Category: Education

 

A Constructivist Approach

A Constructivist Approach


People have different abilities and levels of understanding. This is the same way in a classroom in that students are different in their abilities and understanding. Using a constructivist approach in teaching means that the teacher advocates for learning models on the basis that in a classroom, students are required to have a construction of their individual knowledge and understanding. During the process of learning, students engage in revision of their prior learning and thus basing their leaning on experience that is new.


Discussion
In teaching and learning, all the different learning needs of different students should be put into consideration. With this, there will be the creation of an environment that is governed by learning that is relevant. This is because the teacher chooses the mode of teaching based on the understanding of their students. As cited by Sunal & Haas (2008), constructivist approach to teaching helps students who are diverse to construct concepts and skills of social studies. It is evident that constructivist approach encourages creative learning. This is because since the students’ needs are considered, the teacher is able to know the different talents and skills that their students have and hence help them nurture them through creativity and innovation.


Through constructivist approach, the students are taught on how to solve problems in the real world by focusing on realistic approaches. In this social world, people are faced by many problems. Therefore, with the diversities that students have, with this kind of approach to teaching, they are able to create solutions to the real problems in the social world (Sunal & Haas, 2008). In relation to this, the learners are able to make interpretations of the world’s and society’s multiple perspectives. This is because constructivism approach equips learners with the knowledge that they internalize rather than one which is imposed on them. With this internal knowledge, the learners will grow up being skilled people to deal with matters of the society and the entire world.


There are different ways in which constructivist approach can be applied in classroom and instruction. If the teacher creates a culture of participation of all students, their diverse needs will be observed and thus helped to construct their skills. When they actively participate in the teaching process, learners will internalize more information. Learner participation also creates a sense of belonging and thus the learners will feel free to express themselves enabling the teacher to know areas that need improvement and how to deal with them. Learners should also be encouraged to learn from each other. They will tend to understand in a better way if they learn from their peers. With discussions with their peers, there is collaborative knowledge construction which is gained by means of social negotiations.As a teacher, one should also frequently evaluate their learners. Evaluation is always a tool for self evaluation. It is through evaluation that the teacher is able to know how well their learners can construct the required skills in social studies. With these evaluations, the teacher gets to know their learners better and know the areas that are not well understood. Therefore, the teacher will approach their teaching based on information.


Conclusion
Constructivist approach to teaching is very important in the modern world. It helps to create a people who can freely exercise their skills and thus lead to creativity and innovation.


 References

Sunal, C. S., & Haas, M. E. (2008). Social studies for the elementary and middle grades: A constructivist approach. 3rd Ed. Boston: Pearson Education publishers.


 

Role Of Hypothesis Testing

Role Of Hypothesis Testing


            Hypothesis testing is a procedure which results to making decisions that are rational. These are decisions which are made on the basis of reality about events. In hypothesis testing, there are various possibilities from which one alternative is selected. When one alternative is taken, it implies making decisions that are rational. Therefore, testing of hypothesis is essential since it gives guidelines towards solving or making good understandings of the problem. When the hypothesis is tested, one has strong basis of either to accept or reject the null hypothesis.


 Discussion

            In hypothesis testing, one first states the question of research which is also the initial claim. In the article, the research was based on how symptoms of depression and their diagnosis were related to high costs. It has been cited that depression diagnosis is costly and the failure to diagnose it can lead to the raising of costs in the laboratory. That is why according to Callahan et al. (2002), there is need for study so as to be able to diagnose depression even at early times when it shows a few symptoms. When dealing with depression, decisions have to be made on the severity of the conditions. These include those cases that the clinicians can treat and those that need to be referred for further treatment and monitoring. These are decisions that may have both health and financial consequences on health care provision.


          The next step is to state the hypothesis. According to Callahan et al. (2002), in diagnosis of depression, there exist charge differences due to the severity of the conditions i.e. whether symptoms are present or absent. It is also these symptoms that are used to determine the type and magnitude of health care that is offered for example, whether it is special care, hospitalization. The type and magnitude of care is proportional to the charges that are used. Therefore, from these we can say that the null hypothesis here is that the diagnosis and symptoms of depression are associated to higher costs. We can thus form an alternative hypothesis that the diagnosis and symptoms of depression are not associated with higher costs. When the hypothesis is stated, one has to write all information that is related to the problem being discussed.


In the study, depression symptoms and its diagnosis by physicians were studied in relation to medical charges. Just like any other aspect that needs health care attention, depression; its symptoms and diagnosis have influences on the health care process. Depression diagnosis was related to the higher primary care and it also contributed to the prediction of the primary care magnitude as well as the total charges. According to the research, there is a clear relationship between charges for primary care as well as the total charges and depression. However, it is not clear how depression associates with the charges that occur less frequently. In addition there are other factors that relate greatly to the health care charges. For instance, the age of the patient also determined the type of care they would get for example emergency care, hospitalization, special care. It is the status of ones health that can be used to predict greatly the charges magnitude. Therefore, to know how depression impacts on charges, these other factors should also be put into consideration.


 In hypothesis testing, the critical value is then found and the test statistic computed. In researching on the association of depression and care charges, different methods were used. These are the medical outcomes study short form-36 which was used for assessment of health status, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BID) which was used for symptoms of depression. Depression diagnosis was done by the use of chart audit while care charges were determined electronically. By computing the test statistic, it showed that depression symptoms and diagnosis were relates to care charges. There were also statistical models build up for the identification of predictors of the charges magnitude as well as occurrence. However, both symptoms and depression diagnosis did not predict the charges occurrence but a prediction of total charges and primary care was done by depression diagnosis.After computing the test statistic, one has to decide if to reject or accept the null hypothesis. From the statistics, it shows that the symptoms of depression and the diagnosis of depression are associated with care charges. Therefore, we can accept the null hypothesis.


 Conclusion

            The last step in hypothesis testing is making conclusions. We can conclude that though complex, there exists a relationship between the three factors being discussed. These are depression diagnosis, symptoms of depression and the medical care charges. Therefore, it is helpful to physicians who offer primary care in the diagnosis of depression. It thus would help them make more effective primary health care delivery to the depressed people and at the same time manage the expenditures of health care. Since depression is a mental problem of health, it can be identified and solved by other simple interventions. For example, if the physician offering primary care is trained in communication skills, they can be able to communicate well with the depressed persons and hence greatly help in solving the problem.


 References

Callahan et al. (2002). Association of higher costs with symptoms and diagnosis of depression. Journal of Family Practice 51(6), 540–544.       


 

Role Of Hypothesis Testing

Role Of Hypothesis Testing


Hypothesis testing is a procedure which results to making decisions that are rational. These are decisions which are made on the basis of reality about events. In hypothesis testing, there are various possibilities from which one alternative is selected. When one alternative is taken, it implies making decisions that are rational. Therefore, testing of hypothesis is essential since it gives guidelines towards solving or making good understandings of the problem. When the hypothesis is tested, one has strong basis of either to accept or reject the null hypothesis.


Discussion
In hypothesis testing, one first states the question of research which is also the initial claim. In the article, the research was based on how symptoms of depression and their diagnosis were related to high costs. It has been cited that depression diagnosis is costly and the failure to diagnose it can lead to the raising of costs in the laboratory. That is why according to Callahan et al. (2002), there is need for study so as to be able to diagnose depression even at early times when it shows a few symptoms. When dealing with depression, decisions have to be made on the severity of the conditions. These include those cases that the clinicians can treat and those that need to be referred for further treatment and monitoring. These are decisions that may have both health and financial consequences on health care provision.
The next step is to state the hypothesis.


According to Callahan et al. (2002), in diagnosis of depression, there exist charge differences due to the severity of the conditions i.e. whether symptoms are present or absent. It is also these symptoms that are used to determine the type and magnitude of health care that is offered for example, whether it is special care, hospitalization. The type and magnitude of care is proportional to the charges that are used. Therefore, from these we can say that the null hypothesis here is that the diagnosis and symptoms of depression are associated to higher costs. We can thus form an alternative hypothesis that the diagnosis and symptoms of depression are not associated with higher costs.hen the hypothesis is stated, one has to write all information that is related to the problem being discussed. In the study, depression symptoms and its diagnosis by physicians were studied in relation to medical charges. Just like any other aspect that needs health care attention, depression; its symptoms and diagnosis have influences on the health care process.


Depression diagnosis was related to the higher primary care and it also contributed to the prediction of the primary care magnitude as well as the total charges. According to the research, there is a clear relationship between charges for primary care as well as the total charges and depression. However, it is not clear how depression associates with the charges that occur less frequently. In addition there are other factors that relate greatly to the health care charges. For instance, the age of the patient also determined the type of care they would get for example emergency care, hospitalization, special care. It is the status of ones health that can be used to predict greatly the charges magnitude. Therefore, to know how depression impacts on charges, these other factors should also be put into consideration.In hypothesis testing, the critical value is then found and the test statistic computed. In researching on the association of depression and care charges, different methods were used.


These are the medical outcomes study short form-36 which was used for assessment of health status, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BID) which was used for symptoms of depression. Depression diagnosis was done by the use of chart audit while care charges were determined electronically. By computing the test statistic, it showed that depression symptoms and diagnosis were relates to care charges. There were also statistical models build up for the identification of predictors of the charges magnitude as well as occurrence. However, both symptoms and depression diagnosis did not predict the charges occurrence but a prediction of total charges and primary care was done by depression diagnosis.After computing the test statistic, one has to decide if to reject or accept the null hypothesis. From the statistics, it shows that the symptoms of depression and the diagnosis of depression are associated with care charges. Therefore, we can accept the null hypothesis.


Conclusion
The last step in hypothesis testing is making conclusions. We can conclude that though complex, there exists a relationship between the three factors being discussed. These are depression diagnosis, symptoms of depression and the medical care charges. Therefore, it is helpful to physicians who offer primary care in the diagnosis of depression. It thus would help them make more effective primary health care delivery to the depressed people and at the same time manage the expenditures of health care. Since depression is a mental problem of health, it can be identified and solved by other simple interventions. For example, if the physician offering primary care is trained in communication skills, they can be able to communicate well with the depressed persons and hence greatly help in solving the problem.


 

References
Callahan et al. (2002). Association of higher costs with symptoms and diagnosis of depression. Journal of Family Practice 51(6), 540–544.


 

Differentiating Instruction

Differentiating Instruction


     Students within a classroom have different needs, experiences and ability. In such a mixed ability classroom, differentiation allows a teacher to formulate different set of instruction which will suit the needs of different categories of students. Planning to differentiate instruction in a mixed ability class requires a teacher to first determine the outcome or goals of students learning/ the instruction. By setting goals, a teacher is able to have his/ her own expectations during delivering of the instructions and is able to gauge the success or failure of the instruction using these expectations. Also by having clear goals a teacher is able to design the instruction in a way that they meet the goals or intended outcome of the instructions. In addition, setting goals will enable a teacher to cover the intended amount of material as compared to when there are no goals. 


Failure to set goals means that the instruction will not have a benchmark to measure their performance with and can deviate from what the teacher had in mind. It will also fail to provide a basis through which students’ progress in the instruction process can be assessed. Apart from setting goals it is also important for a teacher to know and understand his/ her students. A teacher should survey his/ her students’ interests in order to understand the students’ learning preferences. Through the knowledge of each student’s interest the teacher will be able to develop better instructions. The teacher makes a connection between the students’ interests and what the students are required to learn by the curriculum. This will make it easier for such students to understand what is taught by the curriculum.  However the teacher should not water down the curriculum for the students and should ensure that the instructions are content based.


 References

Carol Ann (1999), The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners, USA, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1st Edition

Carol Ann (2001), How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms, USA, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2nd Edition


 

Teaching Methodologies

Teaching Methodologies


 

The amount of learning likely to occur

Expository is one of the teaching methodologies which are used in science sector. This type of teaching is where the teacher is the one to direct teaching and offer all what are required in the subject. Here the amount of learning which is likely to occur is slightly higher because students are able to know what they do not know. Actually this is one of the best methods of providing knowledge to students. Guided inquiry is another type of teaching which uses constructivist principle. Here the amount of learning that takes place is not bad because students are required to answer questions meaning that they will discover more in the course of solving their problems. When we come to free discovery, here the amount of learning which might take place is slightly lower as compared to other methods because the students explores by their own. It is out of free wish which is not effective to most students, (Martin, 2008).


 

The amount of prescribed science content likely to be learned

By the look of things, the above three methods of teaching are all effective only in relation to the subject matter of what is expected by the curriculum. In respect to science content the latter two that is the free discovery and guide inquiry are not effective. In this case the most effective method to be used is the expository where the teacher becomes part of teach thus showing students what need to be done so as to know more about their study. In most cases some say that guided inquiry yields better results but research has shown that expository is the best in relation to science matters, (Martin, 2008).


 

Reference:

Martin, D.J. (2008). Elementary science methods: a constructivist approach: Cengage        Learning


 

Epistemology in Modern Philosophy

Epistemology in Modern Philosophy


 The movement towards modern philosophy is attributed to the epistemology such that the philosophers had to adjust the previously held secular thoughts to include religion as a way of attaining solid theories in the acquisition of knowledge. For instances faith and belief have been closely linked to modern philosophy where the nature of knowledge theory in the element being learnt is based on religious beliefs (Steup, 2005).


 Philosophers who were present during the middle ages of philosophy were guided by ethics such that the core values and ideas on philosophy were varied to the extent of making the public believe that God was dead. However, in the concepts of politics, religion and science, one thing was common in that despite the differences in thoughts, past experiences played a great role in the theory of knowledge (Steup, 2005).


 One of the epistemological schools of thought is empiricism where the theory of knowledge is made more eminent in the learning experience. Similarly, observation and applications of the senses also play a key role in knowledge. Examples of modern philosophers in this school of thought are Russell Bertrand and Rudolf Carnap. Rationalism is the other major epistemology school of thought where the source of knowledge is mainly intellectual reasoning as the truth does not contribute much to the theory of knowledge. Similarly, the innate capacity of the individual plays a key role in knowledge as proposed by Immanuel Kant (Steup, 2005).


 Descartes viewpoint is based on the fact that thought exists and it pushes one to engage their conscious hence in the process they acquire knowledge. This viewpoint plays a significant role in the rationalism school of thought as the intellectual capacity of an individual is determined by the ability to reason doubts into facts. The methodological doubt as proposed by Descartes is aimed at disapproving the existence of the individual as with doubts on existence then the individual did not exist. The only doubts which human beings should harbor are based on activities that are caused by external forces which are beyond our capacity (Steup, 2005).


 The one thing which Descartes points out at the end of his doubting procedures which can be categorized as certain in everyday lives is the fate of contradicting statements. This is given by the standard that if one statement is false and the other one true in any complete sentence, then the entire statement becomes false. Similarly, the same sentence is true according to the theory of fallacies which was the basis of reasoning. Descartes brings a view of the world as a place inhabited by thinking things also known as human beings and the ability to make the world exists is based on how we allow our minds to function. In this aspect, we create and make the world exist through our minds or senses (Steup, 2005).


 Descartes contributed various significant items in the intellectual world such as in mathematics where he developed the Cartesian theory and logic. In medicine he established the functions of certain body organs. He is also credited as the father of analytical geometry in mathematics and in physics he developed the law of refraction. Descartes criticized hermeneutics and pragmatism as the truth in a statement could not be established by the fact that it was satisfactory. The philosopher had to work out on other attributes of the concept rather than rely of the results as the procedure could have been false hence resulting in false results (Steup, 2005).


 Reference

Steup, Matthias. “Knowledge and Skepticism”, Contemporary Debates in Epistemology, 1–13, 2005.


 

Moby Dick Thematic Review

Moby Dick Thematic Review


 The production of movies whose stories are based on literary pieces is a common occurrence and most movies have indeed been developed from famous literary pieces. Reading requires the reader’s own richness of imagination in order to make up visuals and imaginations that represent whatever is told throughout the story. The textual content is explicit and offers more details about events and characters. On the other hand, the viewing of movies implicitly presents whatever is written within any book due the limitations on time presented by designated film lengths which only allow the inclusion of some, but not all details of a book. As such the viewers are left to make their own in-depth conclusions on some presented aspects that may be briefly depicted by certain brief scenes within the whole movie. Therefore, in many cases the books explicitly express the thematic content of a piece of literary writing, whereas; the movies or films offer an implicit version of some of the content so as to avoid too a lot of details. This paper highlights this phenomenon by citing thematic differences between “Moby dick” the movie and “Moby dick” the book.


 

            Moby dick presents various themes including blasphemy, revenge, harbingers and superstition-among many others. The plot of the story revolves around a captain named Ahab that fervently seeks revenge on a whale that destroyed his ship and bit his leg off.  The act of seeking revenge against the whale forms one of the greatest themes of the novel. The theme dominates much of the plot and it highlights various aspects of the act of revenge such as its futility and drive. The theme is equally represented within the book and the novel, where finally the whale causes the death of the crew in both cases but in different ways. The theme of blasphemy in the novel is shown by Ahab’s act of thinking of himself as being equal to God (Michael, 24). The second depiction of blasphemy in the novel is portrayed by Ahab’s creation of an alliance between him and the devil. The author expresses this explicitly throughout the book in various episodes, such as when one of the crew members (Gabriel) warns Ahab about the end results of blasphemy.  


More thematic highlight on blasphemy is depicted by Ahab’s act of believing that he is omnipotent. The story has thematic variations in the manner in which it is presented within the movie in comparison to the book. Notably, there is a great change in the presentation of the theme of harbingers and superstition. Strong representation of the theme is depicted by various superstitions and harbingers that are detailed within the book and through various characters. The theme is weakly represented within the movie, and this can be exemplified by the total elimination of the character-Fedallah-a harpooner that is demonic. The elimination of the character as well as his superstitious predictions and dreams weakens the theme considerably. The theme of harbingers and superstition is greatly featured in the book, however; the directors may have decided to make it milder within the production of the movie so that other more important themes would stand out. Melville’s work also presents the whale not only as the main focus of the story but also as a symbol that represents unparallel greatness. This theme is extensively highlighted in the book through Melville’s narration about the whale.


Melville presents this theme through various approaches where he describes the superiority of the whale in various aspects including biology and history (Michael 43). Melville’s theme on the excellence of the whale helps in showing the futility of the task that Ahab is about to undertake. This representation of the Excellency of the whale is not greatly portrayed in the movie version of the same story. This is probably due to the fact that the producers chose to offer more time and effort to the representation of major themes such as revenge and blasphemy as an act of going against God and pursuing human desires in futility. The whale is not so much portrayed as a symbol of excellence within the movie as is the case in the book.


Another important theme portrayed throughout the story is race. Notably Moby dick has diverse characters and these include Native Americans, African tribesman and the sea islander from the south. The story’s protagonist in the novel shows an attitude of racial tolerance that surprisingly may not have been found at the time of the novel’s setting and even at the time of writing. Overt types of racisms are condemned by the novels tone. The non-white characters are however portrayed as funny depictions of their culture and they all are subordinate to the whites. There is however limited representation of blacks or freedmen in the novel besides Pip. Melville seemingly avoided commenting on any issues on slavery despite the fact that it was in practice during this same era. The movie version of the story does not offer any excessive focus on this theme, but rather chooses to hold it in a similar manner as portrayed by the author of the book.


 

            The contrast between pagan and civilized society is also portrayed throughout the whole book. The theme is strongly expressed in side by side comparisons of Ishmael and Queequeg. The two depict the uncivilized society and Christian civilized society. The comparisons and contrast are most ideal for the author, more especially with the case of Queeqeg. The theme is also used as an expression of learning about other cultures. This theme is weakly portrayed in the film version of the story and there is little highlight on the various cultural encounters. The futility in man’s endeavors and religion are also widely portrayed in Moby dick and these are some of the strongest themes. Religion is depicted by two conflicting elements-the belief in the devil and the church’s belief in one God. Ahab as a character seeking revenge takes the devil’s side alongside Fedallah-who does not appear in the film version of the story.


The quest of Ahab is portrayed as a negative approach on the revenge aspect. The character is extensively used as a portrayal of the evil nature of man’s desires and thinking. The theme of religion is perhaps the strongest themes presented within this work (Michael, 54). The theme of harbingers and superstition is also greatly used within the story, and there are various instances where there are cases of foretelling of events based on harbingers and superstitious believes. The characters within the story in the book make use of these two elements to express their faith and belief system. On the other hand, the film version of the story highlights less of this theme that is extensively included in the book’s version of the story. The general use of the two is also used as a representative element to show the types of different belief systems that existed during this period. The theme of duality also stands out all through the story. Melville tends to present much of his work, events and characters with equal or non-equal opposites. This can be evidenced by the characters that seem to be exact representation of each other’s opposites and the representation of religion and religious believes that exist in systems that are parallel to one another (Anon. npag).


             Generally, the novel and the movie do differ on various aspects of how they represent the various themes that present within the novel. Many themes do not come out strongly in the movie as they do in the book, probably because producers did not have the capability to fix all themes with an equal scale of weight. However, the major themes are maintained and represented with an almost equal weight as that presented within the book.


 Works Cited

Anonymous, Moby dick Themes, 2010, Web http://www.gradesaver.com/moby-dick/study-guide/major-themes/

Spring Michael, Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick, Barron’s Educational Series, 1984, Print


 

Shades of Green

Shades of Green


 The initial step in any recruiting and selection process is known as manpower planning. During the manpower planning activity, there are five major things which are vital in the success of the organization. The initial thing is to decide the positions in the process of forecasting and manpower planning. Having decided the positions, the next step is to recruit candidates either from internal or from external in respect to the qualifications that are required and description of the work. It reaches a point where candidates are required to complete some forms of applications and if it is possible they can be taken for a screening interview to see whether they do qualify for that position. Most organization fails in their planning simply because they do not follow the right steps in their employment method, (Gupta, 2001).


 How does an organization select best candidates to suit the job they have? The use of selection techniques is the only approach which is the best when selecting any candidate. This is to eliminate all those who do not have qualifications of that particular job. Some selection techniques such as exams or doing some investigations can be used to determine whether the candidate qualifies for the work. The last thing you need to do before employing any candidate is to decide who the best among those is had applied for that particular job. How is this done? With the help of the HR team group, you conduct an interview which will let you know exactly what the candidate knows about the job and if the person is smart for your work. The biggest challenge which faces the HR is to get employee from inside or hire from outside. The solution to this issue is only the requirements and job description of the work, (Seifert, 2003).  


 Reference:

Gupta, S. (2001). Career and Counseling Education: Gyan Books

Seifert, D. (2003). Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment: how to create   a supply chain advantage: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn


 

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