Category: Education

 

Effects Of Religion On Individual Morality

 


 Introduction

Morality is often determined by the behavior or general character of an individual such that individuals who have good behaviors are considered as being moral while those with unacceptable characters are referred to as immoral. Morality usually encompasses person’s cultural values, their code of conduct as well as the ethics in their activities. Personal as well as societal values which are maintained by certain people are quiet significant in identifying individuals having good morals or else they are lacking them. The ethical components of an individual being virtuous are determined by the extent to which they practice good morals especially in the ethics part of their day to day activities.


 Religion on the other part is acknowledging a superhuman being that has great direct control over the life of such an individual. Religion involves strict adherence of a certain habit and way of life as well as commitment to a certain aspects of life which may be influential to the individual. Religion has been known to posses an ethical component which is derived from supernatural guidance such that individuals who are religious tend to portray certain characteristics which are not portrayed by those who are not religious. Ethics in religion are characterized by individuals living “good” lives which are sometimes observed as stress free due to detachment from earthily possessions which are known to be the source of many unethical actions.


Discussion

 Religion as a source of good individual morals

Many religious people or else many people who belong to any religion usually adhere to the rules of the religion as a way of fitting into the crowd as well as to develop some desirable attributes which they maybe lacking. A practical example is embracing the virtue of punctuality at all times such that an individual never keeps others waiting for him/her. Other than avoiding the fine imposed top those who arrive late, a religion which dictates that its members should arrive early enough at all meetings independent of the nature of meeting will have a great impact on the followers.Embers of such a religion will frown or even sneer at latecomers such that next time the same individual predicts that they will be late, they would rather not turn up at all else drop everything else so as not to be late. Although, at that particular time the individual is conscious of the impact of arriving late they will try each possible way to make sure that they follow the rules which have been set up.Therefore, the rules set up by the religion will act as stimuli for instilling good morals to that particular individual. Individuals who were known to always arrive ate at different meetings or gatherings will change they way of doing things such that they get to embrace a new virtue.


This aspect of learning about they importance of being on time always is only known by members who are part of that religion which preaches on punctuality as an important virtue. Hence those who are not members of the same may not get access to such an opportunity which will not only have a great impact on the individual’s behavior during religious meetings but also ion other areasIn this case the rules laid down by the religion are seen as having a great impact in individual morality.  Hence religion is credited uninstalling self-discipline to such an individual and he/she is able to evade many barriers which may be presented by being late which results in missing out on quiet important parts of any meeting. Tentatively, punctuality helps the individual to develop a more organized lifestyle  such that they learn  about time allocation procedures  which enable some to manage  their time and eventually turn up for meetings in due time without being late.


As religion defined as a way of adhering to the rules and guidelines laid by a supernatural being who is meant to be respected and appreciated by those who are under they obligation.  Therefore, all who associate themselves with the supernatural being must be deriving benefits from that particular source hence there is a need for obeying all the rules that are there. Christians have an obligation of respecting and following the commandments that were given out by God as they have been called upon to be beneficiaries of His kingdom.  However, the promise of the kingdom is only for those who are true Christians meaning that only those who oblige to the rules in addition to following the teachings of the Bible will see the kingdom. The promise of a heavenly kingdom has led to more people seeking te ways of Christians so that by adhering to the Good News which is written in the Bible, more people will get a share of the promise.


The Ten Commandments which are stated clearly on the Bible usually touch on each ad very aspect of the daily lives of most people especially the moral part.  Christians are asked to respect God who created them and who has promised the reward of an eternal kingdom for those who live according to His will. Similarly, Christians are asked to love their neighbors and in so doing to respect their personality as well as their property. It is unethical for human beings to steal each others property as well as lying about anything no matter ho w small. Hence, by following the commandments Christians are able to live morally   upright livelihoods.  Similarly, individual characters such as respect for ones parents and elders are emphasized by the Holy Book. Many people often exhibit a certain degree of disrespect for their elders and parent especially those who are not conversant with the commandment which calls for respect of parents as well as the reward attached to the commandment.


Individuals who are not connected to Christianity or any other religion which preaches on the respect may adopt a reckless life especially disregarding the advice provided by the parents which is disrespect on its own.Most people embrace religion and good morals as a way of evading punishment after living in an unacceptable ways. Most religions talk of punishment for all transgression which is committed by human beings. This is especially harsh for those sins which people commit when they are fully aware of their actions.The fear associated with this punishment is often enough for most people to turn away from their sinful lives and embrace one of the religions which they deem fit for them. Most of the Christians live righteous lives which are full of good deeds as well as practicing all the virtues while handling their daily activities as a step towards evading the punishment.Such people will steer clear of activities which might end up harming the lives of their friends and neighbors in addition to increasing the chances of getting punished.


Although, the idea of punishment is a negative stimulus in this scenario, it has enabled many people to change their personality into adherence to good morals as well as ethical conduct when running their daily activities. Individuals would opt to sleep hungry in this case rather than steal from their neighbors or else forcefully take what does not belong to them. However, if a similar scenario was presented on the side of a non-Christian the possibility of stealing or obtaining what does not belong to him/her using unethical means would be quite high.Most people believe that generosity is part of their obligations as they have to lend a hand to their brothers and sisters who could be in need. This is especially common in the business field where most companies carry out social corporate responsibility as a way of improving their public image so that they ca increase sales as well as improving market coverage. This is not the case about religious generosity which is seen as a way of fulfilling ones obligation in addition to preaching love to all people as instructed by the Holy Book.


Generosity is thus portrayed not as a way of enhancing our social status but as an initiative where one not only gives material items but also spreads love. The love associated with this form of generosity is fundamental in religion as it is never accompanied by a public show but it is a private affair and the giver refrains from announcing to all about the action. This is quite different from what non-religious people do after helping someone who was in dire need they take it upon themselves to announce to everyone about their act as a way of seeking glory among men. Religious personality does not advocate for such behaviors but rather after doing a generous action, they carry the matter secretly in their hearts and wait for divine glorification.Therefore, the aspect of good deeds is boosted by teachings from the bible and the ethics associated with confiding ion the needy brother so as not to expose their vulnerability is highly regarded.


This makes the whole affair of giving a divine activity thus differentiating it with any other form of giving especially due to the love associated with such generous undertakings. By incorporating love as part of the package, the donor exhibits the willingness to give as a heartfelt action and not as a way of increasing their popularity.Individuals who understand the theory of creation tend to respect the environment as well as living things than their counterparts who have no idea about what is entailed in creation. Christianity talks of how God created the world and after He had completed the whole process of creation, He saw that everything was good. Consequently, many other religions preach about the creation story and how the Creator was with His work such that He liked everything in addition to loving the work He had just completed.An individual who belongs to any religion which expounds on the creation story as well as respect for Gods creation will rarely destroy vegetation in addition to harming wildlife and human lives.


An individual who understands that God was pleased with His work will respect it as well as maintain and care for it.  This task leaves no room for damaging and engaging in activities which are contrary to the will of the Creator. This is in contrast to people who have no idea about how much the world means to God in addition to how much He invested in it so that man and his entire race may be comfortable at all times.An individual who has not had a chance to interact with religion at any point of his/her life will engage in any form of destructive behavior as they have no respect for the efforts and love which God had incorporated in His creation. The same behavior may be passed on to other human being who will engage in life threatening activities as they do not respect their lives as well as those of their brothers. The morals of this particular individual are thus tainted by lack of respect for what the Creator did due to lack of knowledge on the extent to which love was applied in the whole process.


Evils deeds which are accompanied by immoral behaviors are usually associated with darkness such that individuals whop want to carry out immoral activities usually hide under the cover of darkness. However, most of the bogus deals which are carried out in darkness are often revealed to all which is quite embarrassing to the participants who never thought that at one time they would be discovered.Business deals which are usually carried out in such a manner which is unethical tend to be evil and illegal as if the case was otherwise the members who are participating ion the deal would not fear doing it in broad daylight.  Christianity calls for all its members to be cautious of such deals and it goes ahead to warn that after a person has been involved in such situation, the truth will be revealed pone day and it is often quiet embarrassing.This admonition of having the secrets of such a deal exposed to all and probably to employee’s supervisors may cost tem the job or worse still they may wind up in jail.


The embarrassment associated with such dubious actions makes Christians and other religious people to avoid such deeds. The virtue of righteousness as well as that of being truthful at all times inhibits participation is such unethical activities.   The immoral mind of a non-religious person will see no big issue in holding secret meetings without permission form his/he supervisor and feel nothing about it. This is very much unlike the religious individual who thinks highly about the essence of doing the right thing at the right time regardless of whether the boss is around or absent. Therefore, religion not only influences good morals in the individual but also instills a sign of self-respect and responsibility. The individual will strive to do well always in addition to creating a higher degree of accountability at work as well as at home. At that extent, it becomes easier to mould an individual into an excellent leader due to possession of a desirable trait in their ability to resist any form of unethical business deals.


Religion teaches about keeping our bodies pure and respecting them as a way of appreciating the work of our Creator. This implies that activities such as excessive consumption of alcohol, abusing drugs and any other form of activity which causes damage to our bodies should be avoided. Consequently, the Bible refers to the human body as the temple of the Holy Spirit. Therefore, all due respect should be accorded to the body buy consuming food that will nourish it but not harm it. Similarly, human beings are asked to give no room for the devil or to entertain evil thoughts as this is contradicting to the information written in the Bible.Therefore, an individual who is afflicted to any religion which preaches the same ideology will abstain form all the vices which may make the body unclean. Although, health awareness may also create a negative attitude towards such immoral   behaviors, fear of the Holy Spirit failing to live among eth individual due to unfavorable conditions has been known to create a bigger impact.


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The Salience of a Career Calling among College Students

 


 Exploring group differences and links to religiousness, life meaning and life satisfaction

This study was done for purposes of determining the extent to which college students in their first year of study endorse a career calling as well as how the extent of calling comes about to be different as far as a number of issues are concerned including but not limited to life satisfaction and meaning as well as religiousness and demographic variables. The study was also meant to explore as well as examine the specific student populations or groups leaned more towards career calling as well as well as determine the link between life satisfaction, life meaning and religiousness with career calling. In this regard, it is important to note that the piece carries out a satisfactory review of literature that is highly relevant in this area and hence it can be said to be reliable and conclusive.


 Concerning how the research was done, the authors chose a total of 5523 participants who were largely students reporting for their first year. The research was observed gender balance with about 49 participants being male and 51% participants being male. Racial diversity was also a consideration in this research and we had varying percentages of African Americans, native American, Asian Americans as well as Latino Americans. Further, the participants were picked from a wide range of religious affiliations with some participants being picked from the Roman Catholic denomination and others from the protestant, Muslim and Hindu affiliations.  When it comes to the career calling presence, the measures utilized by this study included a two-item scale. The other construct that used a two-item scale measure was the search for calling with the other constructs using different measures. The methods of data collection in this case include questionnaires as well as online surveys.


 The flip side of Holland Type congruence: incongruence and job satisfaction

This study concerned itself with the relationship existing between the Holland type congruence as well as incongruence. The study also carried out tests to determine whether congruence and incongruence were either positive or negatively related. It also sought out to find which kind of variables the congruence and incongruence were. In addition to seeking to chart the relationship of these two, the study also went ahead to seek how each contributed towards job satisfaction, that is, how each predicted job satisfaction and by which extent. In this regard, it may be helpful to note that in the discussion section of the study, the authors note that congruence ended up being ‘lukewarm’ job satisfaction predictor and indeed was a weaker indicator when compared to incongruence. Further, the study found out that a negative relationship best describes the relation between congruence and incongruence. Further, the authors went ahead to predict that the correlation of congruence and incongruence would be largely non redundant but largely negative.


 When it comes to how the study was carried, it is important to note that the total sample consisted of three hundred and thirty four participants (334) and of these participants; one hundred and forty seven (147) were men while one hundred and eighty seven (187) were women. The age of the participants also variously varied with the mean age being given to be 29 years. The instruments in this case included strong interest inventory, as well as quality of employment survey. Lastly, it is important to note that the C index was used to compute congruence. 


 

Josphine Morgan is the Author of this paper. She is a senior academic writer and an editor and she offers Professional Custom Essay Writing Services. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and lack of confidence by visiting AmericanWriting.Org

The Entire Criminal Justice Process For A Felony Criminal Charged In A State Court

 


 Introduction

A felony criminal charge is a crime which originally involved confiscation of a convicted person’s property such as land. Felony includes quite a number of crimes such as battery, arson, burglary, aggravated assault illegal drugs and vandalism of federal property. A person who is convicted in any court for felony crime is called a felon. The criminal justice system is a series of institutions and practices within the government who are directed towards upholding social control, mitigation and deterring of criminal activities. The criminal justice institutions are also involved in sanctioning individuals who violate the laws as well as recommending rehabilitation of other convicted individuals. A certain procedure is applied when the criminal justice institutions are carrying out justice and fair ruling in felony crimes at the state and federal level.


 Discussion

The entire criminal justice process for a felon in a state court

The entire criminal justice process for a felony crime involves a series of stages which are closely linked and dependent. The first stage is usually investigation of the criminal while the last stage involves release of the felon after undergoing correctional supervision.


 Arrest of the felon

Usually an accused individual is arrested after the necessary investigations have been carried out which will link the person to that particular crime. Arrests are usually carried out by police officers upon presentation of a warrant legalizing the arrest such that the suspect is held in custody awaiting the court hearings (Law Criminal Lawyer, 2008).The process of arrest require that the rights of the suspect are read out to him/her this is sometimes referred to as the Miranda Rights which states that any information that is obtained during the arrest cannot be used against the accused in case their rights had not been read out to them.


The constitution provides protection for the accused in that they should remain silent as anything that they say after their rights have been read out to them will be used against them in the court ruling (Law Criminal Lawyer, 2008).The constitution also provides for a state criminal lawyer to those who cannot afford to hire one such that the accused should consult with the attorney before and during the questioning. The attorney will ensure that the rights of the felon are protected especially if the attorney is trustworthy as the public attorney may not be quite efficient as one who is hired by the accused (Law Criminal Lawyer, 2008).


Although the arrestee may be in possession of illegal drugs, harmful weapons or stolen property, the constitution protects them from unnecessary searches. They have a right to resist any form of unlawful arrest as it is against the law. Consequently, any officer who carries out such a search may lead to dismissal of the case due to violation of the rights of the arrestee. This provides a chance for the arrestee to challenge the arrest or search as well as its lawfulness.  After a person has been arrested, they are booked such that they provide personal information; their fingerprints are taken as well as their photographs.At this point, charges may be filed against the arrestee such that they may proceed into the next stage or else they may be released if there are no charges against them (Law Criminal Lawyer, 2008).


 

Arraignment in court

Prosecution involves the presentation of the case to the state attorney or magistrate who files the compliant for the criminal activity that has been committed. The filing is usually based on the arrest citation which contains a brief statement of facts concerning the crime(s) committed by the felon. At this point the defendant is issued with a copy of the complaint so that they are able to read and understand the details of the crime (Barkan, 2004).When deciding whether to charge the accused with a crime, the attorney usually weighs a number of issues such as the seriousness of the offence as well as availability and reliability of the evidence which is present.


Options of setting bails and application of plea-bargains are also enacted at this time such that the future of the case is dependent on the results of the prosecution stage. The magistrate has to go through previous criminal records of the accused as well as carrying out thorough review of the reports and records which are presented concerning the case. Lack of enough and concrete evidence results in the prosecutor issuing instructions to the police, to carry out an intense search as well as investigations on the case, so as to close the missing links (Barkan, 2004).During prosecution, the attorney may include indictment as part of the procedure employed by the grand jury to decide on the nature of charges to be brought against the accused.


However, the law prohibits the defendant and his/her attorney to be present during the indictment by the grand jury. This may be seen as violation of the rights of the person as the grand jury uses the probable cause to come up with their charges against the person (Barkan, 2004).Consequently, the magistrate also reads out the rights of the defendant such as the right to have an attorney such that in case the defendant does not have one the state can appoint one free of charge as well as the right to remain silent. The provision of a state attorney by the court in a felony case is crucial as the attorney ahs to meet and represent the defendant during the first appearance (Barkan, 2004).Prosecution usually occurs within hours of arrest where the accused appears before the attorney who reads out the prosecutions.


The severity of the crime determines the whether a bail will be offered as an option to the accused while the rights of release before trial are read out to the individual. There are various bailing options present for the defendants dependent on the level of crime such that the court is guaranteed of the defendant’s appearance during the trials. Any suspicions of fleeing on the part of the defendant before trail may deny him/her the chance of being offered a bail.  The bail or bond usually presents a lot of conditions to the defendant such that in some cases the magistrate may prohibit any contact with the accused. This allows for the relatives and close friends of the person to post the money which will lead to the release of the individual.


A person who is not offered the option of bail is supposed to remain within the confinements of the jail until the case ruling is delivered (Barkan, 2004).The sole objective of the arraignment is for the individual to plead guilty or not guilty such that from there the court can decide on the next stage. Sometimes the magistrate may decide that the defendant is sincerely not guilty such that a not guilty plea is added to the complaint. After the accusations have been recorded and presented to the attorney and the accused, the date for the defendant’s second appearance in court is set whereby the preliminary hearing or cross-examination of the case is held (Barkan, 2004).


 The pre-trial stage

During the pre-trial stage, the magistrate handling the case should be well versed with the case such that all necessary information and evidence regarding the case should be thoroughly investigated and availed. Therefore, the case file should contain all relevant information which is crucial in determining the fate of the defendant. The prosecutor should also be in a position to present details concerning the case by paying a visit to the scene of crime way before the case is heard in court. Usually the accused is asked to present themselves in court during the pre-trial as well as the jury, members of the public and other people who may be connected to the crime (Bergman and Berman, 2009).


An opening statement is often read out to all by both sides of the case informing the people about the case they will be hearing. The government side presents the first statement while the attorney presenting the accused follows with the other side of the statement. These opening statements are usually factual such that they are posed in away that presentation of evidence will prove them true or false. However, it is not statutory that both sides should present their statements at the same time as one group may opt to read the same at the end of the session (Bergman, 2009).


The pre-trial stage also involves a series of preliminary hearings where evidence is presented before the jury, members of the public and both sides of attorneys to decide whether there is enough evidence to portray the accused as guilty of felony. This is however, preceded by a conference between the two sides of attorneys who decide on the best ay forward whether the trial is necessary. A plea-bargain is often achieved at this stage as a provision of the constitution where the jury’s trial is requested incase the felony is not very extreme. In the event of plea-bargain, the case does not proceed to trial but failure to provide enough evidence to ascertain such an advantage, the case proceeds to trial (DaneCounty, 2006).


 The trail

Trial involves a series of proceedings where the prosecutor avails evidence which will be used to prove the defendant guilty beyond reasonable doubt. In felony cases, the defendant is given minimal chances of admitting innocence but at times a chance may be presented where they may challenge the validity of evidence presented by the prosecutor. Felony cases usually involve the services of a jury who listen to the case proceedings together with the judge and after careful analysis of the evidence that is presented, they pass their judgment on whether the defendant committee the crime or not (American Bar Association, 2010).


The opening remarks which were read during the arraignment are read once more to those who are present before the hearing commences. After the case is heard from both sides, the presentation of evidence prevails such that direct evidence from key eyewitness as well as evidence obtained from the site of crime is presented for all to see. Similarly, circumstantial evidence is presented which links the defendant to the crime. The constitution provides protection of the accused incase the evidence is tampered with by either members of the government of public. Any form of contamination of the evidence results in nullifying the evidence such that members who carry out investigations need to be cautious so as not to tamper with any relevant evidence (DaneCounty, 2006).


More evidence is obtained by cross and direct examination of witnesses where both sides of witnesses are asked questions which are not necessarily leading unless during the cross-examination. The fifth amendment of the United States constitution however prevents the defendant from testifying against him/herself such that their views are not sought during the hearing. The state law dictates that after all witnesses have presented their evidence, both sides of attorneys converge without including the jury and they go over the details of evidence provided in the presence of the judge (American Bar Association, 2010).


Incase one side is not satisfied with the proceedings, rebuttal of the defense begins where witnesses comment and provide more evidence on the evidence which is presented by the defense. The jury is also given a chance to go over the evidence and at some point the judge gets to hear the verdi.ct of each juror such that he/she is able to obtain the opinion of each one of them (American Bar Association, 2010)Sometimes the evidence availed by the prosecutor and witnesses may not be valid such that the supposed crime cannot be proved hence making the defendant not guilty. In such a situation, he/she is released from custody as their was no accusing evidence while incase the defendant is found guilty; an option of remaining in jail while awaiting sentencing or being released on bond is presented to them (American Bar Association, 2010).


 Sentencing of felony criminals

Sentencing is often left to judges who may request reports form probation officers which help in explaining the behavior and conduct of the accused. Felony requires mandatory sentencing but the judge handling the case may decide to impose concurrent sentences depending on the convicted individual’s testimony during sentencing (American Bar Association, 2010).However, cases regarding felony last for at least one year although the judge may seek the option of probation depending on past behavior of the convict. Nonetheless, some sentences may incorporate a fine, probation, a session of incarceration in addition to close supervision in the society (American Bar Association, 2010).  


 Appealing

Appeals are used to retry the case dependent on arguments that there were errors in the judgment but it does not apply to cases where the defendant thinks he was unfairly sentenced. These types of cases are filed by the respective lawyers but the case is handled by the appellant judge who reconsiders the case although no new witnesses or evidence is produced. Convicts of felony do not possess nay rights to appeal in their cases neither can their attorneys appeal for them (American Bar Association, 2010).


 Conclusion

The criminal justice system involving felony is quite complicated and it provides very few chances of the victims to save themselves from the judges. Although, at the preliminary stages there are quite a number of opportunities to escape the harsh sentences associated with felony, most state and federal laws calls for strict measures on the crimes so as to reduce the rate of insecurity in the neighborhoods. The complex system thus, provides a thorough extensive investigation into the committed crime.


 References

American Bar Association (2010), how courts work: steps in trail. Retrieved on May 26,   2010 form: www.americanbarass.com

Barkan, S.E. (2004), “criminal prosecution and trial” a neglected dynamic in the study of social movements” presented at the Annual American Sociological Association.                        Retrieved on May 26, 2010 from: http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p108797-             index.html

Bergman, P. and Berman, S. (2009), know your rights: survive the system. Nolo    publishers

Dane county (2006), the criminal court process: possible outcomes of prosecution.             Retrieved on May 26, 2010 from: www.countyofdane.com/daoffice/process.htm –   United States

Law Criminal ;Lawyer (2008), criminal process: arrest process. Retrieved on May 26,        2010 from: www.lacriminallawyer.com. 


Josphine Morgan is the Author of this paper. She is a senior academic writer and an editor and she offers Professional Custom Essay Writing Services. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and lack of confidence by visiting AmericanWriting.Org

 

Health Indicators In Florida Central Community

 


 Community status in relation to leading health indicators

One of the key leading health indicators that are presented by residents of central Florida includes access to quality health services. In the last few years, the government has been working extra hard to make basic health care accessible to all young, old, the minority and majority whites. The quality of health care has greatly improved as more nurses and doctors are being posted to all public health facilities (Edelman and Mandle, 2006).The community in central Florida has also experienced tremendous improvement in nutritional status such that most people are now consuming balanced diets which are void of snacks. Awareness has been created by health care providers on the importance of including all the vital components of foods in the normal diets.


Particular interest has been deployed on the growth of vegetables in small kitchen gardens so that the community members who are unable to purchase fresh vegetables form groceries can grow them at home (Lurie and Kersey, 2004)The young people of the community are however reluctant to indulge in physical activities such that most of them are obese. Overweight people are common in the streets of Central Florida while only the seniors engage in physical exercises such as jogging and walking. Similarly, the teenagers are engaging in unacceptable behaviors such as tobacco smoking and irresponsible drinking. Substance abuse is also rampant especially among high school students who engage in the vice as a part time activity in school. These vices have led to deterioration of the general health of young people in the community because other than having detrimental effects on normal body functions, they pose severe health issues to the entire body this reducing their productivity (Edelman, 2006).


 Morbidity and mortality rates in Central Florida community

The morbidity and mortality rates in central Florida community are high especially those related to tobacco addictions. This are preventable but despite the numerous campaigns by the department of health to create awareness on the terminal effects of tobacco addiction, very few young people in central Florida are wiling to give up the vice.Homicide, HIV Aids and suicide remain the key causes of death among the middle aged as the elderly are past that stage where mid-life crisis. The seniors are mostly affected by diseases associated with old age such as arthritis and terminal ailments due to physical injury. Similarly, mortality rates at childbirth are minimal as a result of improved health care which is readily available (Florida, 2010)


 Mortality and morbidity of the entire United States

Central Florida is a metropolitan region as such that all races present in the entire Unite States are present here. This community is made up of all age groups and it is thus a complete world of its own. This indicates that the rate of mortality and morbidity in Florida is similar to that of the entire United States. However; mortality rate due to old age is higher in Central Florida than in the entire United States this is attributed to the fact that the federal states lacks a comprehensive scheme of providing health care to seniors citizens. A similar scheme by the government in other parts of the country ensures that there few deaths among the elderly (Florida, 2010).


 References

Edelman, C.L. and Mandle, C.L. (2006), Health promotion throughout the lifespan. 6th     ed: St. Louis, Mosby

Florida, (2010), Florida CHARTS; community health assessment resources tools.   Retrieved on May 15, 2010 from: http://www.floridacharts.com

 Lurie, N. and Kersey, M. (2004), Leading health indicators in Florida. Annual review of public health. Vol, 25 pp, 357-376.


Josphine Morgan is the Author of this paper. She is a senior academic writer and an editor and she offers Professional Custom Essay Writing Services. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and lack of confidence by visiting AmericanWriting.Org

 

Adoption Of Electoral College Reforms

 


Introduction

The Electoral College comprises of popularly elected representatives who elect the president and vice [president in the United States of America. There have been a constant number of representatives since 1964 such that 538 electors are chose to participate in each presidential election. Each state ha sits own legislature used in deciding how many electors will be chosen per state and the criteria used in the selection. The representatives are responsible for electing the most preferred candidate such that voting at the presidential and vice-presidential level in the United States is carried out indirectly. The candidate with the most popular votes and fewer majority votes is elected and regarded as the winner.


However, cases of candidates garnering more majority and less popular votes being regarded as winners is a common scenario and this led to conflicts as to when a candidate should be considered as a winner. The other issue was on the votes which were to be considered influential in the elections and establishment of clear guidelines on when the majority votes or popular votes could be used to identify the winner. According to the rules of the Electoral College, the popular vote bears little significance in winning an election. Thus, the popular vote becomes irrelevant and candidates base their campaign strategies on maximizing the majority votes. This new development led to many political activists attempting to change the Electoral College and its method of handling the presidential elections. A number of amendments and reforms have been proposed as a way of improving the institution.


 Discussion

Significance of reforms on the Electoral College

A major reform on the Electoral College is the proportional allocation of electoral votes in al states so as to ensure equal numbers individuals are allowed to vote. Colorado has been the most recent state to employ this proposal such that a candidate who garners a second position in a state with 45% popular votes receives an equivalent amount of electoral votes other than the usual zero. The best part of this system is that it greatly increases voter turn-out and all parties receive equal presentation in a state. This method of voting also allows the potential candidates to campaign in all states rather than concentrating on states with large numbers of voters.


However, this system may fail to achieve significant changes as the majority will always emerge on top. This increases the political stability of a country especially with recent heated political environment. This is enhanced by employment of nationwide campaigns such that the candidates are able to transverse all over the country (Lublin, 2008).Establishment of the reform in only some states is seen as a way of skewing the presidential election results thus, it would not create any impact on the whole election process as compared to if it was applied to the whole country. This requires that states should be have equal numbers of voters so that candidates who acquire majority vote sin one state are able to garner a similar number of electoral votes even if it is in the same state.


By so doing the Electoral College will be practicing its roles all over the federal country and not in individual states as it is a federal institution (Ross, 2007).Alternatively, the percentages may prove quite difficult to assign them equally in al states especially after proportioning. Similarly, a single elector may be forced to support only one candidate especially where a state presents an uneven number of electors. This way the total vote count is rounded off to the next whole number to minimize errors of working with odd numbers. Candidates who originate from states that vote for a single majority party are more likely to win as there will be no division of electors and votes. Thus, the popular vote will increase the chances of such a candidate wining to their advantage (Knight, 2000)


.Alternatively, some people have proposed the abolishment of indirect voting and in its place establish direct runoff voting. The direct runoff voting system involves voters ranking their most preferred candidates rather than having other people to make the decision on their behalf. During the counting of votes the candidate with the least number of votes is eliminated until a candidate who has a majority votes is identified. This proposal is aimed at reducing resources spent during elections in terms of money and time as the voting and counting is more direct. The spoiler dynamic is aimed at been eliminated by this system such that when the voters cast their votes for the most favorite candidate, the rival or least preferred candidate gains no benefits from that vote (Neale, 2009)


.Direct voting increase the participation of voters in the elections as the will be assured of voting for their favorite candidate. Research has shown that most citizens vote only when they realize that their contribution would affect the final total which will determine the winner. This eliminates potential voters who are not willing to cast votes as a result of influence by electors who betray their pledges (Neale, 2009).The other advantage of adopting the instant runoff voting system is that the states which embrace the method will have an advantage of attaining a winner with a majority vote. Alternatively, the candidate enjoys a majority vote throughout the country as well. The electors in that state will be appointed in a winner-take-all method hence they will be allowed to vote at the national level to the advantage of their preferred candidate (Ross, 2007).


 Conclusion

The United States Electoral College Reforms has been operational for quiet long time although it has been faced by a series of controversial issues regarding its conduct especially in presidential elections. The American congress has come up with a number of amendments which should be incorporated in the final rules and laws of the Electoral College as a way of minimizing the flaws and shot comings which engulf elections.A number of the proposed reforms are applicable at state level and quite a number at national level. Thus, the efficient of the College is determined by the nature of reform and the way in which they are implemented. Some reforms are bound to increase the transparency and equal representation of Americans in presidential elections as well as reducing the expenses incurred during the Election Day.


 References

Knight, Dan. (2000), reforming the Electoral College part two. Retrieved from:            www.rossde.com/editorials/edtl_electcollege.htm

Lublin,David,(2008), electoral college reforms? Not easy. Retrieved from: ww.american.gov

Neale, T.H. (2009), Electoral College reforms: 111th congress proposals and other             current developments. Congressional research service

Ross, David, E. (2007), the Electoral College: abolish it or leave it alone? Los Angeles      times.


James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

 

Principle 10

Principle 10


 INTASC PRINCIPLE 10

Teacher name: Meggan David

Date: 7/05/2010

Grade: 7

Subject: cultural integration

Day: Monday

Learning objective: Students are required to visit various communities in the region to learn their cultures, and how they influence development. At the end of the lesson students will have learned how to interact with different cultures, and live well. The lesson is aimed at helping students appreciate different cultures, and their practices.

 

Day: Tuesday

Community involvement in the classroom

Students are required to visit the community together with the teacher, and interact with different members of the community and learn how the communities live and their culture. The community will help the students master the content on the topic being taught

 


 

Day: Wednesday

Parents’ involvement

Parents will also be involved in the classroom. The students will be given letters to take home. In the letters parents are requested to help students master the content they have learned in class. They should interact with the children using various activities. The letters have variety of activities that parents can use to help their students master the content. Examples of activities in the letter send to parents are learning the language used by the community, the activities and beliefs and values.

 

Day: Thursday

Participation in a cultural event

Parents, teachers and the students are required to participate in a cultural event. Parents and community members are required to interact with the students in these events. This will help students learn more from the community and parents concerning cultures of different communities. Different people will give speech on the cultural topic to help students understand the content in the classroom. They will focus on the types of cultures in the community, their economic activities and social norms, beliefs and values. This will give the students an insight on how different communities have different cultural values. Different members from the community will make demonstrations to illustrate their culture. The teacher will also be involved in the demonstration. After the event the teacher will send letters home to parents. The letters will describe the cultural event and its activities. Also, a thank you note from the cultural coordinator will accompany the letter. The note is aimed at thanking the parents for participating in the cultural event.

 

 


 

Creation of Artifact: Fall 2010

Grade and Subject area:  7 cultural integration

For what class or learning experience this artifact was created:  The lesson plan was created to help students learn different cultures and how they influence development. The lesson plan is also aimed at helping students appreciate other cultures.

Artifact:  a lesson plan prepared using principle 10 to show importance of cultural integration.

Character Education:  Through this lesson the students will understand different communities, their cultures and learn how to appreciate them. The students will learn importance of their culture and appreciate themselves and others students. The students will become confident in life as they will appreciate their own cultures. The teacher will discuss the topic in class using different communities and their cultures to illustrate the content of the topic. 

Reflection: 

The lesson will be very engaging for the students. The teacher will address different learning modalities. The teacher will help the students read through the book so as to understand the content. This will ensure the auditory modality is supported in the lesson. The teacher will repeat the content so as to help the students understand and use pictures to illustrate different communities, and their culture. This lesson will be a very engaginglesson for all the students. The teacher will use visual techniques to help students understand the content. Students will be encouraged to cut pictures of different communities, and their cultures to use during the lesson. The independent and guided practiced will be used through the lesson.

One area that needs to be addressed within this lesson plan is the area of discrimination. The teacher will group the students into various activities composed of various ethnics groups. This will help students interact with each other and share their cultural values. This will help students appreciate each other and eliminate the issue of discrimination in the society.

This lesson plan will help my students in a number of ways. First, students will be allowed to have independent practice in groups and discuss different cultures. From the group work students will learn how to appreciate each other. They will become confident in class. The students will be allowed to use hands on experiments to complement the content taught in class.

This lesson will help me become a more effective teacher because I will involve students in various cultural activities that will help enhance cultural integration in the classroom. This will help improve learning in the classroom and performance of the students. From the cultural event I will learn more on cultural integration. Students will have more exposure as they will attend the cultural event. Thus, through the cultural event I will be able to make cultural integration real, but not depend on the content provided in the book.


  Reference

Nets project. (2003).National educational technology standards for teachers: Resources for assessment. ISTE (Interntl Soc Tech Educ)

Wilkerson, J., Lang, W. (2007).Assessing teacher dispositions: five standards-based steps to valid measurement using the DAATS model. Corwin Press

 

 

Criminal Procedure-Probable Cause

 


               Probable cause is the standards and authority by a police officer to conduct a property or personal search, make an arrest or to obtain a warrant for arrest. The standard is also used by the grand jury in the believe that crime has been committed. The term was instituted by the fourth amendment of the United States constitution.  A search  warrant is an  order signed  by the Judge which  authorizes police officers to search and find  specific material  and  objects  of  a suspect at specific  time in a  certain location.  Police officers obtain warrant by convincing a magistrate or a judge that they have evidence of a probable cause which is a criminal activity. 


The criminal activity should be stated with the exact location or place where they found the evidence. This persuasion is usually in the form of a written statement known as the affidavit.  The report states the police officers; own observation concerning an issues. If the statement is convincing enough to the magistrate, that it provides probable cause that calls for a search, the officer is issued with a warrant.The suspect in connection with the crime is usually not present when the warrant is given and he can not consent on the issue of probable cause. He has the right to contest against the warrant in challenge of it before trial.


The police officers are only allowed to search places described by the warrant at that specific time and the specific property indicated in the warrant. The specific details; in the warrant are only searched; if it means the backyard, then the house should not be searched. But if they come across the evidence of probable cause issue they have the right to conduct further investigations. The name of the person to be searched is included in the warrant which means no any other person should be searched apart from the specified person. But if other suspected persons are found, and then they are subject to the warrant search. Sometimes as search warranty is not required before conducting every search. Searching of issues of probable cause has mostly happened without search warrants. This is because of lack of a reasonable expectation of privacy or the search is reasonable under that specific circumstance.


In these instances the fourth amendment does not apply.A case which does not require a warrantee search is when a person has agreed to be searched. The police officers also have the right to refuse the consent at their own will. Any evidence found through consent search is valid.  The plain view doctrine deals with when police officers have the right to be in place where evidence or contraband is spotted. This can be in the backyard of house where marijuana is grown or contraband activities during his patrol duty. He has the right to conduct a search without any warrant.When arresting, the police officer has the right to conduct a search either for harmful weapons like knives, swords or pistol so as to protect themselves. In this case no warrant is required.


The same case is applied during emergencies such as violence, accidents or when chasing a criminal who hides in a nearby house. This is because during emergencies the police officer has the duty of protecting the public and preserves evidence found in the soonest time possible. Such an activity outweighs the requirements of a warrant.A person can report actions of a police officer who enters his/ her house with out his consent and without a warrant to show his actions. Therefore if an officer demands to search, it is advisable to stand aside and let the police officer conduct the search then  later report the matter to the authorities. For the case of cars and vehicles suspect to be carrying illegal goods such as prohibited drugs, the police officers have the right to conduct a search without any warrant (Nolo, 2010)


  Reference

Nolo (2010) Search warrants:  what they are and when they are necessary. Retrieved

           from

           http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/article-29742.html

           On May 13, 2010


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School Inclusion

 


Abstract

School inclusion is the task which involves integration of students with special educational needs with those who do not require special education. Students who have disabilities are given a chance to spend considerable amount of time with their counterparts who do not have disabilities. Inclusive schools do not discriminate against special and general educational needs but rather all students are treated equally as they attend lessons together as well as other educational activities. This allows maximum participation of all learners in their preferred schools as well as making learning relevant and meaningful to all students. This encourages formation of close relationships among students with disabilities and those who are okay thus eliminating any biasness that some learners are better than others. Alternatively, this boosts their self-esteem such that they are able to perform well academically.


However, all is not well with inclusion as students with severe behavioral problems may pose problems to the classmates especially when they are irritated thus it is upon the school to ensure that safety of all students is catered for and maintained. Research has shown that students with special educational needs who are incorporated into normal classes are able to develop team work spirit in addition to valuing the contribution made by their friends. Inclusion has also been known to instill high levels of tolerance among learners such that with the correct measures, both sides of students are able to gain academic assistance. Counselors are especially helpful in helping the disabled learners understand that they are normal like their other friends and thus they can achieve personal goals if they work hand in hand with their friends. The students with disabilities should also undergo counseling so that they may learn how to treat and handle their friends who require special attention.


 Discussion

School Inclusion

School inclusion refers to the aspect of allowing learners with special academic needs to spend more time in class with their colleagues who do not require special attention. Implementation of inclusion varies from school to school using the criteria of extent of the special need from mild to severe. Inclusion is generally involved in respecting the children’s right to participate in their learning and the chosen school has no option but to absorb the learner in their system. Rejection of special needs learners or the introduction of separate classrooms and schools for learners with special needs is ultimately wrong according to the laws on inclusion. According to the principles of inclusion, learners should be given equal rights of participating in social, physical and educational matters in full capacity or as they deem best for their career prospectus (Westwood, 2003).In inclusion, all students are complete members of the individual schools which they attend and are thus entitled to equal opportunities and duties which are delegated to other normal students.


However, the students with disabilities are provided with a less restrictive environment which will enable the learner to achieve their personal goals (Snyder, Garriott and Aylor, 2001).Schools which have introduced inclusion as part of their daily activities have been restructured to eliminate the boundaries that had been erected around general and special education programs. These schools have been made to change such that they adapt to the needs of the special learners rather than the learners adapting to the needs of the school. The adaptation is dependent on the type of inclusion which will be offered by the school as there are two main ways of carrying out inclusion. One of the procedures involves partial inclusion of learners with disabilities where the students are taught for the better part of the day in the general classroom and later on in the day they attend special remedial classes to boost their understanding.


Alternatively, the special classes are used for the specialized teaching especially where special equipment is being used such as Braille machine which may be disruptive in the regular class. Thus, attendance to the regular class is limited to a specific period of time and after that the learners move on to their special classes for more intensive instructional learning. The partial inclusion is a gradual way of reducing of allowing learners to develop strong relationships with their peers as well as giving them a chance to cope with normal classes which may enhance their understanding of the content learnt in class Jackson, Ryndak, and Billingsley, (2000).The other method of inclusion involves full time attendance of learners with special needs into the general classes from where they receive all attention inclusive of their special activities in the presence of their peers.


This method is popular among learners with mild special needs such that they do not require comprehensive assistance outside the normal lesson. Full inclusion allows the learners to compete amongst themselves as well as giving ample time for discussion groups such that students are able to develop their social skills Feretti, Macarthur and Okolo, (2001).Occasionally, students in inclusive schools are usually allowed to learn with their age-mates due to convenience regardless of whether the academic level of the learner with special needs is within those brackets. Thus, by placing the learner among his/her age-mates, they are taught values such as the benefits of closer relationships in addition to the sense of belonging experienced by that learner. This is because the special needs learner is able to associate well with an age-mate rather than with an elder such a as teacher.


 Benefits of School Inclusion

One of the benefits derived by learners with special need from inclusion is increased opportunities of meeting role models who will facilitate the development of good morals and virtues. Some of the role models include teachers who are met in class and inspire the learners while alternatively fellow peers may also influence the special needs students positively. Similarly, development of good social and adaptive behaviors is enhanced by interactions with other students who practice similar virtues. This also creates a conducive environment for improving interpersonal communication and other skills. Encouraging play and discussions among the students has an even greater impact on the achievement of better communication skills.


This is especially substantial where the learner is unable to express him/herself verbally such that they may incorporate other aspects of communication to relay the information (Westwood, 2003).The inclusion environment is quite challenging as it encourages competition among the different categories of learners. This is quite stimulating such that learners who were originally reluctant to participate in discussions become more active. The challenges posed by competing with other learners who do not have disabilities are enough to make the learner with special needs prove they are equally talented. They will thus be stimulated to work harder and in the process they will achieve not only their academic goals but also their dream careers.


Consequently, the environment also helps in discovery of talents and special interests especially with the help of other students who lead normal lives. This is further boosted by presence of a time table that offers a variety of activities thus, increasing the chances of identifying and developing more skills. Some of the items the may be scheduled in the inclusion class could be quite different from the activities in the special need class therefore a variety of new things becomes even more challenging. This also encourages maximum participation out of curiosity as well as out of eagerness to explore new avenues of fun and learning (Feretti, 2001)Inclusion classes allow the special needs learner to make more friends outside in class as well as outside. In the process of making more friends, experiences are shared such that they are able to learn more as well as learn about new things outside the classroom setting.


Sharing of new experiences helps them understand their situation and appreciate the fact that they are people who are living with severe conditions hence no need to get worried about their status. The interactions are also a major breakthrough in understanding their weaknesses either academic or social and their newly acquired friends may help them get over their weaknesses. Sharing of experiences is paramount to opening opportunities for relevant counseling sessions from professionals as it will be easier to understand various problems. Peers are also able to identify the things which annoy their disabled friend and they are able to avoid such scenarios. This is made possible by increased chances of interaction during lessons as well as during recess.Most important of all, inclusion in schools creates a sense of belonging to the students with disabilities such that they are able to feel as part of the larger community (Snyder, 2001).


 Alternatively, the interaction with other students who do not require special attention makes them forget their disabilities if only for a minute and they are able to explore more dimensions which may not be presented by special needs school. The delegation of responsibilities to all students regardless of their physical or mental condition creates a sense of equality and this boost the self-esteem of disabled learners. They are able to appreciate their contribution and this makes them go a step further to being creative or in some cases in establishing their creativity as their confidence is boosted so that they believe they can achieve a lot. In the special needs class, this may not be possible as there is no learner who is different from them who is able to see and applaud the work (Jackson, (2000).


 Disadvantages of school inclusion

Special needs learners may pose great problems to the learning environment of regular students in the same class. Some have disruptive habits such as involuntary shouting while the learning equipment used by others such as the Braille machine as well as some speech items which may make a lot of noise in class thus distracting other students. These distractions are mostly felt by learners who do not have disabilities as they are not used to such items. Consequently, some may be curious to know how they operate such that instead of carrying out their private studies they end up hovering around the special needs student trying to see how the machine operates.


Without close supervision thus may cause a lot of mayhem when learners portray more interest on the machines being used by special needs learners rather on their own learning. Thus, inclusion creates a problem to the normal students in terms of uncensored distractions (Purich, Ross, Severino and Zwirz, 2009).The disabled learners may develop a negative attitude towards school, their parents and teachers when they discover that they are expected to compete with their peers who are not disadvantaged as them. Frustrations may be evident in failure to participate in class discussions or poor performance in other academic activities and the students give excuses such as “I have done better than so and so who does not require speech machines like me. So why are you branding me a failure”.


With such a perception in mind, the student lacks the motivation to work hard because they believe that their classmates (Purich, 2009).Despite the fact that the inclusion provides equal chances for all students, the special needs students may require extra help in remedial classes as their level of understanding may be lower than for the students who do not have disabilities. Thus, incorporating the two groups in the same class may be detrimental to achievement of full academic potential for those with disabilities. Consequently, lack of trained teachers in the normal classroom setting to provide the special instructional directions required for such learners may dampen their enthusiasm for learning.


Concurrently, failure to have enough trained special needs teachers to provide for the individual problems may result in a feeling of neglect and abandonment leading to poor academic performance. The amount scheduled for the lessons in inclusion may not be enough as compared to time allocation and utilization in special schools. The pace needed for instruction and perceiving may be less for the learners with special needs while their peers may see this as a waste of time hence get bored during the lesson. Scheduling classes with the two groups in mind as well as their different needs is an even greater problem to the teacher who prepares the time table (Schneider, 2009).


 Research studies on inclusion

Research has shown that most learners who require special needs find life more difficult in mainstream inclusion schools as the conditions availed there are more to the advantage of their ‘normal’ peers than to them. Majority of the facilities that are present are suitable for normal learning without the introduction of equipment used by the disabled. The classroom environment makes special learning a strenuous task and so is participation in extra-curricular activities. Most disabled learners are discontent with the fact that they are not included in making decisions which directly affect them. Most of them would like to be treated as different from their peers and their cases handled differently from those presented by learners with out disabilities (Schneider, 2009).


Inclusion in schools is far from being equally beneficial to the special needs learners as research has shown that the nature of restructuring made in such schools are way below average. Lack of adequate professionals in the area to handle the different cases presented by these learners is a major problem which requires immediate solving. Use of academic performance should not be used to gauge the ability of a special educational needs student to cope in an inclusion school but rather a combination of mental, physical and academic growth should be used to determine success of the development (Speece and Keogh, 1996).


 

The role of counselors in inclusion

Counselors are responsible for initiating comprehensive guidance to special needs learners who have been included in a normal school. They should instill confidence in the learners by encouraging them that they are capable of excelling socially and academically if they work hard. These learners should be made to understand that they disability should not hinder the achievement of personal dreams. Therefore, counselors should ensure that the special needs learners understand that they are not different from their peers who do not have any disability. This is the first step towards accepting their status and after that they are able to adapt the new way of life confidently (Westwood, 2003).Counselors should be available for consultations at all times as it is quite difficult to predict trouble or problems and the disabled students should be attended to promptly to avoid further damage and harm from being caused. Alternatively, ‘normal’ classmates should be counseled so that they may learn how to handle their disabled classmates. Information on how to handle various situations during playtime should be relayed at relevant times to prevent conflicts (Jackson, 2000).


 Conclusion

Inclusion in schools is an area that requires intensive research and preparation before incorporation of the learners. This is because different learners may be having the same condition but wit different needs and requirements such that the mod eon inclusion for both may be quite different. Consequently, counselors have an even bigger task in controlling conflicts by helping the disabled learners fit into the mainstream system.


 References

Feretti, R.P. ,Macarthur, C.D. and Okolo,C.M. (2001), Teaching for historical        understanding in inclusive classrooms. Council of learning disabilities: Delaware           University press. Vol. 24 pp59

Jackson, L Ryndak, D.and Billingsley,F. (2000), useful practices in inclusive education: a preliminary view of what experts in moderate to severe disabilities are saying. The journal  of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps. Vol. 25. iss. 3       pp 124-141

Purich, K., Ross, D., Severino, A. and Zwirz, D. (2009). Inclusion: why does it not suit     educational needs for all. Spring publishers

Schneider,C. (2009), Equal and not enough-current issues in inclusive education in the      eyes of children. International journal of education. Vol,1 no.1

Snyder, L. Garriott, P. and Aylor, M. W. (2001). Inclusion confusion: putting the pieces   together. The journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for    Exceptional Children, Vol. 24, no. 3. pp.198-207

Speece,D. and. Keogh B, (1996), research  on classroom ecologies: implications for           inclusion of children with. Routledge publishers.


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Heresy

 


 Heresy is information about someone that is obtained from second sources because either the first source is unavailable or they cannot be accessed. According to (Schroeder, 2006), clerics who are condemned are to be punished while those who are only suspected may only be punished after the suspicion is confirmed. The issue of tares springing up among the faithful was reported to the Pope such that a second party had seen the problem but not the pope.Wycliffe is being accused of neglecting his duties as a rector and instead of guiding people to abandon their sinful ways, he is presenting chances for people to continue sinning. Further accusations are that he has been preaching doctrines which are against those of the Catholic Church thus, misleading the Catholic faithful (Thatcher,1 907).


The response that Wycliffe presents for the accusation is that he has been trying his best to preach God’s gospel as would be expected of him. Similarly, he says that he is a human being and just like Peter and Paul who erred in the course of their work and they were forgiven, he should also be forgiven. He further on says that he is more obliged to follow God’s laws than those of men as they are more superior (Thatcher, 1907).The Pope is more concerned with the Church following the rules and guidelines that have been set up for them while Wycliffe tends to overlook the rules of the church. He believes that God is more superior to the church and thus, he is obliged to follow rules from a superior office.


 References

Schroeder, H..J. (1996), the disciplinary decrees of the ecumenical council. Pp.242-243.    Retrieved from: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/lat4-c3.html

Thatcher, O.J. (1907) The early medieval world. The library of congress sources. Pp.378-   382. retrieved from; http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1382wycliffe.html.


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Microsoft Monopoly Power

 


Abstract

Most people have criticized Microsoft as the company is said to be a monopoly. Microsoft is a monopoly as it occupies a large market share. The firm occupies 90% of the market share. People have criticized the firm because of its pricing behavior and reactions towards other firm. The firm sets higher prices for its new products, and old products. It also forces other firms in the market place to comply with its rules. The relationship between Microsoft and other firms like Intel and Netscape are not good. The relationship shows how Microsoft protects its monopoly power. This paper shows how Microsoft is a monopoly using its pricing behavior and reaction towards other firms.


 Introduction

A monopoly is said to exist when a specific firm or person has control over a particular product, and services. The firm determines the terms on which other people will be able to access the products, and services. Monopolies are mainly characterized by lack of economic competition. Firms become monopolistic when they do not face competition from other firms. They also lack substitute goods as competitors are not allowed to produce similar products. The firm gains a greater marker share than what is expected under a perfect competition. Many people have criticized Microsoft as the firm is said to be a monopoly. This is because Microsoft has a large market share compared to other firms in the market place. Though, Microsoft offers technology products like windows operating systems, other smaller firms have emerged to compete with the firm. For example, Macintosh and Linux have emerged to provide similar products.


Macintosh is a small firm that offers computers and operating systems. Another firm is Linux and it offers alternative windows to Microsoft windows. Microsoft occupies a market share of 90% while other firms occupy only 10%. A monopoly sets high prices on its goods and services as it has no serious competitors to force it to lower the prices. A monopolistic firm also limits the supply of goods and services. This causes scarcity of the products causes prices to rise. The company collects rent on its domination of the particular sector of the economy. The company collects a lot of rent than it could not collect if there were other competitors in the market place. A monopoly exists legally when the firm forces other competitors out of business by cutting prices, and buying up supplies and hoarding them. It also uses bribery and intimidation to acquire a market share.


 Microsoft monopoly power

 Many people have criticized Microsoft as the firm has engaged in many practices on the basis of its monopoly in the market place (Koontz, Weihrich, 2006). Since Microsoft is the largest company offering operating systems and computers, it has taken the advantage. A federal judge has ruled that Microsoft has engaged in many practices that are harmful to other competitors. The judge also terms Microsoft to be a monopoly. Most people argue that Microsoft should be divided into other small firms so as to make it compete on the same level with other software firms. This will ensure competition in the market place. Thus, reducing the prices and improving the quality of the product. Microsoft is considered to be monopolistic as it has a commanding share in the market place (Koontz, Weihrich, 2006). The firm acts as a threat to other firms offering software products in the market place. Federal judges have declared Microsoft a monopolistic firm in a recent anti trusts. Most people have questioned the pricing behavior of Microsoft, and Microsoft actions towards other firms. Microsoft pricing behavior shows that the firm enjoys a monopoly power in the market place.


The company has set high prices for its Intel compatible PC operating systems. More over, the company does not consider the prices of other vendors who offer Intel compatible operating systems while setting prices for its windows 98. This shows that Microsoft is a monopoly in the market place, and it does not consider other firms present in the market place. If Microsoft was not a monopoly in the market share it would consider prices charged by other firms in the market place (Eisenach, Lenard, Progreess & freedom foundation (U.S), 1999).  Another indication that Microsoft is monopoly is that Microsoft has raised the prices it charged OEMS for Windows 95.The firm has raised the prices to the same level as the prices the firm charged for windows 98 before releasing the newer product. In a competitive environment, the prices for older product decrease when a newer product is released or stays the same (Sexton, 2001). For example, in a competitive environment the prices for older operating systems stay the same or drop when a newer operating system is released. However, Microsoft did not lower its prices for the older operating system, but it increased it to the same level with the newer product. Microsoft was only concerned with inducing OEMS to ship windows 98 in favor of the older version.


Thus, Microsoft is a monopolistic firm (Eisenach, Lenard, Progreess & freedom foundation (U.S), 1999).Another reason why Microsoft pricing behavior reveals the firm is a monopoly is the setting of prices. The firm had tact in setting the prices for windows 98 upgrade product. A Microsoft study carried out on November 1997 shows that the firm charged $49 for upgrade to windows 98. The price the firm charged was profitable. The study shows that the revenue maximizing profit for the company was $89.The firm opted for the higher price during this period so as to maximize profits in the market place. Microsoft also charges different prices for its OEMs (Eisenach, Lenard, Progreess & freedom foundation (U.S), 1999). The prices charged by the company depend on the degree to which the OEM is willing to comply with Microsoft requests. The company charges higher prices for its products because there are no strong competitors in the market place, and the firm has higher market share than other firms. The firm also wants to maximize profits from the market share.


This indicates that Microsoft is a monopoly as it charges higher prices for its product so as to maximize profits. This is a characteristic of a monopoly firm which has a large share than other firms in the market place. The firm wants to stimulate the growth for its share by maximizing the profits. The firm pricing behavior has effects on its consumers. This is because the firm wants to maximize profits, and spend most of its monopoly power maximizing prices, and imposing burdensome restrictions to its consumers. This will make it easy for the company to force the consumers behave in ways that will help the firm prolong its monopoly power. The company wants to have a large share in the market place. For example, the firm has imposed conditions to windows license that restrict OEMS from promoting software’s that would weaken the application barrier to entry.


The company also charges lower prices for OEMS that agree their machines to run Windows NT for workstations. This forces OEMs to concentrate on developing powerful and expensive PCs, but not developing cheaper client systems. This is to prevent OEMs from developing systems that would affect the demand for Microsoft products. In addition, Microsoft chargers lower prices to OEMs who agree to ship machines within a shorter time with an operating system preinstalled. This prevents customers from noticing an increase in prices for windows. Thus, the pricing behavior for Microsoft reveals that the firm is a monopoly, and it only works to enlarge its monopoly power. This is through increasing the market share for the product and charging different prices (Cabral, 2000).Microsoft monopoly power is shown by its action towards other firms in the market place.


For the past years, the firm has taken actions that reinforce its monopoly power. Microsoft took actions to respond to middle ware threats as they weaken the application barrier to entry. Middle ware technologies developed by other companies are able to weaken the application barrier to entry (O’Sullivan, Sheffrin, 2000). This is because the middleware attract many developers who would develop various middle wares. The developers would also develop middle wares that allow applications to run on middle ware APIs. This would make it easy for consumers to port the applications from one operating system to another. The applications would run on any operating system hosting the middle ware. Microsoft focused on two middle wares that would weaken the application barrier to entry. That is Netscape browser and java technologies. Microsoft felt that if the middle ware were implemented they would be a threat to its monopoly power.


The combined efforts of the middle wares threatened to weaken the application barrier to entry by creating a new way for non Microsoft operating systems to be used instead of windows. In 1994 Microsoft worried about notes distributed by Lotus and IBM (Cabral, 2000). This is because the notes presented graphical interfaces common in many operating systems. Notes also exposed a set of API to developers and enabled developers to distribute sun java runtime. In 1995 Microsoft reacted to Intel native signal processing software as the software interacted with microprocessor independent of the operating system ( McKenzie, 2001). The software also exposed API directly to developers of multimedia. Microsoft reacted to other firms because it feared that the technologies produced by the firms enabled firms to develop user oriented software. The software would make it easy for consumers to use applications without using windows operating systems developed by Microsoft.


Microsoft responded to Netscape products by preventing the company from manufacturing browsers that run on windows. Microsoft wanted to manufacture products that only run on windows. The firm used the strategy above to prevent non Microsoft browsing software’s from weakening the application barriers to entry (Cabral, 2000). Microsoft also declined to assist other forms get information on how to develop products that could run on Windows 95. For example, Microsoft declined to assist Netscape with information on how to develop a browser to function in windows 95.The firm forced Netscape to enter into agreement to form a relationship so as to reveal the information. Other firms also had a similar experience with Microsoft like Intel. Microsoft convinced Intel to stop developing software that enabled developers to develop independent operating interfaces. The main reason for threatening other firms was to overcome competition that could be created by the firms (Cabral, 2000).


 Conclusion

Microsoft is a monopoly. This is shown by the pricing behavior of the firm and the relations with other firms. Microsoft has set high prices for its new and old products in the market so as to maximize profits. This is in contrast to price for old products and new products in the market. The company offers lower prices to OEM as long as OEM agrees to sell Microsoft products, and not to develop cheaper products that weaken application barrier to entry. Monopolistic firms occupy large market share and set higher prices for goods and services than their competitors. Microsoft occupies 90% of the market share, and it has set high prices for its product and services. Microsoft relationship with other firms in the market place shows the firm is a monopoly. This is because the firm finds ways of extending its monopoly power and it does not consider other firms. Microsoft prevents other firms from manufacturing similar products. For example Intel, Netscape have had bad relationship with Microsoft. Microsoft has forced the firms to stop manufacturing similar products.


 Reference

Cabral, L.(2000).Introduction to industrial organization.MIT Press

Eisenach,J.,Lenard,T.,Progreess & freedom foundation(U.S).(1999).Competition, innovation, and the Microsoft monopoly: antitrust in the digital marketplace : proceedings of a conference held by the Progress & Freedom Foundation in Washington, DC, February 5, 1998. Springer

Koontz,H.,Weihrich,H.(2006).Essentials Of Management.Tata McGraw-Hill

McKenzie,R.(2001).Trust on trial: how the Microsoft case is reframing the rules of competition.Perseus Books Group

O’Sullivan,A.,Sheffrin,S.(2000).Economics: principles and tools.Prentice Hall

Sexton,R.(2001).Exploring microeconomics.South-Western/Thomson Learning


 

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