Category: Education

 

Training Programmers

 


 Training for new employees is important as it teaches employees how to navigate the firm’s structure. Also, employees learn how the company operates, and know where the company has come from. The new employees are informed how far the company is, and where it is heading. Training programme for new employees help employees know the values, and culture of the firm, and how to interact with various groups in the organization. Employees get opportunity to know more about the firms’ investments, and systems used in the firm. Training programs are important for existing employees as they help them improve their skills. The programme help employees adjust with the changing job requirements. This makes employees in the organization more productive. This is because employees learn how to use the skills acquired during training process, and this helps in improving employee productivity. It also helps motivate employees in the organization (Noe, 2004).


 It is important to include management roles in the training programs as it helps employees know more about the organization management. The employees know the roles performed by managers in the organization, and how they help improve productivity. The training program should include management roles like planning, control, and organizing. Decentralization of training programs causes a lot of difficulty for trainers. The trainer is seen as a facilitator, but not an instructor. Decentralization affects the productivity of the person providing training to the employees. This is because trainers do not have specific paths to follow, but work randomly. On job training is used in many organizations to provide effective training to employees in the organization.


In On job training a mentor trains the trainee in their workplace. It is cost effective as it focuses on the activity being carried out, and the company does not provide much to support the program. OJT does not disrupt employees during the training period as employees are trained from their work place. Employees get feedback from the supervisors immediately. This helps in improving productivity. One can employ web based training program using the technology in the organization. The trainer will structure the program to allow employees get training from the internet. Steps to guide the training program are provided on the web and employees follow the steps (Noe, 2004).


The position announcement should contain the title of the job, the salary, and the job description. Job description should be outlined in the announcement so as to help one understand the job well. One should refer to the position description of the retiring employee so as to know if the duties outlined in the new position are similar to the duties carried out by the retiring employee. The best strategy to use in the recruitment process is retention strategy. To ensure the recruitment process is diverse, one has to make the chance open for every one by advertising widely. Before recruitment one should discuss the current demographic representation, and recruitment goals.


This will help in diversifying the recruitment tool. One should not assume the minority during recruitment process, and internal employees should be given an opportunity to apply for the recruitment. To ensure each candidate is treated fairly, one should formulate the guidelines to be followed during the recruitment process. One should not choose the best candidate so as comply with the law. This is because the action might lead to lack of diversity in the recruitment process as minority groups are ignored. One should not ask questions about the applicants’ family. This is because the question is not related to the recruitment process, and it interferes with ones privacy. One should not ask an applicant questions concerning age, religion, disability, gender sexual preference and sexual preference. This is because the questions interfere with his privacy and also they do not encourage diversity (Noe, 2004).


 Reference

Noe, R. (2004).Fundamentals of human resource management


James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

Case Study

 


Background

Managerial problems are common in many organizations, and they stem from a range of hidden problems in the organization. These range from poor communication in the organization, poor training of employees on how to solve problems and recruit employees. In addition managerial problems in the organization occur as a result of lack of good management of the organization. Lack of clear communication in the organization affects the performance of employees, and productivity of the organization. This is because there is no clear communication between the employees and managers on important issues. Moreover, lack of clear Communication in the organization causes poor relationship between the employees, and managers. This is because employees and managers have conflict of interests. Another cause of managerial problems in the organization is poor training of employees. Organizations do not provide enough training to employees, and this affects the performance of new employees and existing employees.


Training for all employees in the organization is important as it makes employees aware of what is required in the organization, and also improves their performance. Lack of proper training for employees has affected the performance of employees in the organization. This has caused poor performance of the employees, and low productivity. Employees should be trained how to carry out important issues in the organization like recruiting, and training employees. Recruiting employees in the organization is important as it determines the kind of work force the organization will have. If employees in the organization do not have right skills to recruit new employees, the workforce in the organization will be affected, and also the performance. This is evidenced in the case study. Lack of clear management in the organization affects the performance of employees and managers. This is because the functions of management are not carried out well in the organization. The organization lacks clear planning, control, organization and leading. This affects the productivity of the organization.


 Introduction

Management is important in any organization. This is because it helps managers to manage the organization well. It ensures proper relationship between the employees, and managers. There are several functions of management. That is planning, control, organizing, leading, and organizing. The functions help mangers in the organization avoid conflict of interest. For example, planning helps managers, and employees decide what needs to happen in the future. This is important in the organization as it helps managers plan the activities to be carried out in the organization well. Organizing involves utilizing the resources required so as to help managers carry out plans well. Staffing involves analyzing jobs in the organization, recruitment and hiring of new employees to carry out various activities. Leading involves determining what should be done in the organization, and getting people do it. The last function is control and it involves checking the progress pf activities in the organization against the plans established. The thesis statement is effects of managerial problems on the organization and employees. This paper analyzes the main problems in the case study and provides solutions to the problems.


 Case study

The main problem in the case study is managerial problem. The main cause of managerial problems in the organization is lack of clear communication, and management in the organization(Dessler & Phillips, 2007). In addition, lack of proper decision making skills, and training of employees has contributed a lot to managerial problems in the organization. Lack of clear communication in the organization has affected performance of employees in the organization. The employees have no clear idea of what is required during recruitment process and training for employees. For example, in the case study Carl Robins failed to recruit new trainings well because he lacked good training on recruitment, hiring of employees, and communication. Carol Robin recruited several employees to work for Monica carolls, but he did not carry out the recruitment process well. The recruitment manual did not have enough details to guide him during recruitment process. It lacked clinical information, forms to be completed by the trainees, and transcripts. This affected the orientation process as Carl did not collect enough information from the trainees. The management did not provide clear information to Carl about the recruitment process. Monica asked carol to coordinate training schedule for the new employees, manuals, policy booklets, drug tests and physicals (Dessler & Phillips, 2007). Carol did not have the information required to coordinate the orientation process. This is because Monica had not provided good training to Carl on the recruitment process, and training for employees.


Lack of clear communication in the organization has affected other employees in the organization. The organization does not have clear communication between departmental heads and employees (Dessler & Phillips, 2007). This is shown clearly in the case study as Carl plans to prepare the training room for orientation, and Joe prepares the same room for training. This shows that the organization does not encourage communication in various departments. This affects performance of employees in the organization as Carl is affected by poor communication. He does not carry training for the trainees as instructed Monica (Dessler & Phillips, 2007). Poor management in the organization has also affected employee performance in the organization. The management in the organization does not carry out functions of management well. There is no proper planning, staffing, control and organizing in the organization. Monica is responsible for coordinating the functions of management in the organization. She is supposed to plan activities in the organization so as to ensure good productivity. Monica is required to control staff and organize the activities in the organization. Lack of good management has affected performance of employees like Carl as he does not carry out duties s required (Dessler & Phillips, 2007).


 Solutions to the problem

There are several solutions to the problems in the organization (Dessler & Phillips, 2007). That is improving communication in the organization and provision of training to employees in the organization. Another solution is improving management of the organization. Improving communication in the organization will help eliminate conflicts in the workplace. This is because employees will make clear decisions, and use the right channel to communicate information to other people in the organization. It will improve productivity in the organization. ABC Inc should improve communication in the organization so as to ensure proper relationship among the employees (Dessler & Phillips, 2007). Employees in ABC Inc should be provided with training programmes frequently.


Training is important for new employees and existing employees as it helps make employees familiar with the organization. Employees get to know the values of the organization, and how to carry out tasks. Employees should be provided with training on the recruitment process. This helps them know what is required during recruitment process, and what is not required. Management is important in the organization as it helps manage relationship between managers and employees (Dessler & Phillips, 2007). ABC Inc should improve its management so as to avoid managerial problems. The best solution to be implemented in the organization is improving management of the organization. Good management of the organization helps improve communication between employees and managers, and performance of employees (Dessler & Phillips, 2007).


 Recommendation

Managerial problems affect the productivity of the organization (Dessler & Phillips, 2007). This is because employees are affected by managerial problems like poor communication, lack of motivation and training. This affects the performance of employees. It also affects the relationship between employees, and managers. The organization should improve its management so as to overcome managerial problems (Dessler & Phillips, 2007).


 Conclusion

Managerial problems are common in many organizations like ABC Inc. The main cause of managerial problems is poor communication in the organization, and lack of training for new and existing employees. Poor management of the organization causes managerial problems in the organization. Managerial problems affect the performance of employees in the organization as employees are not able to carry out duties well, and increase their productivity. This affects the productivity of the organization. This is evidenced in ABC Inc as lack of clear communication and training has affected the performance of employees. To overcome managerial problems, the organization should strengthen its management. This will ensure proper communication in the organization, training for employees. It will improve productivity in the organization through good planning, control, organizing and leading. Thus, ABC Inc has to improve its management skills so as to overcome problems in the organization.


 Reference

Dessler, G., & Phillips, J. (2007).Managing Now. Cengage Learning


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The Effects Of Punishment And Sentencing

 


Abstract

Sentencing is the punishment that is directed to wrongdoers to inflict pain and suffering such that mistakes and evil activities are not repeated. There are various forms of punishments which are dependent on the nature of crime or offence committed by the individual. Government authorities are responsible for deciding the form of corporal punishment for criminals as well as categorizing the crime. Contentious issues that surround capital punishment have been of great concern to most people especially in the circumstances under which it is executed. 


 Discussion

Fundamental philosophies surrounding the purpose of sentencing

One of the philosophies that justify sentencing is the negative rewarding of wrongdoers. Individuals who chose to break the law are punished because of intentional wrong doing while they are fully aware that it is against the law. Thus, by inflicting punishment on such individuals, the authorities are presenting the consequences of wrong doing. The severity of  punishment in this case is dependent of the nature of crime. A wrong doer is sentenced to a punishment equivalent to the crime such that the types of punishments vary from one crime to the other.. Therefore, the authorities protect its people from subsequent evil activities and wrong doers by punishing those who attempt to disrupt the normal activities of residents (Gaines and Miller, 2006).The second philosophy surrounding sentences of wrong doers is based on prevention of any similar evils in future.


Thus, criminals are punished as a way of discouraging others as well as society members on the consequences of committing crime. The aim of punishment in this case is to deter individuals from following the same path as that followed by criminals. The severity of the sentence is hence dependent of the ability to deter future plans of indulging in crime. Consequently, when everyone is deterred from committing crime due to the painful reward, the society will learn to abstain from activities that are against the law (Gaines, 2006).The philosophy of incapacitation is based on the notion that a criminal who is incapacitated may not be in a positions to commit further crimes. This way the rate of crime is minimized.On the other hand, rehabilitation involves a change in environment for the wrong doer so that a new environment where they will be taught human values is introduced. This is a very humane way of punishing offenders because they are given a chance to experience what entails living according to the laws and regulations of a place (Gaines, 2006).


 Factors determining specific sentences

One of the major factors affecting the nature of a sentence is the severity of crime. Some criminal activities call for severe punishment unlike some where the offender is given a light sentence. Justification of the crime as extreme is dependent on who was affected and the overall intention of the criminal. Sometimes a crime may be severe but depending on the offender’s ability to plead and defend their actions, lighter sentence may be presented (Gaines, 2006).The circumstances under which the crime is committed as well as the criminal record o fan individual are exceptional factors in determining the severity of the sentence. First time-offenders or those who commit crime as a way of defending themselves are give different sentence compared to serial criminals (Gaines, 2006).


 The debate surrounding capital punishment

Capital punishment involves the application of death penalty as a sentence of certain criminal activities.A lot of interest has been sparked by the debate on capital punishment because of the nature of accusations and information that is provided to state counsels. It has been noted that most of the criminals who are convicted to death are rarely guilty (Gaines, 2006). Alternatively, first-time offenders may not be convicted while serial offenders are convicted. This has led to conflict on nature of crime and resultant punishment.  Occasionally, death penalty victims have inflicted less impact on criminal’s indulgence in similar crimes. Thus, the essence of employing capital punishment is ruled out. These arguments are valid because the main philosophies surrounding sentencing are never realized.On the other hand, death penalty convicts who are released from prison have been known to become serial killers. Hence, if they are incapacitated or hanged then many innocent lives are saved (Gaines, 2006).Despite all this debate surrounding capital punishment, a more humane way of carrying out the sentence should be considered. Some methods that are used in some countries are crude and barbaric.


 Influence of the debate on punishment

Punishment is seen as a way of oppressing the minority as almost all forms of extreme punishment is inflicted on them. Consequently, it appears as if only the minority groups should be punished hence making punishment a reserve for those who are unable to defend themselves.


 References

 Gaines,L.K. and Miller,R.L (2006), Criminal justice in action; the core. 3rd edition,            Belmont: Thompson Wordswarth.


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Data base

 


 EBSCO

 The EBSCO publishing is a library industry that has been in the industry for more than sixty years. It is a customer centred business that has tapped their customer’s integrity which has made the library attain high quality services and products. EBSCO is the only company that provides customers with integrated services that comprise of subscription management reference database, library services and online journal and books. It continues to work in identifying new challenges and accompanied database technology that meets the need of customers worldwide who are interested with information. 


 I have used this website in many nursing classes because it provided biomedical library resources, community outreach resources and point of care resources contains numerous databases on various topics like decision support, consumer health, complementary alternative medicine, and dentistry among others. Database has been categorised by name, such as biological abstract, AMED, Alt Health watch and Age line. Community outreach resource database comprises of topics on hospital marketing, employee health and wellness, consumer health portal, patient education and retail website. Point of care resource database deals with information on Gideon, patient’s education, rehabilitation reference centre and Dynamed.


 Medline plus

Medicine plus is another web site which provides information on how to answer health questions. It is one of the world largest libraries in medical known as National Library of medicine. As a nurse I have benefited from the web by finding several diseases and conditions. It provides dictionary, easy to understand tutorials, treatment and test and various health condition in English and Spanish. I have benefited extensively from the information on prescription and non prescription drugs and health information.


  Reference

Lindbergh, D (2010) MEDILINE plus; NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE.

 http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/aboutmedlineplus.html

 EBSCO host (2010) title lists: database for hospitals and medical institutions.

http://www.ebscohost.com/ 


  

James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

 

How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms

 


 When it comes to my classroom and those of my colleague, there exists some similarities as well as differences to those described in Tomlinson’s book. When it comes to similarities, I do encourage my students to share with one another in a session, round table or otherwise, on issues they find challenging or interesting. When it comes to differences, I do not group my students based on either strengths or topics. Instead, I group them based on their specific needs.


 When it comes to crafting the classroom to be more effective in addressing the needs of academically diverse learners, it may be important to note that classroom arrangement affects a learner’s involvement level in more than one way. In that regard, the logical as well as feasible step would be to ensure that the class physical space is sufficient to enhance the various group activities of learners. Further, it shall be prudent to have furniture of the right size and that is largely comfortable. Also, it should be noted that students having visual and other impairments should be closer to the board or in this case, learning materials to cater for the needs of such students should be incorporated. Students having movement problems i.e. those on wheelchairs should also be considered when considering the location of materials.


 When it comes to the integration of biblical principles into my classroom, I would consider having pictorial representations of the biblical principle being addressed. This is essentially because research shows that most learners learn in a better way through sensory encounters. I would also seek to have pictorial representations as well as images that reflect the diversity in the classroom i.e. ethnic as well as racial.


 References

Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms.

ASCD


 

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Science Curriculum and Student Diversity

 


Unit of study: Science and math: decimals

Objectives

Students will be able to subtract as well as add decimals

Students will be able to multiply decimals

Students will be able to divide decimals

Students will be able to round off decimals

Materials and resources

Stationery

A writing board

Writing material

Illustrational text

Projector


 Differentiation of instruction

To effectively differentiate instruction so as to address the diverse needs of students;

I will ensure that I apply a number of strategies to reach out to students with language disabilities in my class. I shall utilize hands on materials to enhance their comprehension of the math concept to be learnt. I shall also use step by step models of solving math problems.


 Problem solving and inquiring strategies

Shall include encouraging students to seek clarification in everything the don’t comprehend

Concrete manipulative to help develop science and fraction/decimal sense

The projector shall come in handy to illustrated points that are complex reinforced by graphics.


 Narrative

To further enhance the unit of study, I develop the following narrative which addresses the assignment criteria as well as comes up with specific examples from the unit of study while stating my rationale.To begin with, I shall introduce the topic, that is, decimals and ask students what they think decimals are. This is the introductory phase and as Rezba et al. (2002) notes, it is always important to get a feel of how students perceive a given topic way before the actual discussion begins so as to tailor the particular discussion towards the specific concerns raised. I will give the students the writing materials and ask them to write explanatory notes on what hey think decimals are. Next, after reviewing their response, I shall get to understand the specific areas of interest I need to address. It is important to note that dividing the students into groups of say 10 shall be beneficial as far as the introductory phase is concerned.


 Assignment criteria

The assessment in this case shall be both formative as well as normative. According to Pettig (2000) normative assessment is critical as far as deriving a judgment with regard to the performance of a student is concerned. In this case, I shall express results fro the summative assessment in grades or percentages. Lee et al.  (2008) notes that normative assessment is critical in availing information to students so hat they can come up with valid assessment of their performance as well as how effective the learning strategies are.  On my part, I shall be able to discern any aspects of the topic that has not been well understood and which needs elaboration as well as more attention so as to ensure that each and every student is moving in the same speed as far as the topic is concerned. It is hence important to note that as far as formative assessments are concerned, timely adjustments can be made so as to take corrective action where one is needed.


 A discussion of the science processes used

Basic Processes

 

Observation

In the observation process, we have data gathering which utilizes a single or several senses.

 In this case, I can distribute a number of blank papers to students and after listing a number of fractions on the board and ask them to indicate in the blank pieces of papers they already have how the fractions would appear in the decimal form. This should be an individual process other than a group undertaking so that it can be easy to discern and unique problems specific students may have as they solve the problems.

Classifying

This is essentially a way of bringing together a set of objects. This is informed by the various traits as well as characteristics of the objects that can be identified or observed.

For example, I would list some single decimal and double decimal figures and ask the students to classify the same as appropriate

Communicating

Here, there is the utilization of graphic symbols as well as words to make a representation of numbers or figures.

For example, in this case, I would give students some figures and ask them to list the same in words. The projector would also come in handy in this case for purposes of graphical representation. For instance, I can project a pie chary and give the sectors in percentages after which I would ask students to list the same in decimal format.

Measuring

In this case, a given attribute is likened to a standard reference for purposes of observation.

For example, in this case, I would ask students to draw a line which they can then divide into two and represent the two halves inform of decimals.

Predicting

Here, events projection is informed by an information body. This may be done by seeking and finding a past event that can be linked to a current occurrence.

For instance, in this case, I can ask students to draw a line after which like in the measurement stage above, they divide it into two. On dividing it into two and labeling the two parts in decimal figures, I can then ask them to divide one of the halves into two again and then label the two ‘new’ halves in decimal format.

Inferring

Here, an assumption can be generated for purposes of explaining or coming up with answers to an occurrence or event that is has been already observed.

In this case for instance, I could draw a line and divide it roughly into five equal parts. Now, students will be already familiar with deriving decimals from a line divided into four due to the prediction phase above. This shall hence be a little bit challenging to the student’s bur nevertheless less I can ask them to make a wise guess.

Integrated Processes

 

Identifying and controlling Variables

In this process, we have a standard of keeping apart a given system’s affluent. The isolation such an affluent is basically for the purposes of deriving the specific role of the same.

For example, I can use the projector to come up with or display a pie chart which first demonstrates two sectors. The sectors could fires be displayed using percentages i.e. each sector with a 50% share of the pie. Then I can simulate a reduction in one of the sector which essentially reduces or cuts down the other sector hence reducing the percentage up to the point where the two merge creating 100%. I can then repeat the simulating with the use of decimals.

Formulating and testing hypothesis

Here there is the formulation of an answer which can be either formative or tentative.

For example, in this case, students can be asked to give answers that are seen to be tentative prior to carrying out a simulation say using the power point projector.

Interpreting data

This is essentially the process where the recognition of data patterns is enhanced or reinforced.

In this case, students can be given a pie chart with some representations and asked to interpret the representations while giving their own analysis. The representations in this case must be real life examples so as to assist their interpretation of the same.

Defining operationally

Here, terms are defined by way of carrying out measurements or carrying out a detailed observation of data.

This is one of the challenging processes as students in this case can be asked to convert percentages or whole integers into decimals. It is important to note that in this case, the students understanding of the issue of discussion is well enhanced and in cases where some issues seem to be unclear, clarifications can be made promptly. 

Experimenting

This process is a little bit more practical and it may involve the use of a number of practical objects to explain the subject at hand i.e. in this case, decimals.

For instance, I can draw circles on the board and ask students to represent the same in decimal form. For instance, all I can shade two, three or more circles and ask the students to interpret the shaded circles as part f the whole in decimal form.

Constructing models

This process is very similar to the experimenting process above where object representations are made in such a way that the study process can be well enhanced.

For instance, in this case, students can be asked to come up with their own models and represent the same in decimal form. It is important to note that in the process of deriving their own models, the understanding of students as far as a given topic is concerned is also enhanced.

 


References

Lee, O., & Buxton, C. (2008). Science Curriculum and Student Diversity: A Framework for Equitable Learning Opportunities. Elementary School Journal, 108 (3), 132-139

Pettig, K. L., (2000). On the road to differentiated. Education Leadership, 6, 4, 16-22.

Rezba, R. J., Sprague, C., & Fiel, R. (2002) Learning and assessing science process skills

            (4th Ed). Kendall/Hunt Pub.


Janet Peter is the author and is associated with meldaresearch.com which is a global custom dissertation writers provider. If you would like help in essays, research papers, term papers and dissertations, you can visit MeldaResearch.Com

AFRICAN AMERICANS AND THE COLLEGE THEY ATTEND

 AFRICAN AMERICANS AND THE COLLEGE THEY ATTEND


 Introduction

HBCUs or what are better known as historically black colleges and universities include all the US higher learning institutions that were founded prior to 1964 for the sole purpose of offering services to the black community. Today, historically black colleges and universities number to about one hundred and five in the U.S. Typically, HBCUs include community colleges, medical schools as well as four and two year institutions that are either private or public. It is important to note that though quite a number of HBCUs remain in operation today, quite a number of such institutions were forced to close down specifically in the 20th century as a result of increased competition as well as the effects of the 1920s Great Depression that saw a downturn in economic activity and hence enhanced financial difficulties for such colleges and universities.


 Over time, we have had different scholars discussing issues to do with HBCUs and their contribution towards segregation and/or acceptance of African American students. While some argue that such HBCU institutions promote segregation, others are of the opinion that such institutions offer African American students an environment/culture they are familiar with and accepted in.


 In this text, I discuss whether or not HBCUs or what is more popularly known as historically black college and universities perpetuate segregation or whether such institutions actually give African American students an environment/culture they are familiar with as well as accepted in. I also discuss on whether HBCU education and certifications are equally acceptable in comparison with the non-HBCU degrees or certifications. Lastly I discuss whether students are getting the same education as well as how hard it is for HBCU graduates to find employment.


 A brief history

According to Brown (1999), the American civil war is what informed the establishment of quite a number of HBCUs. However, it is important to note that there were a number of HBCUs established way before the American civil war including but not limited to the WilberforceUniversity which was founded in 1856 as well as the PennsylvaniaCheyneyUniversity which was founded in 1837. It is important to note that the primary goal that informed the establishment of the HBCUs was the existing need to provide education to African Americans. Betsey (2008) notes it was not until 1865 that a vast majority of HBCUs were established so as to address the existing need to avail education to slaves that were newly freed as well as a way of ensuring that the slaves who were freed did not find their way into white institutions that were already in existence.


 It is important to note that at first, HBCUs were founded by groups of Christian missionaries as an act of philanthropy in conjunction with other independent religious institutions. Most of the HBCUs were based in the north and as already stated above, some of the very first ones were founded way before the civil way and they included WilberforceUniversity and PennsylvaniaCheyneyUniversity. Jackson et al. (2003) however notes that an examination of the historical background of HBCUs is largely incomplete without a mention of court decisions as well as legislations that informed the founding of quite a number of HBCUs as well as the closure of others.


 To begin with, there are three initial legislations that laid ground for the growth of HBCUs. These legislations include the 1862 National Land-Grant colleges Act that enabled African Americans to access college education; the 1890 2nd Morrill Act that laid ground for the founding of nineteen historically black colleges and universities; and finally the Plessy V Ferguson Supreme Court decision of 1896 that entrenched in law the right to come up with schools for blacks that were essentially separate but equal. Brown (1999) notes that this single Supreme Court ruling was the one that informed the growth as well as expansion of HBCUs.


 Based on the Plessy V Ferguson Supreme Court decision of 1896, we had an exponential increase in the number of HBCUs from exactly one to above one hundred in 1837 and 1973 respectively. Lucas (1996) argues that during this time, the drive to keep blacks from the American universities and colleges was also one of the main contributing factors to the exponential growth of the historically black colleges and universities. To underline this assertion, it was not until 1954 that PWIs or what are better known as predominantly white institutions started admitting African American students after the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas Supreme Court ruling.


 According to the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas Supreme Court ruling which was done in 1954, having separate institutions for African Americans was basically unconstitutional as such education institutions were in one way or the other unequal. Prior to this ruling, there was an enhanced public schools racial segregation that was seen to be largely de jure. In addition to recommending the dismantling of dual systems of higher education within states, the ruling was also considered to be instrumental as far as eliminating the public schools racial segregation was concerned hence enabling African Americans to access PWIs institutions.


It is interesting to note that the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas Supreme Court ruling still hovers over higher education today, many years after it was made. This ruling according to Brown (1999) has had a lasting impact on HBCUs than any other ruling made in the mid-twentieth century essentially because quite a number of historically black colleges and universities have closed down as well as merged as a result of the dual systems dismantlement. It is also interesting to note that those who are opposed to the idea of having HBCUs claim that such institutions promote segregation.


It is in the light of such assertions that debates, discussions as well as issues have come up questioning the relevance, appropriateness as well as practicability of historically black colleges as well as universities. Proponents of these institutions of higher learning however continue to argue that HBCUs give African American students an environment as well as culture that they are familiar with as well as accepted in. According to Ricard (2008), there is hence an existing need to carry out more research on this higher education segment.


 Social and Academic Experiences at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

According to . Lucas (1996), when it comes to higher education literature as far as HBCUs are concerned, not much has been done so far. He notes that it as not until the early 70s that the historically black colleges and universities became research study subjects. However, it is important to note that since then, there has been a renewed effort by researchers to derive the various social as well as academic experiences of students attending historically black colleges and institutions.


In a 1992 research carried out by Freeman (1998), it was found out that as far as occupational aspirations, social involvement as well as academic performance is concerned; African American students attending predominantly white institutions or what are also known as PWIs registered lower scores as far as the three measures were concerned as compared to those who attended historically black colleges and universities or HBCUs. He also notes that students from HBCUs had a greater feeling of engagement, connection, encouragement as well as acceptance. It is important to note that one of the most prominent arguments advanced by those who support HBCUs is that such institutions are more effective towards addressing the specific needs as well as interests of African American students. Proponents of historically black colleges and universities like Ricard (2008) also argue that when it comes to availing assets for African American students, HBCUs tend to do better than other integrated institutions. Further, according to . Lucas (1996), historically black colleges and universities also go a long way towards enhancing communication with their African American students so as to increase their chances of growth both on the intellectual as well as social front. To further highlight why HBCUs offer African Americans students an environment/culture that they are familiar with and accepted in it may be prudent to discuss a number of issues including but not limited to


 Cultural awareness enhancement

Jackson et al. (2003) notes that predominantly white institutions or what is better known as PWIs may tend to overlook the African American historical contributions as well as influence but HBCUs by design highlight on the same so as to enhance the students understanding of history and its reverence to the current state of affairs. In this regard, African Americans tend to be more appreciative of their culture as a result of the natured and guided understanding of the same in HBCUs. According to Freeman (1998) many students in HBCUs have in one way or the other interacted with discrimination be it hearing of it or experiencing the same. The learning environment at HBCUs is such that students can openly discuss a wide variety of challenges being experienced by African Americans and in so doing, solutions that may be workable are floated around. This is what ends up producing a better rounded person ready to confront challenges in a word that is increasingly becoming diverse be it at the workplace or otherwise.


 Also, Ricard (2008) notes that due to the enhancement of cultural awareness, HBCUs tend to have higher student retention rates than other institutions. This essentially means that of those who enroll in these HBCUs, a higher percentage tends to graduate as compared to the non- HBCUs. Further, because students in HBCUs are more likely to see those they look up to in advanced programs including but not limited to business, engineering as well as sciences; they themselves may pursue the same in an enabling as well as motivated environment.


 Social acceptance/involvement

On the social front, Ricard (2008) argues that African American students feel more accepted in HBCUs than in any other institutions. It is this acceptance that enhances the emotional wellbeing necessary for the students to study. It is important to note that the acceptance environment which is created within HBCUs ensures that no student feels isolated, socially or otherwise. This essentially means that the integration of such a student to lifestyle of campus or college is enhanced and made wholesome. . Lucas (1996) is also of the opinion that social relationships that are essentially healthy are fostered within HBCUs and over time due to he environment of acceptance already created, the relationship between faculty members and students as well as between students and their peers is highly conducive for learning t take place as well as for the wholesome development of an individual to take place. Within the HBCUs, it is common to encounter informal as well as formal mentoring relationships blossoming in such an enabling system. Freeman (1998) also notes that the level of self-esteem as well as ethnic pride fostered within the historically black colleges and education institutions cannot be rivaled elsewhere.  Further, Lucas (1996) notes that HBCUs also act as black heritage repositories.


 Ricard (2008), a LincolnUniversity’s staffer notes that “ours is a closely knit family and all our students concentrate on their studies other than addressing a wide range of existing stereotypes”. To underscore the effectiveness of HBCUs to enhance the academic prowess of African Americans, Jackson et al. (2003) gives a list of high lying individuals who have passed through HBCUs to include Dr Martin Luther king who is an alumnus of Morehouse college; Victoria Gray Adams (a civil rights activist) who is an alumnus of Wilberforce University; Russell George (a jazz composer) who is an alumnus of Wilberforce University; DuBois (a civil rights activist) who is an alumnus of Fisk University and lastly Alice Walker (a leading poet as well as Feminist) who is an alumnus of Spelman College.


 Academic prowess/performance

According to Freeman (1998), most of the programs offered at historically black colleges and universities are tailored to address all the unique needs of African American students and in that regard, they also address the specific needs of students having learning deficiencies. According to a 1994 study carried out by Jackson et al. (2003)HBCUs have over time proved to be superior as far as suiting their programs to their clientele is concerned and though they are in some cases constrained as far as resources are concerned, they continue to utilize what they have so as to be efficient. Historically, HBCUs have been using limited resources to avail education to African Americans and it is for this reason that Ricard (2008) brands them as ‘efficient’.


Further, as earlier stated, when one compares the academic gains of African American students attending PWIs with those of African American students attending HBCUs, there exists a clear difference. This according to Roebuck (1993) is attributable to the fact that the historically black colleges and universities campus environment avails to African American students unrivaled faculty relationship mechanism that is highly positive and ends up acting as a motivator for students as far as their academics are concerned.


 Over time, HBCUs have been instrumental as far as the development of African American professionals in diverse fields is concerned. It is important to note that such institutions have been vital as far as the academic progression of a population which has historically been restricted socially, politically, economically, legally as well as academically is concerned. Though early historically black colleges and universities were founded with the aim of offering a wide range of community members as well as preachers and teachers training so as to counteract slavery effects and despairs; they end up opening a window of opportunity for thousands of African Americans who had little chances of accessing an enabling environment fro which to pursue their education. Similarly, the existing stereotypes could have made it difficult for African Americans to study in an enabling environment and hence it can be noted that HBCUs enhanced an equal opportunity for all as far as education is concerned. It cannot also go unsaid that when it comes to affordability, PWIs are much more expensive than HBCUs. This essentially mans that students attending HBCUs do not have to grapple with financial challenges and instead, they can concentrate more on their education. Further, apart from the tuition being a little bit lower for HBCUs, there are generous financial aid initiatives. Hey hence avail a more friendly learning environment as compared to other institutions that are predominantly white for African Americans.


 To underline their contribution towards education, it is important to note that by the year 1950, historically black colleges and universities were serving an upwards of 90% of Africa Americans as far as higher education is concerned. As at 2001, close to 15% of African Americans in colleges were being served by HBCUs. Annually, HBCUs are said to churn out approximately 25% African American baccalaureate degrees. It is hence clear that the role of HBCUs as far as the enhancement of education amongst African Americans cannot be overstated.


 HBCUs: Acceptability of their education

According to Ricard (2008) the current day and age has seen HBCUs compete for stellar applicants with other institutions considered highly prestigious. This is an account of how far HBCUs have come from. Though the HBCUs have embraced diversity in the recent past, their learning environments continue to be dedicated towards building on the cultural backgrounds of African Americans. However, this according to Gasman et al. (2010) does not in any way affect the delivery as well as acceptability of their education as they have over time aligned all their systems to match the set practices in the higher education sector. For instance, their applicants continue to be high quality as their application as well as enrolment process is identical to that of other institutions.


 According to a Virginia tech study that went ahead to chart the historically black colleges and universities economic impact, it was found out that of all the African American men who attend four year universities as well as colleges, those from HBCUs tend to register higher lifetime earnings as compared to their counterparts from non- HBCUs. This study is a clear indicator that the various academic programs provided by historically black colleges and universities are acceptable across the board when compared to similar programs from other non- HBCUs. This study whose findings appeared in the southern economic journal has been branded an authority as far as proving that HBCU graduates are as competitive as their counterparts from non- HBCUs. The study which utilized data from the surveys of the National Longitudinal found out that African Americans who at first instance have no advantage from the attendance of HBCUs had their wage range increasing from 1.2% to 1.5% per annum as compared to the wages of their African American counterparts who attended other non-historically black colleges and universities. While reacting towards this study, Hale (2006), noted that the fat that those African American who attend HBCUs earn more over time shows that he quality of education in HBCUs is at par with the quality of other reputable non- HBCUs.


 However, Sinha (2006) notes that just like the quality of education offers from institution to institution, not all historically black colleges and universities are the same. What this essentially means is that some HBCUs rank lower when it comes to the quality of education offered and while this is also the case in predominantly white colleges, the various historically black colleges and universities cannot be lumped together and hence each should be judged in its own merit. This are the same sentiments echoed by Wilson (2008) who notes that though the quality of education in HBCUs is not in question, there is an existing need to address a number of issues so as to make historically black colleges and universities more responsive to the educational needs of a diverse clientele in an fast changing world. He is of the opinion that there is an existing need to boost as well as enhance the so called STEM programs which include sciences, technology, engineering and last but not least, math. He also notes that there is a need to come up with funding streams for HBCUs that are relatively independent. This is founded on the fact that quite a good number of HBCUs that are state supported are struggling financially as a result of a constellation of factors including but not limited to nose-diving student financial assistance and the skyrocketing private education delivery costs. Richmond (1997) also notes that HBCUs need to embrace higher education innovation as well as focus more on the development of an able workforce for the job market. It is important to note that this is the trend that seems to be adopted by word class universities and to compete along this path, historically black colleges and universities must enhance innovation as well as revolutionalize their programs to make them more acceptable to employers in the global marketplace.


 However, HBCUs continue to have the best student support services. In a survey carried out by the Thurgood MarshalCollege fund, historically black colleges and universities tend to have the best mentorship programs as well as academic support services that are complimentary as compared to the non- historically black colleges and universities in the same level. These superior student support services go a long way towards strengthening the historically black colleges and universities communities which helps in the preparation of graduates to adapt to the competitive marketplace. Further, the efforts of historically black colleges and universities as far as supporting leadership have been lauded over time. This encourages students to be more civically as well as politically active once they leave college and hence be drivers of worthy changes in the society. Amongst the historically black colleges and universities who have been active on the political as well as civic front include the late Dr Martin Luther king and Victoria Gray Adams.


 HBCUs: Dissenting arguments

 There are still those who claim that HBCUs promote segregation. According to Belgrave et al. (2009), HBCUs were established for a noble reason but their time has since expired. He continues to note that the world is increasingly becoming diverse and hence institutions and facilities that continue to define people by their color should be abolished. However, in my own opinion, Belgrave et al. (2009) seems to have missed a point or two here. To begin with, institutions that were originally or historically black g=have now embraced diversity and indeed this is especially the case in institutions like Bluefield State College as well as West Virginia University where the percentage of whites has been approximated to be 90%. The issue of segregation should therefore not arise as far as historically black colleges and universities are concerned in the modern day and age.


Gordon (2004) another of those who oppose the idea of HBCUs argues that HBCUs end up nurturing the segregation they seek to abort. This he sees as a contradiction because he too argues that the usefulness of HBCUs has been long passed by time. He also goes ahead to note that these institutions are against diversity and that those who graduate from the same lack in the skills required to compete in todays increasingly diverse marketplace. However, this is a stand disputed by Gordon (2004) who notes that historically black colleges and universities do not have any form of discrimination in their admission and anyone is free to join. Indeed, as already note above, this is especially the case in institutions like Bluefield State College as well as West VirginiaUniversity where the percentage of whites has been approximated to be 90%. It is hence pointless to claim that graduates from such institutions d not have adequate skills to compete effectively in the increasingly diverse marketplace. As closing arguments therefore, HBCUs are no longer predominantly African American as it was so many years ago as they were being established. The fact that they do not discriminate in their admission processes shows that they have fully embraced racial diversity and hence in such an instance, the issue of segregation should not arise.


 HBCUs: The current status

Of the one hundred and five HBCUs in the US currently, we have fifty two availing to their students master’s level graduate degree programs and a total of twenty seven availing to their clientele doctoral programs. The remaining number offers either associate degrees or bachelor degree programs. However, it is important to note that there has been a significant drop n the number of bachelor degreed awarded to African American students at the historically black college and universities. From a high of 34% back in 1976, the number of bachelors degrees offered by HBCUs to African American students now stands at approximately 20% (Gasman et al. 2008). However, there has been a significant growth in the number of enrolment in HBCUs and while during 1976 the enrolment stood at about 180,000 students, we had the same standing at slightly above 200000 as at the year 2006. Jackson et al. (2003) notes that what has contributed most towards his growth is the increasing number of female African American enrolment in the same institutions.


 In sharp contrast to the earlier days when HBCUs were predominantly African American institutions, today we have such institutions embracing racial diversity most evidently due to the calls for affirmative action especially after the 1960s Civil Rights Laws enactment. Consequently we have some historically black colleges and universities today registering higher enrolment rates amongst non-blacks. This is especially the case in institutions like Bluefield State College as well as West VirginiaUniversity where the percentage of whites has been approximated to be 90%. It is also important to note that quite a good number of HBCUs that are state supported are struggling financially as a result of a constellation of factors including but not limited to nose-diving student financial assistance and the skyrocketing private education delivery costs. One of the most notable developments witnessed by HBCUs in the recent past has been the digitalization of the institution’s libraries, thanks to the Andrew W. Mellon foundation that has been funding the project.


 Conclusion

It is important to note ha those who are predominantly against HBCUs as well as the proponents of the same are in agreement that as far as African American postsecondary education is concerned, HBCUs have had a largest impact. Though HBCUs have encountered a number of challenges, they continue to give African American students an environment/culture that that they are familiar with and accepted in. It is also important to note that scholars as well as researchers have in the recent past renewed their interest in HBCUs and it is hence probable that there shall be an increased understanding of HBCUs as far as their roles in African American education is concerned. Further, more research on the role of historically black colleges and universities as far as their contribution towards postsecondary education diversity as well as their unique identity shall not only be timely but highly desirable.


 Reference

Brown, M. (1999). The Quest to Define Collegiate Desegregation: BlackColleges, Title VI Compliance, and Post-Adams Litigation. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey

Freeman, K. (1998). African American Culture and Heritage in Higher Education Research and Practice. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Jackson C, L. & Nunn, E.F. (2003). Historically black colleges and universities: a reference handbook. ABC-CLIO

Gasman, M. & Tudico, C.L. (2008). Historically black colleges and universities: triumphs, troubles, and taboos. Palgrave Macmillan

Roebuck, J.B (1993). Historically black colleges and universities: their place in American higher education. Praeger

Betsey, C.L. (2008). Historically black colleges and universities. Transaction Publishers

Wilson, C.O. (2008). The future of historically black colleges and universities: ten presidents speak out. McFarland

Ricard, R.B. (2008). Ebony towers in higher education: the evolution, mission, and presidency of historically black colleges and universities. Stylus Publishing, LLC

Gasman, M. & Wagner, V.L. (2010). Unearthing Promise and Potential: Our Nation’s Historically BlackColleges and Universities. John Wiley and Sons

Richmond, P.A. (1997). On the Road to Economic Development: A Guide for Continuing Education Programs at Historically BlackColleges and Universities. DIANE Publishing

Hale, F.W. (2006). How black colleges empower black students: lessons for higher education. Stylus Publishing, LLC

Lucas, C.J. (1996). American higher education: a history. Palgrave Macmillan

Sinha, R. (2006). HBCUs: historically black colleges and universities : vestiges of slavery. House

Belgrave, F.Z & Allison, K.W. (2009). African American Psychology: From Africa to America. SAGE

Gordon, J.U. (2004). The Black male in white America. Nova Publishers


 

Teaching Strategies

Teaching Strategies


Introduction

Differentiation can be best defined as a method through which an instructor organizes teaching so that each and every need of students is met in a diverse classroom. Diverse classrooms consist of students that are both challenged and gifted.


 Discussion

Teachers are often faced with the challenge of implementing strategies as part of differentiated units in diverse classrooms. Implementing a strategy first of all requires extensive knowledge and an in-depth research on the various strategy options available. On where to find more information and data about the strategy to be used as part of a differentiated unit, there are several sources of information. One of the most widely used sources is the web or the Internet. Through the internet, a vast amount of information on the strategy chosen can be obtained (Orlich, Callahan and Harder, 2009).


 The unit to be differentiated will be based on students’ abilities and methods that they use during the learning process. The differentiated unit would lead to various outcomes and one of the outcomes is that it will give students a chance to display or demonstrate what has been learnt in class. Moreover, students who are most challenged and with disabilities will be able to succeed academically (Orlich, et al).


 Differentiated unit will be attending to aspects such as the needs of students and formulating the learning objectives based on students’ grade levels. The aspect that I will be attending to include the students’ skills and abilities since different students have differentiated skills and abilities. The other factor that has to be considered is the interests of students. Teachers may opt to observe or interview their students in order to identify their various interests, likes and dislikes.


 Reference

Orlich, D.C, Callahan, R.C., & Harder R. J. (2009) Teaching strategies (9th Ed).

            Cengage Learning


 

Obedience

Obedience


 Introduction

Obedience is a major element in the bible. Prophets like other people are supposed to be obedient. Not all prophets in the bible are obedient. This is makes it difficulty to follow   God’s directives. Some of the prophets are obedient. For example, Ezekiel proves to be obedient in following God’s directives. In addition, Ezekiel is able to pay attention to details when following Gods directives. Most of the prophets do not have such   characters. This in turn influences how the prophets follow Gods directives. Being obedient and paying attention makes Ezekiel unique. Obedience refers to quality of being obedient. The term obedience describes the act of   carrying out commands and being activated. Obedience is different from complicacy which is behavior that is influenced by other people. Obedience also differs from conformity. Conformity is the behavior intended to match that of the majority in the   society. Most people in the society find it difficulty to carry out commands. This makes it difficulty for them to achieve the objects set. In addition, many prophets in the bible are not able to obey. Ezekiel has unique characters from other prophets. For example, Ezekiel is obedient and pays attention to details. The characters make it easy for Ezekiel to carry out God’s orders. This paper analyzes Ezekiel’s obedience and meticulous attention to details when following Gods orders.


 Discussion

Generally, obedience   refers to the act of carrying out commands and following rules. In   Christianity, obedience   to  Gold  refers   to  guiding   and  submitting   our  conduct   to  the Lord’s  standards ,  but  not  lour  own  stands. The human obedience   should   be   revealed   to the will of Gold. People   can obey if they   understand   what God is communicating to them (Pierce, Chujck &Sytsedma, Rebecca, 2005). Most prophets in the bible find it hard to follow God’s directives. This is because they are not obedient and they do not pay attention to what is said. Lack of obedience results to divided attention as one does not know whether to carry out the directives or not. For instance, Joshua finds it difficulty to choose to serve the gods of his ancestors or the gods of the Amorites. In Joshua 24:15, God asks Joshua to select who to serve. Joshua  is  allowed to choose to serve  the god of  his ancestress or the gods  of  the Amorites  if  he  finds serving  the Lord undesirable(Pierce, Chujck &Sytsedma, Rebecca, 2005).


Obedience and attention play a key role in Ezekiel’s life. The book of Ezekiel is a book named after Ezekiel. The book analyzes the visions, prophecies that were proclaimed by Ezekiel   during the first stages of the Babylonian exile (The Bible Exposition Commentary & Warren, 2002).In the book, Ezekiel asks people of Judah not to resist the Babylonian power, but to submit to captivity in obedience to God. In addition, Ezekiel encourages the people of Judah and gives them hope (Pierce, Chujck &Sytsedma, Rebecca, 2005). For instance, Ezekiel told the people of  Judah  that the Lord has not abandoned  them .He  further  told  them that  they would  be  relieved from  captivity by God and  will be  ruled  by Messiah. Ezekiel believed in obedience. He argued that the problems Gods people face   result from disobedience (The Bible Exposition Commentary & Warren, 2002). Hence, he encouraged   people to obey the Lord so as to overcome the challenges. He claimed that through obedience the exiled would be reversed (Malcolm, 2010). So, the Israelis had to return to Gold so as to overcome the challenges. Other prophets like Jeremiah did not believe in obedience and they did not agree with Ezekiel’s idea (Pierce, Chujck &Sytsedma, Rebecca, 2005). They argued that the exiles should become part of the Babylonian   culture. They also argued that the people should pray to King Nebuchadnezzar II, who had defeated them. Further, the prophets argued that people should not listen to other prophets as they were telling lies. Ezekiel agreed with Jeremiah, but   argued that the Jews should keep their religion and culture instead of being absorbed into Babylonian culture (Malcolm, 2010).


 Though most people see Ezekiel not being obedient, Ezekiel is obedient and always   follows God’s directives. For example, most Christians argue that God demands perfect   obedience to his law so as to be saved and considered upright. They argue that Ezekiel   teaches the opposite. This is because Ezekiel emphasizes on the need to confess and   repent (Pierce, Chujck &Sytsedma, Rebecca, 2005). In  the  book  of Ezekiel, Ezekiel  emphasized  that   the  sins   of  the   fathers   would  not  be   visited   on  to  the   children   and  every  lone   will  be   judged   according   to  his  or  herd   righteousness. In Ezekiel 18:21:22, Ezekioel argues that the wicked should turn from    all the sins they have committed and keep God’s word (The Bible Exposition Commentary & Warren, 2002). They should do what is lawful and right. Ezekiel finds it easy to follow the Gods word because he pays attention to what God says as shown in the verse above. Ezekiel does not encourage disobedience by telling people to repent, but he encourages people to obey God’s word. God requires   perfect obedience and that is why he encourages people to repent (Wright, 2001).


 In addition, Ezekiel is  obedient  as  he  supports  punishment of  people who do not  follow God’s  word (Pierce, Chujck &Sytsedma, Rebecca, 2005).Ezekiel shows how God  forgives  people who  repent  their sins. Ezekiel argues that repentance saves the sinners from death. This is because God forgives those who sin and repent. Hence, Ezekiel obedience enables him to follows God’s word. In  the  book, Ezekiel  is   concerned  with  the  high  rate  of  idolatry   in  the   country(Pierce, Chujck &Sytsedma, Rebecca, 2005). Ezekiel   equates the idolatry   to sin   of fornication. In addition, Ezekiel identifies   other   sins   like moral   and sexual   corruption and the   defilement   of the Sabbath day. Other sins include   the oppression of the weak in the society   and bribery. Ezekiel encourages people to repent so as to prevent them from   death (Podhoretz , 2002).


Moreover, God used Ezekiel’s obedience to fulfill his promises. There are three signs   that result from Ezekiel’s obedience (The Bible Exposition Commentary & Warren, 2002). The first sign is the sign of captivity of Jerusalem. During this time Ezekiel was commanded by God to carry out all his belongings in his   house. in Ezekiel 12 :1-6  God  asked  Ezekiel  to  take  his  belonging and live the house among  the  midst  of the rebellious house (Pierce, Chujck &Sytsedma, Rebecca, 2005).God used Ezekiel to help people understand his word. This is evidenced in verse three. In verse three God instructed Ezekiel to prepare his baggage for exile and also instructed he to go into exile during the day so as to enable them understands. Ezekiel did not resist and he   did as he had been commanded (Machinist, 2003). In Ezekiel 12:7, Ezekiel was asked to dig through the wall of his house   as a sign of the future captivity of the citizens who were remaining together with their   king Zedeikah. Ezekiel did not refuse as it is illustrated by the quotation below “I did so, as I had been commanded. By day I brought out my baggage like the baggage of an exile. Then in the evening I dug through the wall with my hands; I went out in the dark and carried the baggage on my shoulder in their sight.” in this case Ezekiel’s obedience   symbolized   how the   prince of   Jerusalem   would leave   Jerusalem (Pierce, Chujck &Sytsedma, Rebecca, 2005).


 Further, Ezekiel’s obedience is evidenced in Ezekiel 24:16-18.Ikn Ezekiel 24:16-18, God   takes away Ezekiel’s wife and asks him not to lament and shed tears. God wanted to test Ezekiel’s obedience by taking away his wife (The Bible Exposition Commentary & Warren, 2002). In this case, God instructed Ezekiel not to mourn when his wife dikes. Ezekiel did not fail to obey the instructions given. He did not mourn. God used Ezekiel’s obedience to deliver the captives in Israel. For example, Ezekiel’s obedience signified that the captives would loose things that were precious to them and mourn (Machinist, 2003). This would in turn help the captives understand who God is. The main reason God used cruel treatment to Ezekiel is to allow Ezekiel to act as a sign for God’s people. Ezekiel is supposed to refrain from mourning and this would in turn help the people refrain from mourning the destruction of the temple (Heschel, 2001).


 Ezekiel’s obedience was also revealed in the sign of siege of Jerusalem. In Ezekiel 4 and 5, Ezekiel was supposed to construct a model of siege of Jerusalem. He would lie on his   left side for 390 days to signify the iniquity of Israel (Syswerda, 2006). In addition, Ezekiel would lie on   his right side for 40 days to signify the inequity of Judah. Moreover, Ezekiel was required to eat food that was defiled by being cooked over animal waste. At first, Ezekiel did not agree to eat the defiled food. Ezekiel argued that eating the defiled food will violate   his commitment to purity. Then God asked   him to bake   the   bread   over a cow manure, but not   human waste (The Bible Exposition Commentary & Warren, 2002). God used Ezekiel’s   obedience to signify the defiled food which Israelis would be forced to eat. Ezekiel paid attention to all the instructions given and did what was required. Ezekiel walked down God’s road alone. Ezekiel was not influenced by any one to make the decisions, but he obeyed what God said (Heschel, 2001).


 

In Ezekiel  2:3-5, the lord send  Ezekiel to the  people of  Israel  and to  nations  of  rebels   and  people who rebelled against  him to preach his word. This is because the people of Israel had transgressed against the Lord and they were stubborn. The Lord sends Ezekiel   to say to them that he is the lord God. Additionally, God asks Ezekiel to obey so as to allow the prophecy to happen (The Bible Exposition Commentary & Warren, 2002). In Ezekiel 37:1, God asked Ezekiel to prophesy to the breast and also prophesy to the son of man. Also, he was asked to prophesy to the breath. Ezekiel did not hesitate, but he prophesied   immediately and breath came into them and they lived and stood. This is shown by the   following quotation (Heschel, 2001).


 “Also He said to me, “Prophesy to the breath, prophesy, son of man, and say to the breath, ‘thus says the Lord GOD: “Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe on these slain, that they may live.”’.” So I prophesied as He commanded me, and breath came into them, and they lived, and stood upon their feet, an exceedingly great army” (Gowan 1998).


 Lastly, the Ezekiel obedience and attention to God’s word allowed him to see the temple (The Bible Exposition Commentary & Warren, 2002). Ezekiel was able to see the detailed description of the temple. He  was also  able to  see  the  architectural plan  and  the  dimension  of the  temped. In addition, Ezekiel saw the building materials and holly days. Moreover, Ezekiel  saw the  rooms  for priests, ritual practices  and  division of  the  land of  the  Israel  tribe(The Bible Exposition Commentary & Warren, 2002).


 Obedience is important as it helps human beings overcome challenges. People should be obedient to the Lord just like Ezekiel obeyed the lord. James Morrison in his article “the importance of obedience” analyzes the importance of Ezekiel obedience and obedience of other people in overcoming the challenges. Hence, Ezekiel finds it easy to obey God’s standard because he knows what the Lord is communicating to him (Blenkinsopp, 1996).


 Conclusion

In conclusion, Ezekiel’s has unique characters from other prophets. The characters help in following God’s directives. For example, Ezekiel obeys and pays attention to God’s commands. God has used Ezekiel to fulfill his promises to the people. For example, the Lord has used Ezekiel to teach the importance of obedience and repentance. God encourages perfect obedience. In addition, God has used Ezekiel to fulfill his prophesies to his people .For example, God uses Ezekiel to deliver his people from captivity by construction the model of the siege of Jerusalem and  also  eating  defiled food .Ezekiel  obeys God orders. Obedience is an important concept as illustrated by Ezekiel. Obedience helps people follow Gods directives and repentance. In  the modern  society, people are  expected to  be  obedient  so  as  to  see God’s  miracles. For example, Ezekiel saw God’s miracles through obedience and paying attention   to God’s command. Thus, the book Ezekiel teaches the importance of obedience and attention in understanding God’s commands and bringing people near Gold.


 Reference

 Blenkinsopp, J. A History of Prophecy in Israel. Westminster John Knox Press, 1996.

Gowan, D. Theology of the Prophetic Books: The Death and Resurrection of Israel. Westminster John Knox Press, 1998.

Heschel. The Prophets. Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2001.

Machinist, P. Prophets and Prophecy in the Ancient Near East. Society of Biblical Literature, 2003

Malcolm,Wesley,J.Humble Obedience Leverages Your Basic Instructions Before Leaving Earth: A Compliment to Your Daily Bible Study.AuthorHouse, 2010

The Bible Exposition Commentary,.& Warren W..The Bible Exposition Commentary: Old Testament: The Prophets, Volume 3.David C. Cook, 2002

Pierce,Chujck.D.,&Sytsedma,Rebecca,W.God’s Now Time for Your Life: Enter Into Your Prophetic Destiny.Gospel Light, 2005

Podhoretz, N. The Prophets: Who They Were, What They Are. Free Press, 2002

 Wright, C. The Message of Ezekiel: A New Heart and a New Spirit. Intervarsity Press, 2001

Syswerda,Jean .E.The Women’s Devotional Guide to the Bible: A One-Year Plan for Studying, Praying, and Responding to God’s Word.Thomas Nelson Inc, 2006


 

Finding Good Materials for Research-ebrary book Search

Finding Good Materials for Research-ebrary book Search


Introduction

Academic research or even scientific research basically entails the search for information from various secondary and primary sources. In today’s academic realms both the primary and secondary sources of information provide a wide base of knowledge upon which students and researchers can base their research activities and help build the base of their knowledge. The need for a literature reviews in any research activity makes the search of information related to one’s research topic an essential and basic thing. The use of online databases of research is an important way to conduct a research because it enables one to access modern research tools and material sources as well as traditional sources such as books via online library databases such as ebrary and Google books. This paper highlights an online database conducted on three topics: Qualitative research design, Quantitative research in education and mixed methods research. The search focused on book publications that highlighted these three topics, and the search was conducted on the ebrary database. Ebrary was selected because it offer an simpler form of search that can easily lead the researcher to the right sources because it offers a brief on any book that is so clear and concise, in manner that enables the researcher to easily identify a relevant source that contains the information that s/he may seek to find.


               The first search on qualitative research design yielded various books and among them two most relevant books were selected. The first source found was a book authored by Blaxter Lorraine, Hughes Cristina and Malcolm Tight. The book is titled “How to Research” 2006 publication by the “Open University Press”. The ISBN number for this source was ISBN 9780335229536. The 303 paged books describe how various research designs can be made, and among them it highlights qualitative research design and its application the field of research. The second book found on ebrary in relation to the topic was titled “Introducing qualitative research in Psychology”, a publication by McGraw Hill education which is published in 2008. The book was authored by Carla Willig and its ISBN number is ISBN: 9780335236343. The book highlights the use of qualitative research within the context of Psychology related research.


               The search on the second topic-Quantitative research in education-yielded various books and among them the two most relevant books with regard to the topic were chosen. The first identified source was a publication titled “Educational research in practice”. The 2004 publication by Continuum International Publishing was authored by Joanna Swann. In part two of this book the various approaches of research with regard to educational research are highlighted and these include a detail on how quantitative research can be applied in an education related research context. The book’s ISBN number was 9780826432742. The second identified source is titled “Doing quantitative research in education with SPSS. The book was authored by Daniel Muijs and published by the Sage publications incorporation in 2004. The book’s ISBN number is 9781412933018. The book specifically highlights how to conduct quantitative research in research that is related to the education field. It is the most relevant cited source because it narrows the research aspect and focuses it specifically on the educational context.


               The third topic’s search on mixed methods research yielded several books and the two most relevant selected books were documented below. The first cited book “Becoming a researcher”, was authored by Paul Yates John and Pryor Mairead Dunne, in 2005 and published by the McGraw Hill education publishers. The 206 paged book highlights research in tow views, both as an intellectual engagement and as a practical activity. It also extensively highlights the design phase of research as well the combination of research methodologies in designing specific research cases. The second identified book was “Researcher’s tool kit” a publication by Routledge publishers that was authored by David Wilkinson. The 153 paged publications were published in 2000 and its ISBN number is 9780203185124. The book details various research methods and how they can be combined in some research situations.


              The search on ebrary for books containing these topics made use of the topics’ words a key search words and the search process was restricted or limited by subjects such as mathematics, research, education or science in order to obtain narrowed results of books that were appropriately related to the topic under highlight. The search was restricted to title results so as to obtain results of books that contained information that was dedicated mostly to the topic of concern in the search. At times the search yielded some slightly related sources that were found to be actually distantly related, but appeared amongst the results probably because they contained one of the primary search key words. However, these are eliminated as one goes through the resulting books. A review of the table of contents provided on each ebrary book helps the researcher identify the existence of relevant topics within the book and this simplifies further the research process by making quick identification possible.


 References

Blaxter. L, Hughes, C. and Malcolm T. (2006),. How to Research, Open University Press

Daniel, M. (2004),. Doing quantitative research in education with SPSS, Sage publications incorporation

Carla, W. (2008),. Qualitative research in Psychology, McGraw Hill education

David, W. (2000),. Researcher’s tool kit, Routledge publishers

Joanna, S. (2004),. Educational research in practice, Continuum International Publishing

Paul, Y.J. and Pryor, M. D. (2005),. Becoming a researcher, McGraw Hill education publishers


 

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