Category: Essay Writing Tips
HARVARD WRITING STYLE
HARVARD WRITING STYLE
The Harvard style is also known as the parenthetical or author-date-system. This style is commonly used by essay writers to write academic or non-academic papers and its origin is the HarvardUniversity. Normally, the new Times Roman font style is used together with size 12 as the font
The title page is usually on the first page with details such as the writers name the instructor’s name, the date and name of the course name. When quoting a citation, a writer must include the authors name and year the book was published. All works that have been cited or quoted while writing the text must be followed with a citation.
After typing the essay/text the writer must prepare a bibliography where all the citations and quotations are listed in an alphabetical order. The bibliography follows the following order (Writers last name, first name, year of publication, title-which is italicized or underlined, Name of publisher and place of publication.)
The Harvard style of writing uses a standard size paper of the best quality. When typing a uniform margin should be left all around from the four edges of the paper. The space between sentences should be double.
A Harvard style of writing should have an introduction page which should include a brief statement of the essay placed on the right hand side. As well as all the information on that page.
The brief statement should be all in the upper case and should be some few inches from the top edge of the page
All the subsequent pages should have a brief introduction statement on the left hand side as well as the page label in numbers order.
There are three levels on the first page. The first level includes the name of the writer. The second level includes the topic of discussion which gives the light of the papers content. The third level includes the theses of the essay where the writer gives a brief statement of the study.
When writing the references the writer must use the name of the author and date of publication of the source.
The page that follows the first page is the introduction page. In this page the reader gets an overview of the essay content.
When writing sources of information in the text one should indicate the author’s name and the year of publishing the source.
All sources used in the writing of the paper must be listed at the last page of the paper.
CHICAGO WRITING STYLE (also known as Turabian)
CHICAGO WRITING STYLE (also known as Turabian)
The Chicago (Turabian) style requires all texts to be justified to the left but the justification on the right side is not defined. The spacing between words is also very minimal and the usage of hyphen to break a word at the end of a line is minimally used and should not occur on two consecutive lines.
Common abbreviations should be used. However, abbreviations to denote dimensions e.g. miles are not use, in case you use abbreviations that have two periods e.g. “U.N.” do not space after the first period
Chicago style uses two main types of capitalization. Sentence-style capitalization is used for capitalizing only the first word of a sentence, a proper pronoun and a word after a colon. Headline-style capitalization requires one to capitalize all words except articles, conjunctions and certain prepositions.
The style also allows for two formats of writing the date (day month year) like 15 February 2011 or (month day year) e.g. February 15 2011.The style that an author chooses should be consistent throughout the text
Font and margin
The font preferred in the Chicago style is the New Times Roman with size 10-12 as the font size. The indentations of paragraphs should occur within the main text, at least one half inch or 5-8 spaces from the left margin, the same amount of indentation should be maintained throughout the text. A one inch margin is also use all round the text unless the paper is bound on the left margin which then requires that a wide margin is left.
The Chicago style spells out all the numbers up to 100 and does not write them numerically except for numbers that start a sentence, decimal numbers, and percentages. However for numbers above 100, numerals are used. If numbering the pages, except the pages that are leading to the main text e.g. dedication and table of contents, every other page is numbered with Arabic numerals. Display pages (copyright, dedication, table of contents etc) should be numbered in lower case numerals
Double spacing is used to type the text throughout. However, headings captions, footnotes, endnotes and block quotation can be typed in single space. All writing on the title page must be in uppercase and centered.
APA WRITING STYLE
APA WRITING STYLE
APA stands for the American Psychological Association commonly applied in science written works like criminology, medical field etc. The style dictates that the name of the author comes last followed by initials. Generally, the work should be typed on double space with a 1 inch margin all round the page. The New Times Roman style should be used unless instructed otherwise, make a header at the top of each page.
In APA an essay will have four main segments The Title page, Abstract, Main body and reference.
The Title page contains the title of the text, name of the author and institution to which the author is affiliated to. The title, typed in the lower and upper case are centered on the top half of the first page and it should not be beyond twelve words and must not have abbreviation just after the title, the authors’ name follows begin with the first name then the middle name and finally the last name. Titles that the author holds are not included. Below the authors’ name, type the name of the institution to which the author is affiliated to. it should indicate the location of research.
Begin the abstract on another page and insert a header. Centre the words ‘Abstract’ without italicizing it, writing in bold, inserting quotation marks or formatting it in any way.
Without indenting, proceed to the second line and type a summarized version of the research with the steps that you have followed to come up with the research from the research topic, the questions, how data collection was done the analysis of the data interpretation ,recommendations and conclusion. All this should be in one paragraph with not more that 250 words. Keywords (that will enable other researchers to find your work in the data base) of your research are noted at the abstract. Italicize the ‘keywords’ and list them down.
On a new page proceed to type the main body in double space. While writing avoid language that may be deemed as biased with reference to race, gender, religion etc.
After the main body, type the reference on a new page with a centered title ‘Reference’. The reference list is listed on the last page of the essay or research and is used by the reader to find important information regarding the quotes and cites you used in the paper. The references quoted therefore, should also have been used in the paper.The entries should be made using the hanging indentation where the lines following the first line of each line are indented. While writing the writers names, the surname comes first then the initial follows for all other authors up to the seventh author. If the authors are above seven, write down the first six names and insert eclipses then list the last authors name.The references should be written in the alphabetical order and in situations where the titles are long, they should be italicized. However, shorter titles like in journals should not be italicized, underlined or put in quotes.
MacNeil,G ., Kosberg,J., Daniel W. .,& Dooley, K et al.(2010).Caregiver Mental Health and Potentially Harmful Caregiving Behavior: The Central Role of Caregiver Anger.
The authors analyze the effect of mental health and behaviors on aging. The authors argue that the caregivers can affect elderly people in different ways. For example, care givers stress and mental problems lead to abusive acts against the elderly people. This in turn affects the quality of care offered to the patients. The main aim of the study was to determine the effect of mental health and behaviors on aging. The study analyzed the potential of anger to relate depression, resentment and anxiety with potential harmful behaviors. The hypothesis was to determine if mental health and behaviors of caregivers affect the elderly people being given care. The authors also tested whether mental health and behavior do not affect the elderly. The results from the study showed that anger was found to determine the relationship between anxiety and potential harmful behavior. Increase in anger among care givers increases the amount of depression and resentment and this in turn affects aging among elderly people. The rate of aging is determined by the kind of food one eats and physical health. The study will help understand how mental health and behavior affect aging. The researchers used a total of 147 caregivers from the community. The caregivers were providing care to elderly people .Then the researchers collected data using face to face interviews (MacNeil, Kosberg, Daniel & Dooley, 2010).
Mahoney, R., Regan, C., Katonah, C., & Livingston, G. (2005). Anxiety and depression in family caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s disease — The LASER-AD study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13, 795–801.
Anxiety and depression among family care givers of people having Alzheimer disease affect aging. Most of the care givers either family members or relatives and are depressed. This makes it difficulty to provide quality care to the elderly people. The authors argue that there are high rates of stress and mental illness among family caregivers. This makes it difficulty for the care givers to take care of people having dementias. Dementia is a major cause of aging. This is because it destroys brain cells and makes it difficulty for the brain to function well. Several processes in the brain are affected like memory. Studies have shown that people having dementia are more likely to get old quickly if they are not provided with the right care. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence of anxiety and depression among care givers of people having dementia and its effects on aging. The hypothesis was to determine the effect of anxiety and stress among caregivers of patients having dementia and its relation to aging. The study also tested the effects of caregivers who did not have dementia and its effects on the patients having dementia and aging. The researcher used a total of 153 patients having dementia and their caregivers. The participants were interviewed to collect data. The results from the study showed that 23.5% and 10.5% of the care givers had high levels of anxiety and depression respectively. This in turn accelerated aging in people having dementia as they did not get quality care. The researcher concluded that the doctors should check if family caregivers have depression or not. This will enable the care givers to provide quality care. The content will help understand how dementia leads to aging. It will also help understand how mental health leads to aging. The source is credible as the author has organized the content well and also the content is valid(Mahoney, Regan, Katonah & Livingston, 2005).
Miller, L. S., Lewis, M. S., Williamson, G. M., Lance, C. E., Dooley, W. K., Schulz, R., et al. (2006). Caregiver cognitive status and potentially harmful caregiver behavior. Aging and Mental Health, 10, 125–133
The author analyzes the effect of caregiver cognitive conditions and potentially harmful behaviors on the elderly. He also analyzes how the cognitive status of the caregivers leads to potentially harmful behaviors and affects mental health and hence aging. The researcher used a total of 180 caregivers providing service to elderly people. The results from the study showed that 39% of the caregivers had cognitive conditions and they affected mental health and aging. The other percentage did not have cognitive status and this did not affect mental health and aging. The amount of care given to elderly people determines the mental healthy and aging. Some of the elderly people who get quality care live a good life and this reduces the rate of aging. This is because the patients get good diet and exercise and support. This source help one understand the effect of cognitive status on mental health and aging. The source is credible as it has strong points (Miller,Lewis,Williamson, Lance, Dooley, Schulz, 2006).
Shaffer, D. R., Dooley, W. K., & Williamson, G. M. (2007). Endorsement of proactively aggressive care giving strategies moderates the relation between caregiver mental health and potentially harmful caregiver behavior. Psychology and Aging, 22, 494–504
The author analyzes strategies that can be used to moderate the relationship between care giver mental health and potentially harmful behavior. Potentially harmful behaviors have had negative effects on elderly people. They have increased the rate of aging .This will help reduce the rate of aging among elderly people as they will get quality care. The hypothesis was to determine if use of proactively aggressive Caregiving strategies could help improve mental outcome among the care givers and reduce the rate of aging and vice versa. The researchers used a total of 417 informal caregivers. The use of the proactively aggressive strategies improved the mental health outcome. This is according to the results from the research. The source is credible as it has relevant information. The argument presented by the author is strong( Shaffer, Dooley & Williamson, 2007).
Dubai Land Case Study
Dubai Land Case Study
Dubai land is an entertainment complex that is developed in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The project is owned by Tatweer. Tatweer is a member company and a subsidiary of Dubai holding. Dubai holding is a company that was established by the government of Dubai to manage government’s assets and investment. Tatweer is mainly was mainly established to manage and develop a group of Dubai holding’s companies and projects .For example, the company manages projects in health care sector, tourism, sector and energy sector. It also manages companies in entertainment and industrial sector. The project was announced in 2003 and it was considered one of the best leisure projects to have ever been proposed in the world. The project has not been successful since it was started. For example, the project has been affected by global recession. It has also been affected by the financial crisis in the country. The project will be the largest entertainment complex in the world. The project has contributed a lot to tourism industry. This paper analyzes the Dubai land project. It analyzes the financial information, what has made it difficulty to complete the project and the investors. It also analyzes arguments from different people and interest groups about the Dubai land project.
Establishment of Dubai land project and major components
The Dubai land project was officially announced on 23rd October 2003.The project is required to have an area of 278 km2. The project consists of 45 mega projects and 200 sub projects. Only 22 projects are being developed. The other projects have not been started. The Dubailanmd is divided into various zones. For instance, the Dubai land consists of attraction and experience zone. It also has a sports and outdoor zone and ecotourism zone (Smith 2009). Moreover, the Dubai land has a themed leisure and vacation world and retail and entertainment world. Lastly, it has a downtown world. Most of the zones like attractions and experience world and ecotourism world will benefit the tourism industry a lot when completed.
The zones will increase the number of tourists in the country as there will be more attraction sites and leisure sites. The Dubailanmd project is estimated to be twice the size of Walt Disney world resort. It is also considered one of the largest collections of theme parks in the world. However, there is no any theme park in Dubailanmd that will be better than Disney animal kingdom. The Disney animal kingdom is situated at Walt Disney world resort. The Disney animal kingdom is the largest theme park in the world. The Dubai land project has seven themes. That is theme parks, culture and art. Other themes include science and planetariums and sports and sports academies. In addition, the Dubai land consists of wellbeing and health and shopping and retail theme. Lastly, it consists of resorts and hotels (Smith 2009)..
The culture and art theme will be divided into different sections. For example, the culture and art theme will have Falcon City of Wonders and Islamic Culture & Science sections. It will also have the World Taaleem Beacon Education and Al Sahara Desert Resort sections. The sections will play different roles in the tourism and hospitality industry. The culture and art area will enable people of different age groups to enjoy the local culture. It will also help reveal the importance of the Arabic past and future. The falcon city of wonders section will consists of the famous sites in UAE and major landmarks in the world. For instance, tourists will be able to view the Eiffel tower and the TajMahal. They will also be able to view the pyramids and other sites in the country. The Falcon city will make it easy for tourists to view the features without visiting the countries the features are located. In addition, the falcon city will have a theme park that is based on pharaoh. The theme park will have the most frightening white knuckle rides in the world (Oxford business group 2008).
Another section is Islamic culture and science world. The Islamic culture and science world section is aimed at providing state of art facilities. This will help promote space research and natural and human science. Additionally, the section will educate tourists and other people on the history of Muslims and also explain their way of life. This area will have a world museum that consists of scientific materials like artifacts and factual information. Also, the area will have a 3d theater with an indoor exhibition center. The center will have an outdoor area for under the stars exhibition. This will help improve exhibition and allow people to watch and learn all about the specific things being discussed. Lastly, the center of the science world will have a top class hotel that will offer world class services. This will in turn improve the hospitality industry by increasing the number of tourists (Oxford business group 2008).
Further, the Taaleem beacon education section will house a school system. This will make it easy to provide education to people living in the residential areas near Dubai land. Lastly, the Al Sahara desert resort will be developed in 40 million squared feet of Dubailanmd. The Al Sahara desert resort will be a world class laser light show. The show will be seen by different people in the world using the world class pyrotechnics. The Al Sahara desert resort will be set in amphithrfedater that will be designed as an Arab settlement. The theater will accommodate 1200 people. It will also have VIP areas that will host 6 guests in different areas and allow them to enjoy. The area will also have world class restaurants and lounges like Arabesque lounge, Lahab lounge and king othamans lounge. Also, it will have an event stage which will allow patrons to watch top class shows (Oxford business group 2008).
The hotel and resort themes consist of two different areas. That is the Al Sahara kingdom and the city of Arabia. The Al Sahara kingdom is based on the legendary tales of 1001 nights. The Al Sahara kingdom combines adventures, beauty and excitement with more than 1001 different tales from different parts of the world. The Sahara kingdom will offer a wide range of world class facilities. In addition, around, the Sahara kingdom, there will be an integrated resort hotel that will be based on the diffident themes. The city of Arabia section is considered to be the entrance to Dubai land. The city of Arabia consists of restless planet park (Cooper 2008).
Though the project consists of different sections, only three are open. That is the Dubai motor city, Al Sahara desert resort and global village. The Dubai motor city is property development in Dubai, united Arabs emirates. The Dubai motor city is developed by the union properties company in united Arabs emirates. The development of the Dubai motor city is based on a motor sport theme. It includes residential units and business towers. It also has motor sports facilities, retail facilities and a theme park (Cooper 2008).
The main components of the Dubai motor city include Dubai autodrolme. The Dubai aujtodrfome is a certified tract that was opened in October 2004. Another component is the Uptown motor city. This is a low rise residential apartment area that consists of recreational areas and parks. The green community motor city is another component. It is a residential development that consists of family villas and other facilities. Other comments are business park motor city and the F1-X Dubai. Only the Dubai autodrolme has been completed. Most of the components under the Dubai motor city have been affected by the financial crisis. This has made it difficulty to complete the components. The components were supposed to be finished in 2009 (Cooper 2008).
The global village is situated in Dubailanmd. It is considered the largest tourism, leisure and entertainment project in the world. Global village has attracts more than four million people per year. This is because of the wide range of facilities in the area. The global village consists of diverse cultures, art, theater and cuisine. The construction of the global village project started in 2003.The project is at the final phase and it’s expected to be complete by 2011 (Rehman 2007).
The Dubai government has decided to diversify the economy from oil based economy to service and tourism based economy. The diversification has led to real estate development and other developments. For instance, it has led to development of Dubai land project (Bennett 2008). The diversification has led to high number of investors in the country. Most investors invest in countries that stable governance, economic growth and high profits. Dubai has not been able to attract investors due to the financial crisis and global crisis. Investors from different parts of the world have invested on the Dubai land project. For instance, the United Arabs emirates and GCC have helped in the construction of various projects. For example, the united Arabs emirates has helped in the construction of the falcon city and other components (Dave 2006).
The current economic and financial crisis in the country has made it difficulty for investors to invest in the Dubai land project. Most investors are not assured of financial stability in the industry. This has led to slow construction of the project. The government has developed strategies to boost the confidence of international investors. This will in turn lead to high rate of investment in the country. For example, investors will be able to invest in the Dubai land project. This will make it easy to complete the project by 2015 (Oxford business group 2007).
Dubailanmd financial information
The government has exceeded the $4.9 billion private invested figure as it has collected almost $6 billion from the private sector. The total cost for the project was estimated at $64 billion. The amount has been distributed accordingly so as to ensure the project was completed (Hellyer &Ibrahikm 2004).
.Factors that have affected the Dubailanmd project
There are various factors that have affected the completion of the Dubailanmd project. For example, the global crisis has affected. Other factors include conflict of interest and financial crisis in the country. The managers claim that the Dubai land project has not been affected by the cost of infrastructure (Clav’e 2007). This is because they keep a buffer to avoid increase in price and ensure the project is progressing well. In addition, the managers argue that there is no shortage of labor and materials. This is because the managers analyze contracts well, before awarding contracts. For instance, they look at the cost of material. Though the managers claim that the project has not been affected by the high cost of materials and labor, it has been affected. Like other projects, the project has been adversely affected by the high costs. The Dubai land project has been affected by increase in construction costs and labor costs. This has led to shortage of construction materials and also workers and hence affected the project (Books Lic 2010).
Further, the project has been affected by the global recessions. Many countries are still recovering from the effects of global recession. The global recession affected economic growth in many countries like Dubai. Most studies have shown that the economic crisis in the country has affected various leisure projects in the country including the Dubai land project. The economic crisis in the country has forced managers to post phone some of the projects (Ball 2007). It has also delayed the completion of some of the projects. It has also affected some of the projects and made it difficulty to build the projects at all. For instance, the global crisis has affected the development of some of the projects in the Dubai motor city. Most of the development projects under the Dubai city motors were supposed to be completed in 2009 (Noack &Betriebswirt 2007).In February 2009; the Union properties announced that the FI-X theme park would not be completed in 2009.
The managers put on hold the construction of the F1-X theme park. This in turn delayed the construction of the F1-X theme park by one year because of the global financial crisis. Also, they postponed the construction of the F1-X theme park because of difficulties in obtaining credit. In addition, the Uptown motor city was also affected as the construction process was slow. This delayed the completion of the project (Page 2009).
In addition, the conflict of interest among diffident groups has affected the completion of the Dubai land project. Different groups implementing the projects have different views. This has made it difficulty to complete the project on time. Conflict of interests has affected decision making and hence the construction of the project (Dunston &Carter 2004).
Arguments from various groups’ about Dubai land project
Various groups have different arguments about the Dubailanmd project. For instance, the government, communities, environmentalists and interest groups have different views about the project. Some think the project will not be successful. Others think the project will be successful and of importance to the residents. The government has supported the completion of the Dubai land project as it important to the country (Christensen 2010). The government argues that the Dubailanmd project will help enhance economic growth in the country. This is because the project has a wide range of tourist attraction facilities and sites. This will help attract tourists in the country and increase the Gross domestic profit. In addition, the government thinks that the Dubai land project is a major boost to the hospitality industry. This is because the Dubai land project will help improve provision of services in the hospitality industry by providing world class facilities like hotels and lounges. Hence, help increase profits in the hospitality industry and enhance growth. The government has established measures to ensure the project is not affected adversely by the current economic crisis in the country. It has also developed strategies to attract more investors (World Bank 2007).
Apart from the government, interest groups have different opinions about the Dubai land project. Some of the interest groups in the country think the project is important and support the implementation of the projects (Inc Icon Group International 2008). Other groups think the Dubai land project will never be completed. This is because the project has been affected by the current financial crisis in the country. It has also been affected by conflict of interest. Hence, the project might take long to be completed (Russel 2008). The project is supposed to be completed by 2015, but most of the projects and sub projects have not been started. Most people in the community have supported the development of the Dubailanmd project as it has a lot of benefits. For instance, they argue that the project will lead to economic growth in the country. Most of the environmentalists have criticized the development of the Dubai land project. Some claim that the Dubai land project will lead to destruction of forests and land and affect wild animals. Others think the Dubai land project will lead to conservation of tourist’s sites. Hence, this will enhance the environment (Smith &Marvell 2005).
Though, the Dubai land project is costly, it has a lot of benefits. First, the Dubai land project has numerous tourist attraction sites and facilities. The project is divided into numerous projects that have tourist attraction features. For example, the theme parks. Most of the projects and sub projects are not complete. Only three of the projects are complete. The projects have attracted more than 4 million tourists annually. This has led to increase in profits in the tourism industry. The completion of the Dubai land project will lead to growth of the hospitality industry. It will increase the number of tourists in the country due to world class facilities that are available. It will also lead to economic growth. The project has been affected by various factors. For example, the project has been affected by the financial crisis in the country. It has also been affected by global recession and conflict of interest. Also, different views held by different groups in the country have affected the project. The factors have slowed the construction of the project. Most of the projects have been postponed.
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Academic Writing Tips
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