore categorizes them as illegal and has no obligation to them. This calls for the leaders of rebellions and other actions against the government to foot their own costs and bills The United States Constitution, (2010).  


 Relationship between the Bill of Rights and the Administration of Justice and Security

The Bill of Rights aims at protecting the rights and freedom of Americans such that they are able to express themselves freely as well as allowing them to worship where they deem comfortable. Consequently, the citizens are assured of citizenship and their recognition as Americans regardless of whether they were born in the country or outside. The citizens are also protected form unauthorized searches and seizures by the law enforcers unless a warrant is produced prior to the actions. Similarly, the items and people who will be seized are indicated in the warrant such that the search does not invade the privacy of such an individual. The Bill of Rights also ensures that the privacy of personal property as well as ones life is protected from such unwarranted invasions.Court rulings are made faster such that trails are hastened by ensuring that they are held in the same state where they occur.


The rights of the accused are also spelt out for them as well as ensuring that the jury present is not harsh on the accused hence increasing the rate at which the case is heard The United States Constitution, (2010).Consequently, the Administration of Justice and Security protects the citizens from harm and leaders who have a criminal record. Such leaders could pose serious harm to such a country and they are thus, denied voting rights as well as any active participation in the elections. Similarly, people who engage in rebellions and other activities against the wish of the UnitedState government are made to pay for their own actions as well as any expense they may have incurred during their activities. Lack of funding thus, reduces criminal activities as they are denied government support hence protecting the lives of many citizens The United States Constitution, (2010).


 Objectives and challenges facing various federal, state and local law enforcement agencies

One of the major challenge facing state law enforcement agencies is complexity of certain criminal issues regarding security of the public such that only he federal agencies can handle such cases. Complex and serious cases such as cross state boundary crimes such as kidnapping are handled by the federal state. The federal bureau of investigations handles such complex cases while the state agencies are given the mandate to deal with less complex cases which occur within the boundaries of the state Lectric Law Library, (2010).The law enforcement agencies are obliged to providing security and protection all citizens but their activities are limited by geographical boundaries such that most of them only act within their home areas.


The Federal Protective Services is a jurisdiction of the country concerned with provision of security services to federally owned property and it is characterized by the UnitedState government’s federal police force. It carries out its duties to the whole country in events such as national terrorism, insecurity as well as national disasters such as hurricanes Connolly, (2003).A challenge affecting the federal law enforcement agency is lack of powers to make their own laws such that they follow those set up for them by the country.  Therefore, they can not amend or change any existing laws except when the government carries out the change Connolly, (2003).


 Roles of the federal, state, and local court systems with respect to public safety and civil rights

The federal courts handle cases involving ambassadors, ministers, counsels as well as cases between individuals form different states and nationalities. Controversies between foreigners are also dealt with by the federal courts. Criminal cases arising under federal law are also handled by the federal courts as they directly affect the federal authorities Lectric Law Library, (2010).The state courts are separate from the federal courts and they handle cases dealing with violation of state laws as they posses their own individual court systems with complete set of court rules and procedures. State courts can sometimes decide on certain matters involving the federal courts due to presence of concurrent jurisdiction as well as some exclusive jurisdictions such that the roles of the two courts overlap sometimes dependent on the nature of case Lectric Law Library, (2010).


 The objectives of the juvenile justice system with those of other agencies

A major objective of the juvenile justice system was to abolish death penalty for minor which was achieved in 2005 such that the young children were exempted form this sentence.  Consequently, there has been intense pressure on the government to abolish the same penalty for adult criminals as well as establishment of a more human way of carrying out the death sentence Dohn and Tanenhaus, (2004).The other objective is to ensure that the juvenile criminals are not neglected while in jail, abused or mistreated as has been common in most youths serving their sentences in United States jails.


This will be accomplished by providing the juveniles with enough knowledge on their rights so as to reduce the trauma they undergo while in prison. Similarly, the constitution provides for the excising of individual rights of the accused so that a fair sentence may be delivered as well as reduce suffering for the accused once imprisoned Dohn, (2004).As a way of protecting and promoting the lives of the young members of the society, he juvenile justice system has asked juvenile courts to consider imprisonment as the last resort while the sentences should be short so that the psychological effect associated with imprisonment may not interfere with the individual’s growth Dohn, (2004).


 The role of private security organizations with respect to corporate and public protection

There is an increase in the number of private security organizations in the country as compared to public security providers thus; more Americans are wiling to seek the services of the private sector due to availability as well as accessibility. Similarly, the citizens are know to have an increased affinity for places where the private sector is on the ground to provide protection as well as controlling crime as compared to places where the public security services are being offered.  This is a clear indication that the public have more trust on the private security organizations due to their reliability in addition to their availability Connolly (2003). 


The private security organizations are known to provide eighty five percent of the total national infrastructures while the rest is protected by the public sector. This shows that the entire private sector ahs more work in their hands as coma0pred t the public security providers. The private security organizations have also been on the forefront in fighting against domestic terrorism as the public sector handles international terrorism such that both organizations have equal roles in fighting the insecurity Connolly (2003).   Most corporations; national and global have engaged the services of the private security organizations to cater for the security needs of their workers as well as their premises Connolly (2003).   


  Recommend solutions to the various challenges facing criminal justice organizations and security organizations

The major challenge facing public security organizations is lack of trust form the public such that the private organizations are preferred compare to the public security organizations. The only way in which this inefficiency can be eliminated is by incorporating the two groups consecutively such that they are allowed to work together to reduce the discrepancy. By engaging the two groups to work together in the same national security event, the lost trust will be regained as well as learning form each other to reduce disparities  Connolly (2003).  The challenge of complex criminal cases which are presented to various law enforcement agencies can be eliminated by providing clear indications and guidelines for various cases in line with the level of agency to handle the case. This can be done in the same way that different courts have different jurisdictions of solving criminal cases. This will not only reduce time wastage but also increase efficiency of the law enforcement agencies.


  References

  Connolly, P. C. (2003), the role of private security in combating terrorism. National         Executive Institute’s Annual Conference

Dohn, B. and Tanenhaus, D. (2004), Juvenile justice in the making. New York: Oxford     University Publishers. Inc

Lectric Law Library, (2010), understanding the law: retrieved on May 22, 2010 from:       www.lectriclib.com

The United States Constitution, (2010), United States Constitution and Amendments.      Retrieved on May 22, 2010 form: www.usconstitution.net/cons.htm.


Rosemary Clinton is the Author of this paper. She is a senior academic writer and an editor and she offers custom research papers. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and lack of confidence by visiting ResearchPapers247.org

 

Traditional Strengths Of African American Families

 


Introduction

Most people in the modern society define a black family as a family where personality and identity are developed. In addition, a black family is a family where people are assigned status, and people learn the norms and values of the society. There are several traditional strengths of African American families. That is strong kinship ties among the family members, and strong work orientation. Another traditional strength of African American families is strong achievement orientation, and strong religious orientation. Lastly, African American families have strong adaptability of family roles. The five strengths of African American families make the families unique in the society. The characteristics make the families different from other families like the white families. The traditional strengths of African American families are important to the families as they help them associate with each other. The traditional strengths of African American families have helped many black families survive various situations. This paper analyzes traditional strengths of African American families. The novel I Know Why the Caged Bird sings by Angelous Maya shows various strengths of African American families.


 Traditional strengths of African American families

There are several strengths of African American families. First, African American families have strong kinship ties unlike other families like white families. The kinship ties tend to be stronger in African American families than white families (Angelous 2009). This is because African American families tend to absorp more relatives than white families. The African American families absorb a lot of relatives because of the ties they have with relatives. For example, African American families take in young children, and care for them. But, white families do not take in young children, but they take them to care (Angelous 2009). For instance, in the novel I Know Why the Caged Bird sings by Angelous Maya, Maya is taken to her grandmother’s place.


The grandmother accepts her and takes care of her. In addition, Maya goes to visit her father in South Carolina, and he accepts her. Maya lives happily with her father, and she has good experience that strengths her development. She drives a car for the first time as she drives her intoxicated father (Angelous 2009). The families do not reject children like white families. The family structure in African American families does not matter when it comes to kinship. Families headed by mothers absorb children like families headed by fathers. For example, Maya is absorbed by her grandmother, father and mother. Grandmothers play important roles in African American families, and they absorb more children than white families.


Maya and her brother a send to stay with their parental grandmother who takes care of them. Grandmothers take care of young children in African American families. Thus, a strong kinship tie is a traditional strength of African American families (Angelous 2009).Another traditional strength of African American families is strong work orientation. African American families have a strong work orientation than white families (Angelous 2009). Most men and women in African American families work. In white families most women do not work. The women in African American families work to supplement the family income. For example, in the book, Maya shows a strong work orientation. In the novel I Know Why the Caged Bird sings by angelous Maya, Maya works in a racist employer who changes her name.


In addition, before Maya graduates, she becomes the first black female to be a street conductor. Maya’s grandmother is rich as she owns a general store where she works to supplement the family income (Angelous 2009).African American families have strong adaptability of family roles. The family members are able to fill in the roles of another person (Angelous 2009). For example, in African American families, a mother, grandmother a can play the role of a father. A father can also play the role of a mother or grandmother. Children in African American families can play the role of a mother or father. This is mostly when the parents are not there or are busy. The parents play each other role when one of the parent is busy, has died or divorced. This makes it easy to care for the children when parents die or divorce (Angelous 2009).


The flexibility of roles in these families helps the members overcome economic necessities. For example, Maya’s grandmother plays the role of the father and mother by absorbing the children. She cares for the children while parents are away. Also, Maya’s mother cares for the children after the grandmother sends then to her. She provides them with security and other basic needs. The father also cares for Maya and her brother in the book. Thus, the family members in the book are able to assume the roles of another family member (Angelous 2009). The flexibility of roles in African American families makes them unique. It also strengthens the African American families as they are able to survive in dificuity situations. In case of divorce or death the families do not break, but they continue to survive. The families also share financial responsibility.


The wife and the husband are able to share responsibilities in the family. The women in African American families work to supplement family income. They do not depend on the father to provide everything. Anybody in the family can be a bread winner (Angelous 2009).African American families have strong religious orientation. The families have used this strength to survive dificuity situations. Most African American families face racism, discrimination, and slavery. The African American families have used religion during racism and discrimination to overcome the situations (Angelous 2009). For example, in the novel, Maya uses her strong religious orientation to overcome racism and discrimination. Maya uses her Christian myth to demonstrate her passage from childhood to adult hood.


The religion helps her overcome the dificuity situations like racism, rape and she grows to an adult and accepts her role as a mother (Angelous 2009).African American families have strong achievement orientation. The family members work to benefit other people in the family. They do not work to benefit themselves. The African American families’ value education as it helps them achieve their dreams. Most characters in the book have worked hard to benefit the African American family (Angelous 2009). For example, Maya’s grandmother works hard in the general store to benefit her family. Maya has a strong achievement orientation as she learns how to drive, and this becomes her strong achievement. She also works hard in school as she values education.


Mrs. Bertha flowers help Maya with books to enhance her interest in reading. Maya also attends George Washington high school where she achieves a lot. Before her graduation she manages to become the first black female street conductor (Angelous 2009).African American families help the children have strong identity. This is shown by Maya in the book. Maya manages to overcome racism and inferiority with dignity. She also manages to develop a strong identity which she uses to overcome racism. The identity sets Maya as a role model for all black women. Identity is one of the themes in the book as Maya demonstrates her strong identity when overcoming racism (Angelous 2009).


 Conclusion

African American families have several strengths that make them unique. The African American families have a strong work orientation. This is shown by most of the characters in the novel. The novel shows traditional strengths of African American families. Most women in African American families work to supplement family income. In the novel, Maya and her grandmother work to supplement the family income. Most women in white families do not work. The strong work orientation makes African families unique. African American families have strong kinship ties. Most families absorb young children. This is evidenced in the novel as most members absorb the children. Maya and her brother are absorbed by the grandmother, father and mother. African American families have strong achievement orientation.


This helps them to help each other in the family. Most characters in the novel show a strong achievement orientation. The grandmother works hard to benefit the family. Maya works hard in school and she loves education. She manages to be the first black woman to be a street conductor. The families have strong religious orientation. They use it overcome dificuity situations. For example, Maya has used her strong religious orientation to overcome racism and rape. It also helps her become a mother and assume her role. The African American families help children develop strong identity. Maya develops a strong identity which she uses to overcome racism. Thus, the novel shows the traditional strengths of African American families.


 Reference

Angelous, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. Random House Inc, 2009


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History of American prisons

 


  Today, most people view prisons as tools of punishment. In early times, people did not view prisons as instruments of punishments. For example, the Bridewells prison in England did not consider punishment as the main purpose of prisons. The Bridewells prison was used to holds debtors, and other people waiting trial in the prison, and banishment from the society. The American correctional systems differed from their mother land as the administrators used corporal punishments to punish criminals. But, the English counterparts did not use corporal punishments (Wadsworth, 2005). Death penalty was not common in the English prisons. In 1962, wiliam Penn adopted the Greek law. This criminal code did not allow prisons to use torture, and mutilations to punish criminals. The law encouraged criminals to pay restitution for the goods to the victim of crime.


If the criminal was unable to pay the restitution, he was taken to the prison. The Greek law encouraged death penalty to be used, but only on cases of premeditated murder. The first penitentiary to be established was Wall Street prison. This prison encouraged use of harsh punishments like those used in other colonies. In 1776, Pennsylvania established laws ordering prisons to reform offenders by disciplining them, and also by treating. But, not punish offenders by beating and executing them. Several states adopted the Pennsylvania example like New York, and Massachusetts (Wadsworth, 2005).In 1970, pennyslavia opened another penitentiary in Philadelphia. The penitentiary was operated under the assumption that silence, and labors were the best ways to rehabilitate prisoners. This is because the criminals would meditate about their crime by remaining silence.Then after realizing the mistake the criminal would repent. In addition, labor would help reduce idleness among criminals as idleness was the main cause of criminal activities. Then, prisoners were isolated from one another in solitary rooms, and given menial work.Several states constructed penitentiary to reduce overcrowding in prisons.


The failure of Walnut Street enabled other states to construct prisons (Wadsworth, 2005). For example, the Pennsylvania system constructed two prisons after the fall of Walnut prisons. That is western penitentiary and eastern penitentiary. The Pennsylvania system adopted the principle of silence, and constructed back to back cells. The cells were aimed at transforming criminals into honest citizens. The New York prisons were also constructed after the fall of Walnut prisons. The prisons focused on obedience, but not transforming criminals into honest citizens. As a result of overcrowding in New York prisons other prisons were constructed such as Auburn prisons. In 1870, reformers suggested other measures to reduce the rate of crime. This is because they thought that isolation, silence and fixed sentences could not help curb crime. They introduced other rules like early release. The Elmira model believed that criminal behaviors were caused by factors like economic, social and biological factors. This forced prisons to look for ways of treating criminals rather than punishing them (Gaines &Miller, 2008). Then the medical model was development to implement the suggestion.


 Impact of penitentiary rivalry

            The American prison system is influenced by the Pennsylvanian system and the auburn system. Rules used in the two systems are currently used in the American system like giving prisoners manual work. The Penitentiary rivalry has had several impacts on the American prisons. First, the rivalry has helped improve living conditions for prisoners in the prison. Prisoners are not put in crowded rooms as these increases the rate of crimes in the country and deaths in prisons. It has led to development of medical programs for prisoners in the American prison. The penitentiary rival has also led to isolation of prisoners according to age, education and level of crime committed. Then the prisoners are placed in different levels of prisons. That is maximum, minimum, and low. Maximum prisons house prisoners who have committed crimes several times and murders. Minimum prisons house prisoners who are half way with their punishment and have shown good behavior. In addition, Peniterary rival has led to development of rehabilitation centers that help criminals develop skills, and correct their behavior. The rivalry has influenced the American thinking on the purpose of the prisons. Most people think prisons are made to punish people using different types of punishment like capital punishments. Other people think that prisons are required to transform criminals into better citizens by guiding them (Gaines &Miller, 2008).


 Comparing public and private prisons

There are several differences between private prisons and public prisons. First, it is easy to manage private prisons than public prisons. This is because public prisons rely on government funds to manage prisons, and the funds are not enough. Private companies have enough funds to manage prisons. They have other sources of funds (Gaines &Miller, 2008).Private and public prisoners differ in terms of conditions and services provided to prisoners. In public prisons, it is difficulty to provide services and better conditions to prisoners as they have no enough funds. But, in private prisons it is easy to provide the right services to prisoners as they have enough funds (Gaines &Miller, 2008).Privatizing public prisons has become a debatable issue because the society analyzes the issues associated with private prisons. People opposing privatization of public prisons argue that private prison will not provide security to prisoners. This is because the private prisons want to save finances and this will lead to death of prisoners. Private prisons have been associated with deaths. Another argument is that, the private prisons have no right to punish criminals. They argue that the government is the only party that has the right to punish criminals. The prisons will continue to mistreat prisoners (Gaines &Miller, 2008).


 Reference

Gaines, L.,&Miller, R. (2008).Criminal Justice in Action: The Core.Edition5.Cengage Learning

Wadsworth, T. (2005).Lecture Notes for Gaines/Miller’s Criminal Justice in Action: the Core, 3rd.Edition3PublisherThomson Wadsworth


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Cultural Diversity

 


Abstract

Cultures and societies differ from one region to another in the world. This paper aims at presenting the contrasting social, political, and economic histories of the English and the Hispanics in the United States.


 Introduction

               Anthropologists all over the world have noted that there are various cultural differences that exist between people in terms of dressing code traditions, language and the general organization of a society.  These differences come about with the shared conception of morality in the adaptation of the environment. Cultural diversity has been the essential aspect in the long term survival of humanity.  This happens as communities involve in conservation of indigenous cultures; this being one of the most essential element in humankind. This is similar to the conservation of ecosystem and species is to life in general.


The Universal declaration on cultural diversity according the UNESCO is that cultural diversity is necessary for human kind as biodiversity is to nature.   In the United States each individual belongs to a certain ethnic group which he/ she is a member of.  Some have been in the US for generations while some are still new to the country. The Hispanic  Americans are the new  arrivals  in to the land and have a different culture compared  to the English  people who have  been  in  the US  for a long  period of time. Culture dictates the way of living in a particular social group and community.  These people share beliefs and values and behave in a certain way.People naturally and unconsciously acquire there own native culture.


  This is a process m known as Enculturation.  The US comprises of various ethnic groups with distinct cultures.  Most immigrants choose their own relationship with their newly acquired and their native culture. This happens through the process of assimilation and the later native culture slowly fades away. The result is that there will be a merging of the new culture and the old culture is indistinguishable after a period of time.The new immigrants may adopt a second set of cultural rules through acculturation which can coexist with the rules of their native cultures and replace the old culture rules. This process may also modify old rules so that they can complement the new rules.  Some immigrants have managed to maintain two cultures (bi-cultural) simultaneously with equal standards.


 Anglo culture

             Anglo American refers to the English speaking Canadian or European American (Mish, 1994, p 86).  Anglo is a term  that has  been  used  in  the discussion  of  English  Speaking  people history in  the US during  the Mexican – American  War but in many spheres, the term  has come to denote  English people speaking  people and third descendants regardless of prior ethic  background. The Anglo American is traditionally a large protestant group with few of the Roman Catholics. The Anglo American refer to all those from countries that traditionally speak the English Language. Those whose families became mainstream English speaking people in Canada and the United states are also referred to as the Anglo Americans.


They are the people who originated from Europe and are therefore European Immigrants or the Founding colonists. The First European decedent born in what is today’s America is Martin de Argüelles in 1566, San Agustin, La Florida (Figueredo, 2007, p 11). The English  Americans(9.0%), German  Americans(16.5%)and the Irish Americans(11.9%) are the largest three ethnic  groups  in the United States according  to statistics carried  out in  2008. The term European  American  came into use  in  1977 to replace the term ‘White’ as a racial  label  though up to now, European American is  not popularly used in  America. Approximately 53% of European Americans are of colonial ancestry today. 47% of them descended from Canada, Mexico and Europe. They are the descendants of colonial American stock who came in two waves of immigrants from Europe. The colonial stock comprising of the Welsh, Irish and Scottish descendants are dominant in the South. 


The French decedents are found throughout the country but mostly in Louisiana.  The Spanish decedents have dominated the South west. They are the primary Roman Catholic who has been assimilated with Louisiana Purchase and the Mexican American war. The first wave of European immigrants came to America after the Revolutionary war.  The immigrants came from Western Europe and, Northern Europe between 1820 and 1890.  Most of them were the Germans, Britons, Irish and these from Scandinavia and Netherlands. There descendants are still dominant in the West and Midwest. The second wave of the immigrants of European American ethnic group arrived in mid 1870s to the 1920.  They came mainly from Eastern and southern Europe. This wave includes the Greeks, the People, the Italians and Slavs Portuguese. The term culture has been defined in various ways to give different meaning but the term has today been used to refer to three basics sense.


First,  culture is an  integrated  pattern  of  human  belief,  knowledge  and behavior and  it depends  upon the capacity for social  leaning  and for symbolic  thought. Secondly culture has the sense of excellence in tastes in the humanities and fine art which is commonly known as the high culture. Last, is that culture can be defined as shared values, goals, attitudes and rustics that characterize a group, institution or an organization.  Some experts have defined culture as an individual behavior in his degrees in the adaptation and assimilation into a particular environment. Basically culture comprises the whole of humanity which includes art, law, knowledge, moral custom and values. European cultural linage can be traced back in Europe and its institutionalized form of traditions, civil education and government. Europeans may have been among the first in America according to Solutrean hypothesis (Gonzalez, 2009).


Latest findings have  however argued that  Gonzales  theory could  not be true and that the founding  native America  population  came  from  Iberia  through Beringia (American  Journal  of Human  Genetics. 583-592) White American culture is quantitatively large in proportion of the American Culture.  White Americans have significantly contributed  to literature , agriculture., literatures ,  food.,  language , clothing  styles and music of the American  culture.  This is why America has been considered as a nation of cultural transfers. The white American who took over the political system and culture was taken up as a diplomatic tool.  This has however been criticized because culture belongs to the realm of public taste, free enterprise, and creativity but not government.During the Cold war, the leaders sought to export American way of life abroad while the Soviet Union sought to export communalism. This was the mission of policy makers and public figures of which most of them were the American Whites.


The US after the V-day created a number of programs and organizations. One of these programs is the Fulbright exchange program and the United States Information Agency. These programs promoted transmission of information on American culture.  This exportation  of  culture by the US is  similar to the renaissanceperiod  when  European  powers  fostered  a variety of cultural  exchange  programs, for example Germans in Africa, French in Indochina, and the British in the Middle East and in India. They sent their own culture abroad a powerful tool, to strengthen commerce, trade and political influence. Today some of the European  Communities rely on  collective  cultural  diplomacy in  the creation  of  organizations  that promote  exchange of  culture including  languages of  cultural information. The Suburban Culture in the United States is a euphemism for white American culture used as racially neutral alternative.


The later European and the middle-Eastern Immigrants upon their arrival felt isolated from the mainstream, protestant American society that spoke English. This was because of cultural, language and religious barriers.  To overcome this, they quickly created closely knit neighborhoods of members of their own ethnic groups. The neighborhoods grew into large districts with shops and churches with signs bearing their native languages. Their ethnic districts include Hamtramck in Michigan, Little Italy inn New York, and little Canada in Minneapolis’s Paul and Irish Channel in New Orleans. Various religious sects have developed insular communities such as Amish community in Pennsylvania and the Hasidic Jewish and Orthodox communities in Brooklyn’s Borough Park and Mormons in Mesa, Idaho, Pocatello, Arizona and Utah.   


American socialist John Tomlinson has argued that American Cultural imperialism is inadequate because the phenomenon simply means the spread of modernity. According to him this a process of local cultural loss and not of bicultural expansions. Economic process and global technologies and the integration lessen the importance of national culture.  Most European Americans have assimilated into American Culture and they now express their infibulate ethnic ties symbolically and sporadically. They currently do not consider their specific ethnic origin to be essential in their identity. However the southern Europeans who are the Greeks and the Italians have started exploring their cultural traditions as an ideal of their cultural pluralism.  Other European Americans have started doing the same in exploring their cultural origins in expressing their unique cultural experience.


 Social culture

                 Values are not the absolute facts but the traits that are openly recognized and seem obvious and practiced by the majority. For example Anglo Americans have the values which tend   to consider their personal goals over group goals. This is because the Anglo Americans are future and goal oriented especially in terms of monetary security. The Anglo trait therefore is to prepare and save for the future along with their tendency to strive for comfort. Goal orientation asks also seen in their communication, as they converse.  The English people exchange information in an efficient and quick manner- direct question leads to a direct answers. Some people from other cultures may view this as being rude and pushy because they waste no time on small talk.


This is  not the case  with  Spanish  speakers because  speech  takes  most  part  of  communication . Another Anglo characteristics  which  differs  from the Hispanics   involves  the raising  of children ,  the children are reared under strict discipline which  may include  physical  punishment.  The typical Anglo Americans belief is that man has power over nature.  This means that every thing that happens can scientifically be explained. They have in them the spirit to climb the ladder of success.  This is an important aspect that one must strive to be the best. Hard work is rewarded. This hard work only comes when a one adheres to time schedule therefore wasting time on irrelevant issues is not tolerated. 


The Anglos are also likely to be more aggressive   and competitive instead of cooperative.  They believe to be responsible in leading other people to great achievements or destiny and not fate. The Anglos  values to plays  a great  role  as  an integral  part of  their behaviors which  is reflected in how they respond in  life  issues  such as  in  education  and professional lives. For example a teacher can teach the fast learners and leave the slow learners behind. This is because the English teacher has the value of personal goals over group goals. On the positive side of this value is that the struggling students are helped to achieve great heights of academic at the expense of the rest of the other students. The Anglos are future oriented which clashes with the Hispanic value who have the tendency of living for today and lack of practical models for planning ahead.


Material comfort is highly valued among the Anglos but among the Hispanics this is overlooked. Communication skills are highly considered among the Anglos.The English Americans identify themselves as being simply Americans. This is because of the many cultural ties the country shares with their home country-England and their later impact to American population. The English language has contributed greatly to the Life of America.  It is the most spoken language in the US. Approximately one third of all native speakers use the language. Much of the American culture is influenced by the English culture. The common cuisine that characters the English is baked beans and peas, porridge, fried chicken.  They have standardized cooking methods and eating habits used in the British colonies in North America.


Baking was the favorite.  During the harvesting season, festivals of celebration were held which practice is done back in England. The festivals were characterized by praying, singing   and decorating the church with food and fruits.In Music,  the American  National  anthem  takes the melody of  an  English  song  sang  in the 18th  century known as, “To Anacreon in Heaven” by John  Stafford from England.  The Liberty song was written by an English defendant known as John Dickinson in 1968. The Architecture seen in the US  capital  Washington,  DC,  was  designed  by an  English  architect  called  Thornton  William,  the legal  system  has its roots    in the English  law. Most places in the US like New York, New Hampshire, Boston and Southampton are palaces named after the English Royal family.


 Political involvement

             The earliest colonists came into the US as settlers from England.  The descendants had political powers and made laws; many who were in England Government.  The thirteen colonies denominated by the English have English common laws.  The founding fathers of the US had English linage, for example Samuel, Adams   and Robert Morris. The committee  of five  who were  delegated to draft the Declaration Independence   were  John  Adams  of Massachusetts,  Thomas  Jefferson  of  Virginia,  Benjamin  Franklin  of  Pennsylvania  and Roger Sherman  of Connecticut. All of them had English roots. 


 Hispanic culture

               The Hispanic people are of any race who are of mixed race of African origin, Native American, and who come from a Spanish speaking culture in America. The people from Mexican Heritage are the largest among the Hispanic constituted in the UHS as being 66.9% in total. The Puerto-Ricans (8.96%) and the Cubans (3.7%) another group of the Hispanics  are those coming  from South  and Central America such  as the Nicaraguans,  Costa Ricans,  Panamanians,  Salvadorans and the Honduras who make  up a total  of  14.3% of the total  Hispanic  group. The history of the Hispanics dates back to five hundred years old marked by a variety of colonial experiences. They did not cross the bounder into their current territories but the borders crossed them. 


Material culture is the product of the people whose culture is derivative of Spanish Culture. The Spaniards brought their manifacts and artifacts with them to America from a variety of regional backgrounds. They brought with them their technologies, education, s skills and value styles which reflect to material culture that make up significant American landscape of the South west. (Kanellos, Weaver, Esteva, p 59). Their culture enabled them to prosper and survive in the new hostile environment. They have now built an environment which stands as their monument of their persistence, courage and creativity.The Hispanic culture has had a great influence in North America.  The Anglo American, Native American, Spanish and Mexican interaction has had a primary impact on the development of south western culture.


 Social aspects

           The Hispanics have popular music and dance and Folk which vary greatly among them. For example music from Hispanic America is a lot different from that of Spain although the two have highly exchanged most aspects. There is a lot of music in the different languages of the peninsula which are mainly the Basque, Catalan and Galician. Latin America has a wide variety of music though non from Latin language. Hispanic Caribbean music favors complex polyrhythm of African origin.  Mexican music has combined aspects of African American and Spanish origin.Literature folklore from the Hispanics is very rich and has influenced the literature of various countries. The Hispanic writers date back from the middle ages to the modern times. Those from Spain are Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, Lope de Vega and Federico Garcia Lorca among others.  From Mexico are Octavia Paz and Carlos Funtes. Other Hispanic writers come from Peru, Puerto Rico, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Honduras and Chile.In the US 70% Latinos and Hispanics are catholic, 23% are protestant while the remaining 6% have no affiliation. Among them there is a group of Jews who are approximately 4%.


Religion has played a significant role in the daily activity of the Hispanics. The church has influenced the community affairs and the family life giving them spiritual meaning of culture of the Hispanics.The family unit of the Hispanic is a closely knit group which is the most important social unit. The family recognizes relations outside the nuclear family.  The father is the provider and head of the family while the mother is responsible for the care of members of the family. The families often gather to celebrate communions, birthdays, baptism, weddings, and graduations. The children are taught of the importance of good manners, respect of authority and the elderly and are also taught to honor. The use of Spanish language is used within the family and Hispanic homes in general to preserve the language.Spanish speakers emphasize on treating one another with formality as an attribute.  Firm handshake is a common practice among the Hispanics as a sign of taking a leave.


Hugging and kissing is a common practice among the Hispanic women. The Spanish language has both the formal and the informal way of addressing the other person.  While speaking, there is the use of gestures and body language to convey meaning.Hispanic eating habits is characterized by light meals for breakfast then the el almuerzo which is lunch as the main meal. A small supper concludes the end of the day. Children are added a light snack or sandwich or coffee in the early evening called the la merienda. Bilingualism is the norm in the Hispanic community at large. This is because the Latino and Hispanic immigrants have more then sixty percent of US born children and grand children. Most of the children above the age of five are fluent speakers of Spanish and English. Spanish is considered the oldest European language spoken in United States for four and a half centuries since the foundation of St. Augustine.


In the Hispanic society, the group and family needs takes precedence over the needs of individuals. This is an opposing aspect from the English. This affects student’s life and employment life where the Hispanics will tend to behave communally and cooperatively. The Anglos on the other hand are individualistic and more competitive. The cooperative tendency is seen among the Hispanics in sharing information and material objects.They view the Anglo perspective of looking at the future more like a misappropriation of the present.  Therefore, the Hispanic youths and middle aged people concentrate more on short term goals than the long term goals. They get tensed in environments with fast moving and closely timed activities.The communication style of the Hispanics is much more formal compared to that of the Anglos. When using formal titles, respect is depicted.


They show affection thorough touching.  Friends kiss while the male shake hands, hug, and pat each other. This has influenced the Anglos in the recent past.  The Anglos can view the Hispanic politeness as being servile and subservient. This politeness is seen in their common  phrases such as Mi reina(my queen), A sus ordenes (at your command), mi rey(my king) or para servile a Usted(at your service)  are common  Hispanic  expressions used on daily basis.The Hispanics have a very special way with children which unlike, the strict disciplinary ways expected of Anglo children it appears to be more permissive. In Church services of the Hispanics, for example, children are allowed to run to the altar and hardly can they be spanked by their parents in public. The parents playfully call their children with nicknames such as mamita (little mama) and papito (little papa).


The older siblings are expected to take care of their little brothers and sisters but are all dependent of their parents in decisions making. The child has a strong sense of identity with the ethnic group, family and the community.The Hispanics try to adjust and adapt to the universe and the environment and have high believe in metaphysical powers.   Even the staunch Catholics Hispanics believe in witchcraft, healing women, and curadora.  Herbs play a significant role in bringing good luck and in healing. These believe affect the way of living of the Hispanic people. They are more cooperative in work, communal projects and in school and in their various field they apply cooperative techniques of learning and working. In the perception of time, the Hispanic tends to focus on the present. They are shy in communication especially when praised for a good job in public.


 Political histories

             The largest Hispanic immigrants are the Dominicans who have in the recent decades been joined by other Latin American nations. They new comers have come from Guatemala and Nicaragua after being displaced by turmoil. The Dominants settled in the US after the political conflicts that happened in 1961 following the death of President Trujillo. Most of them therefore came as political refugees. In the recent years most of the Dominicans have come because of economic reasons.Colonization of the Americas by the Spain has negatively marked the history of the Hispanic and the Latino in the US. Five hundred years later the Hispanics continue to live the consequences of history of colonization and conquest in which most of their living standards have not improved.  This applies to the Latin both in America and out the country and to the Hispanic community.Constantly the Latinos have migrated from the South to the North of US border which is a reality in the US today.


This inflow threatens to divide the United States in to two people, two languages, and two cultures.  This is because  unlike the past immigrants groups  the Latinos  and the Mexicans,  did  not get assimilated  into the mainstream  American culture but instead  they formed  their own  linguistic  and political  enclaves-from  Miami to Los Angeles. This was a rejection of Anglo Protestants Values of building the American Dream (Hunting 2004, p 45).  The Hispanic have been more engaged in United States issues like politics for example, Sonai Sotomayor was the first Hispanic Judge to be in the Supreme Court. They are also engaged in social economic improvements and getting integrated into the American Mainstream culture by changing their religion and language.


 Economic history

           According to the 2000 census,  central  and South  Americans  and the Cuban  American  had highest graduate rate  of colleague  students  with a  four year degree. In comparison to non Hispanic White Americans, and non Hispanic Asian Americans, had a higher rate than any American group. The Non Hispanic Black American had the lowest rate of 14.5%.  The individual income among the Latino and Hispanic Americans was higher for Cuba Americans with $38,733 according to a research carried out in 2000.  and the  lowest  income  was recorded among  Domican  Americans with  $28,467  and Mexican  Americans  $27, 877. Among the Hispanics, Cuban Americans had the highest percentage of professionals in managerial occupations. According to findings by The American Community, the poverty rate among the Hispanics is highest on Dominican Americans of 28.1%. The Puerto Ricans and the Honduran Americans (23.7%).  The Mexican Americans Poverty rate is 23.6%. Poverty rate is lowest among Colombians Americans, Salvadoran and Peruvian Americans who are the South Americans).


 Conclusion

             Culture has a wide scope that affects the social, political and economic lives of a people. Culture has been divided into two. There is the surface culture and the deep cultures. The surface culture   includes aspects like food, holidays and festivities. The deep culture   deals with the attitudes and feelings   that a person learns with the group he/ she belongs to. These aspects differ from one group to another. People will behave differently depending on the learned personal values, thoughts and   beliefs; enculturation Therefore as  we live  in  this world  we  should  accept  the different ways of life we  have and respect  them for peaceful  coexistence of  the human  beings.


   References

Huntington, Samuel P. (2004). Who Are We? The Challenges to American National Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster publisher, p 189.

Gessler R (1998). The LanguageLearningCenter – Spanish. 1998. Hispanic culture capsules. Roanoke, Va. Gessler Publishing Co., Inc. p 45

Noble, J. and LaCasa, J. (1991). The Hispanic way: Aspects of behavior, attitudes, and customs of the Spanish-speaking world. Chicago, Ill. Passport Books. p 45

Rodriguez, S. (1995.) Hispanics in the United States: An insight into group characteristics. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from

Http: //www/hhs.gov/about/heo/hgen.html

On May 31, 2010

Harrison D, Wodarski, J, and Thyer, S (2007)Cultural diversity and social work practice. Publisher C.C. Thomas, University of Michigan, p 234

Mish, F (1994) Webster’s Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary Springfield, Massachusetts, P 86

Figueredo D (2007) Latino chronology: chronologies of the American mosaic, Publisher Greenwood Publishing Group, p 11

Gonzales, S (2009) the Earliest Humans in the Americas: new evidence from Mexico, Journal of human evolution, 44, p 379-387.

Kanellos, N, Weaver, T, Fabregat, C (1994) Handbook of Hispanic Cultures in the United States: Anthropology, Volume 4, Publisher Arte Publico Press, p 123-32


Josphine Morgan is the Author of this paper. She is a senior academic writer and an editor and she offers buy custom thesis online. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and lack of confidence by visiting ModernGator.Com

Freedom Riders- 1961

 


Abstract

Freedom riders were civil rights lobbyists in who were residing in the southern United States and rode in interstate buses to test the decision of the United States Supreme Court on the Boynton v. Virginia case.  The Boynton ruling had outlawed racial segregation in public rest rooms and restaurants found at the termini of buses that crossed state lines in the United States. Interstate buses were fully segregated along racial lines such that the whites and African-American could not commute in the same bus. The Freedom Riders had set up their activities to challenge this status quo such that they traveled to the south via different buses including those specifically set aside for the whites. This was meant to provoke the local authorities who had enforced the segregation in public transport vehicles.


These rides were later on branded “freedom rides” and they provoked violent reactions as well leading to the arrest of most riders who were caught trespassing and violating the laws of the state. The activism of the Freedom Riders was considered as criminal especially after the establishment of violent activities. Later on in the rides they realized that the subsequent arrests were thwarting their goals hence they committed themselves to non-violent resistance; a strategy which was borrowed from Martin Luther King Jr. this strategy was equally successful because after a long struggle, the “white” and “colored” signs were pulled down from the interstate bus terminals such that people from all races were able to share the same rest rooms among other public facilities. 


 Discussion

Who were the Freedom Riders?

The Freedom Riders were a civil rights group which was organized in 1961 by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) leader James Farmer in the UnitedState of America. They were inspired by the 1947 Journey of Reconciliation which had taken place in 1947 under the stewardship of Bayard Rustin in conjunction with George Houser.  The first freedom ride was composed of thirteen black and white volunteers who were involved in the interstate traveling between Washington and New Orleans. These volunteers usually underwent three-day training on non-violent ways of stopping racial segregation. The ride from Washington to New Orleans was a move towards establishing equal traveling rights among the whites and minority blacks. The segregation of blacks sitting at the back and whites in front of public vehicles generated the first spark towards the establishment of Freedom Riders (CORE, 2010).


 The strategy used to challenge the local authority laws was to include an interracial pair in adjoining seats while a black rider sat in the font seats usually reserved for whites. The other members of the crew sat all over the bus regardless of their race. Only one rider followed the segregation ideals to avoid arrest so that incase of the others being arrested, this rider would inform the relevant authorities and arrange for bailing of the rest. In the first few days of the ride, minimal hostility was directed towards the riders but as the journey continued, they were severely beaten and one of the buses burnt. The arrests were occasionally triggered by involvement of the riders in violent protests and as the ride continued, their leaders sought for non-violent as a new strategy to reduce arrests. Consequently, after adoption of non-violence in addition to the resolute willingness of the Americans to achieve justice, the power of the strategy was exemplified in successful accomplishment of the rides (Bausum, 2006).


 Purpose of the Freedom Riders

One of the main reasons why the Freedom Riders were formed was to ensure that all human beings were treated equally regardless of their racial background. Discrimination against racial lines especially in the public buses such that those who sat at the wrong places were arrested was one of the items that led to the Freedom Rides. The Congress of Racial Equality was aiming at establishing harmonious utilization of buses such that the designations of whites only at the front and blacks would be eliminated (CORE, 2010).The authorities were quite aggressive in instilling these policies such that individuals who violated them were severely fined. This was seen as being liberal as there was no known disparity between the minority groups and the whites. The Freedom Riders wanted to ensure that everyone would be given equal chances be it in the rest rooms or buses without being branded as black or white.


This was exhibited in the first ride when whites and blacks sat on any section of the bus regardless of their racial ethnicity. They also intermingled during the ride as well as freely moving in the bus other than being restricted to only one area of the bus (Arsenault, 2007).Other than the need to eliminate racial discrimination, the freedom rides were led by the urge to reduce hatred between the white Americans and their minority counterparts. This hatred was intense such that the whites considered the position of blacks as being inferior and they would never share the same facilities nor would they interact. As a way of minimizing this hatred the interactions in the freedom buses were intensified to show the entire world that all human beings were equal (Curthoys, 2002).


The outcome of Freedom Rides

In the summer of 1961, the US president J.F. Kennedy condemned the Riders for their activities branding it as an embarrassment to the nation. He called for a “cooling off period” such that the riders would take a brake from their activism but the Riders organized intense campaigns against other forms of discrimination which were present in major sectors of the industry. This resulted into greater changes in large companies which had previously segregated their businesses as they feared a breakdown of business operations due to violence initiated by the Riders. At some point during the rides they entered a hotel which was designated for whites only and the owner opted to close down the place rather than serve them (Arsenault, 2007).


A major breakthrough in the struggle occurred in September 1961 when the interstate attorney general bowed to the pressure and passengers were allowed to sit anywhere they deemed favorable for their convenience in the interstate buses and trains. This led to the removal of signs which were previously used to designate various sections of public facilities. Rest rooms were consolidated and restaurants could serve people without having to enquire about their racial background (Arsenault, 2007).Consequently, the Freedom Rides increased the participation of whites and blacks in engaging in civil rights campaigns. Previously most of the people were afraid and they would not protest against any law which oppressed them but after the Freedom Rides they were given a stepping stone (CORE, 2010).


 References

Arsenault, R. (2007), Freedom Riders: 1961 and the struggles for racial justice (Pivotal                 moments in American history). OxfordUniversity Press

Bausum, A. (2006), Freedom Riders Lewis J. and Zwerg  J. on the frontlines of the civil               rights movement; National Geographic Society

CORE, (2010), the Freedom Rides. Retrieved from; http://www.core-        online.org/history/freedom%20rides.htm

Couthoys, A. (2002), Freedom Ride: A Freedom Rider remembers. Allen and Unwin        Publishers.


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