Category: Education


A Variable



                  A variable is something that can vary or change with time. There are two types of variables, independent and dependent variables. Independent variables can be controlled by the person performing an experiment while dependent variables are variables that are measured by the person performing an experiment. This paper will discuss about the proposed dependent and independent variables and a description of the pan to find instruments for the variables.


Proposed dependent and independent variables

             The research study aims finding out the effects of work experience on the performance of college students. The study will be conducted by comparing the grades of students who have worked prior to joining college to those who have not worked prior to joining college. In this case, college grades are the dependent variable since these college grades depend on the work experience. The independent variable in this case is work experience. This is because work experience can lead to generation of two independent groups namely, college students with work experience and college students with no work experience (Delta Education (Firm) and Lawrence Hall of science, 2001).

                 The instruments to be used for the proposed dependent and independent variables are questionnaires that will be filled by college students indicating the number of years of experience they had prior to joining college. This will enable us identify college students with work experience and college students without work experience. Therefore, it will enable us measure the independent variable which is the work experience. We will also need about 100 college student volunteers who will fill the questionnaires (Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2007).

               Test exams papers will be used to obtain the dependent variable which is the college grades. The students volunteers will take an exam test to measure their level of intelligence and the grades obtained will be used as dependent variables. The grades obtained depend on the level of the students’ work experience (Cohen, 2007).

                  Since a test will be used as a measuring device for data collection, it is essential for the test to be valid and reliable. In this case, the test is aimed at measuring the level of intelligence or performance of college students. The test question should test the knowledge of what is learnt in class for instance a question on a given course topic. A good example of a way that can be used to measure validity is using a Scholastic Assessment Test and then the use of a correlation coefficient to compare the grades scored by college students in the Scholastic Assessment Test (Litwin, 1995).

                   Testing reliability on the other hand will be used to determine whether the exam test is consistent. The best statistic that will be used to test reliability is the reliability coefficient. An example of a method that can be used to test reliability will be to give the same exam test to two groups of students at different times. To know if the test is reliable both groups will score almost similar grades in both occasions (Litwin, 1995).


            Every research study should strive to be a solid research study and solidity can be achieved by having knowledge of how to manipulate both dependent and independent variables and controlling aspects that can affect the validity of the experiment.


Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. R. (2007) Research Methods in Education (6th Ed.). Routledge.

Delta Education (Firm), & Lawrence Hall of science (2001) Variables.  Delta Education.

Litwin, M. S. (1995) How to measure survey reliability and validity (3rd Ed.). SAGE


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Federal Air Marshal Program



After the wake of 9/11, the federal air marshal program’s sudden expansion of the former sky marshal program which had already been intact for the past three decades is currently expanding an in full force.  The federal marshal program, a branch in the Homeland Security Department, dedicated with trained agents is run by the Transportation Security Agency (TSA). The federal air marshal program is proudly embellished with highly trained aviation prоfеѕѕiоnalѕ who vow protect the homeland from terrorist acts.  No doubt, 9/11 changed the way the world views aviation here on the homeland and abroad.


                Federal  Air Marshall  Service(FAMS) is  a  United States Federal  agency under Transport Security Administration  of  the Department Of  Homeland Security (DHS). The air marshal program was created by President Kennedy in 1963.  President Kennedy ordered   the federal law to enforce an act that would see security officers ensure safety of high risk flights (Price, 2009, p 13).  Federal  Air Marshal  service began  to operate  as the Federal  Aviation Administration(FAA)  in  1969 also known  as the Sky Marshal   Program.By 1969, acts  of  air piracy had increased  which  saw  President Nixon  deploying armed  federal  agent  on  commercial  aircraft of the United States to counter the treats of piracy in  air travel.

prior to  the September 11, 20001 attack, the Federal  Marshall  air services had  various  number of FAMS which  depended  upon the availability of finds  and  on  perceive threats.  On 9th   September 2001 33 FAM were active (BBC news, 2003).  in  response to this president Bush ordered a  rapid  expansion of  FAM that would  comprise  of  federal  agencies such as US  Housing  and Urban  Development   Office  of; inspector General, Postal inspection service,  ATF,  US  customs  and Boarder protection,  CID, IRS and others.FAMS was implemented to ensure air safety and to win the confidence of public travelers and the general civil aviation. 

Federal Air Marshal has the responsibility of detecting, deterring and defeating hostile act that target the US in air carriers and the airports.  Passenger’s air crew personal safety is under FAMS (Transport Security administration, 2010).Federal Air Marshal operates independently without any back up.  It is therefore a program that holds the highest standard or hand gun accuracy (Transport Security administration, 2010). FAMS personnel  are well  trained  with  investigation b techniques,  fire arms proficiency ,  close  quarter self  defense  criminal terrorist and  behavior recognition  to ensure the highest level of  security to the traveling  public(Transport Security administration, 2010)Upon aviation coming to fruition, the united Ѕtatеѕ has become the headquarters of providing a safety aviation network across the world.

This program has been mounted with a costly burden against the war on terror.  Rоbеrt G. Bеll referenced, “more than 40 pеrсеnt оf hijackings around the wоrld ѕinсе 1960 havе invоlvеd Аmеriсan airсraft” (Dоbѕоn and Paynе, 1982). Тhе vaѕt majоrity оf hijaсkingѕ in thе Unitеd Ѕtatеѕ wеrе сarriеd оut by individualѕ whо were generally seeking travel from the U.S and Cuba.  U.Ѕ. hijack missions were executed by psychologically impaired individuals, сriminalѕ, and еxtоrtiоniѕtѕ seeking to voice their cause. The U.S aviation, vulnerable, embarked upon new regulatory practices and terroristic counteraction practices that continue to be competitive on a daily basis. Heinous attempts in the skies which slayings were carried out by individuals willing to ѕaсrifiсе paѕѕеngеrѕ and its shell to accomplish their ruthless mission was now a focal point in aviation security.

 As a result, U.Ѕ. aviatiоn ѕесurity has bееn subjected with rеlеntlеѕѕ еffоrtѕ оf tеrrоriѕtѕ whose main mission is to destroy.   Flaws of U.Ѕ. ѕесurity mеaѕurеѕ have proved fallible whеn acts of terror were executed in Wеѕtеrn Hemisphere airpоrtѕ and subway stations.  Unfortunately, protocol in its new regulatory practices involves profiling.  Muslim/Arab passengers quietly sitting on a plane have the potential by their presence to cause a stir because of past volatile situations with radical beliefs in religion.  Profiling is not always full proof but is found to have some merit in the ability to detect suspicious behavior.The Federal Air Marshal Service aims at continuously fostering an inclusive workplace culture and a device based on fairness, open communication, respect and cooperation.  A suitable environment will enables FAMS employees be able to provide the highest level of security and safety to the public and travelers. The employees  are the working  groups,  field officers,  directors listeners based in headquarter and email  personal  who provide constructive  feedback  in  improving  FAMS


Flight crews undergo rigorous training and are briefed when air marshals are to board flights. The air marshals are assigned duties in the soonest time possible   whenever there is high risk locations (BBC news 2003). The undercover air Marshall is deployed on flights out of and into the country. For example during the Super Bowl  XXXVI in  New Orleans in  20002,  flights that came near Salt lake city which hosted 2002 winter Olympics (Fox News,  2005)had  undercover air marshal.The air marshals carry the Sig Sauer P229 service pistol in a 357SIG Chambering.

The y are trained to “shoot to top” which is firing the largest part of the body and the head so as to incapacitate the nevus system (Thomas Frank, Mimi Hall & Alan Levin, 2005)In the United Ѕtatеѕ in 1973, the (Federal Administrative Agency) FАА ѕpесifiеd thrее arеaѕ that ѕhоuld bе dеѕignatеd fоr inсrеaѕеd ѕесurity mеaѕurеѕ: thе tiсkеt соuntеr, thе bоarding gatе, and the interior of thе airсraft.  Increased security came along with instructions of profiling individuals who would likely hijack planes. The task force in 1969 was lead by Evan Pickeral who informed its personnel  of 35 behavioral characteristics to observe in relation  to past hijacking.  In 1969 an (Federal  Aviation Agency) FАА taѕk fоrсе undеr thе lеadеrѕhip оf Evan W. Piсkеrеl idеntifiеd 35 bеhaviоral сharaсtеriѕtiсѕ соmmоn tо paѕt aviation hijaсkingѕ.

Elimation of those suspect where those in age ranges of 16 and 65 who purchased a single ticket for cash. (Bell,1996)Compliance of the boarding areas were to measures  steps that were taken  to prevent concealed weapons from being brought on board. Major airports in the U.S and its western allies all had installed walk through metal archways, x-ray machines to examine all carry on luggage. The wake of these much needed hardware on aviation was seen as a proactive deterrent toward safer air travel.  World wide,mеtal dеtесtоrs, X-ray maсhinе wеrе fоund tо bе еffесtivе aѕ thе individualѕ оpеrating thеm. Security glitches were discovered when  droves of passesngers walking  thrоugh thе ѕсrееning prосеѕѕ prоduсеd what was called “the assembly syndrome” сauѕing ѕесurity to become flawed. The terrorist was now able to seep ammunition, explosives and other fatal devices through the cracks of its system.

 Training and Qualifications

                For one to become an  Federal  air Marshall,  one has to have college or university   credentials on  criminal  justice,  criminal  law,  constitutional  law  or a related  course.  One should be under the age of forty.  Experience is earned when one undergoes Federal Air Marshall, Service training.  Prior  experiences  to be considered  before one is  appointed is  courses in  defense  tactics,  experience in  martial  art,  and hand to hand combat technique.  Experience earned when working with a law enforcement agency is an added advantage (e, How, 2010)The Civil aviation security specialist and the federal air marshals undergo intense training which air a two phase program.  The first phase takes duration of seven weeks which majors on basic law course.  The training is completed at Artesia’s Federal law Enforcement Training Center in Mexico.  

The Air Marshall later join William J Hughes technical center in New Jersey for a follow up training.  This training s is done with the aim of equipping the   federal air Marshall with the best performance skills on their job.  The training  involves  courses like  marksmanship,  physical  fitness,  defensive tactics,  constitutional  law,  emergency medical  assistance and law enforcement techniques. The candidates then undergo the second phase of the training for the purpose of gaining tactics that should be carried out in the field. The training emphasizes on perfection of marksmanship skills. This is because the job necessitates the candidates to be tightly confines to the aircraft and others outside it. The candidates after successfully compilation of the training are assigned to twenty one field officers for them to begin their duties and mission.

 Future of aviation

             FAM  has taken  an approach  that will  see  safety of selected flights deemed  as high  risk  and take long  distance journey  that were targeted on  September 11 2001.  This approach was taken because the number of air marshal is less   than the number of daily flights taken. The FAM aims at maximizing the coverage of flights in high risk categories ranked the top ten.The FAMS previous Director implement initiatives  and processes in  2008 that would  provide anonymous feedback  to the management through internal  website,  working  groups an listening  sessions. FAM  plans  to conduct workforce satisfaction  survey every two years(GAO,  2009) to build  upon the first survey done in  2007.thsi is with the aim of enhancing  and ensuring  that the questions on the survey answers  to provide  highest possible  response rates.

FAM continues to address various quality of life and operational issues that affect the ability of Air marshal to perform to the best possible level for it to achieve its mission. This will involve FAMS management involvement in oversight survey of key questions to foster career sustainability.  FAM is in  a mission of recruiting  and deploying  trained  and armed federal  air marshal  in  providing  the highest level  of  on board  security on  selected  flights.  FAM routinely determines which flights are to be provided with on board security presence and which are not.  Te service has developed an operational approach referred to as the agency concept of operation for deploying air marshal on selected flights (GAO, 2009)



              The FAMS still faces the challenge of the total number of service it has compared to the number of flights that operate on daily basis in the US. The management has however solved this by selecting the risk flights which are to have on board security presence.  This could still be a challenge in providing highly security to those which are seen to be less at risk. FAM also faces the challenges of addressing quality of life issue s and operational issues that affect the ability of air Marshall to carry out its agency mission (GAO, 2009).  Such issues inclusive, maintaining anonymity on boarded air craft and procedures to mitigate various health concerns associated with frequent flying.


The Federal Air marshal has an important mission to carry out in ensuring safety of aviation transport to all the passengers. The various initiatives and process have helped in addressing the concerns of the workforce, opening lines for communication and ensuring sustainable progress. The security of aviation transport sector should be the ultimate goal of FAM in gaining public confidence for air transport.


Transport security administration, (2010) Federal Air Marshall. Retrieved from  

           On May 27, 2010

GAO, 2008 the Federal air Marshall Service. Retrieved from


                On May 27, 2010

Price, D (2009) Practical Aviation Security (Burlington, M.A.: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2009), P 13

BBC news (2003) Air marshal grounded over security.  Retrieved from

             On May 27, 2010

Fox News (2005) air marshal, in spot light.  Retrieved from


                    On May 27, 2010

Thomas F, Hall, M& Alan Levin (2005). “Air marshals thrust into spotlight”. USA Today. Retrieved from


eHow (2010) How to become a Federal Air Marshall.  Retrieved from


                  On May 27, 2010


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Effective and Ineffective Elements of Two Sites has established separate websites for its outlets in Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Japan and China such that the costumers in those countries are able to get personalised information which is local about their favourite on the other hand deals with all sorts of goods from different companies whether branded or not but rather its merchandise is specifically made for online selling by the company. deals with branded goods which are manufactured by specific companies thus making it favourite for consumers who are keener on brand loyalty. This strategy is quite effective as it enhances the sales from various manufacturers (, 2010).Similarly, relies only on direct sales of items while has indulged in online auctions which help other retailers to liquidate their property.

This increase the customer base for the company while at the same time increasing the provides international shipping services for purchases made in either online store such that the customer just presents the details of their location and the payment then wait for the items to be delivered. provides free shipping once when a new customer makes his/her first purchase. By making it easier for its customers to purchase and receive the purchases conveniently, becomes a favourite choice for many (, 2010).The other strategy which makes more effective in its operations is its worldwide market for all its products. on the other hand lacks a wider world wide market such that it has a narrower market share (, 2010) has included iTunes, iPhones and iPads as part of their merchandise. These are items which are highly demanded by young people such that they present higher sales. This category of customers would rather have all their music in an IPhones rather than purchase DVDs (, 2010).Feedback from customers is essential to any company which is in the process of enlarging the market share. has developed a software program which allows customers to write a review about the product they have purchased. This provides a forum for criticising a product as well as rating it (, 2010).One feature that makes the sales of books via more profitable for the company as well as the authors is the ability of customers to search for information in the book using key words.

This option prevents piracy as well as illegal reproduction of the same book as only some limited pages are accessible online thus the reader has to pay for them to gain access to the whole book(, 2010) provides its customers with the freedom to carry out online bargains such that they are able to compare prices of various brands of the same product being sold by the outfit. does not provide this feature and its customers end up buying goods which may be overpriced (, 2010) has also employed a key feature in its sales by incorporating third party sellers who earn commissions by referring potential customers to the Amazon website. This is made possible by creating links from the websites of the third parties into that of Amazon (, 2010).

  References (2010), about us. Retrieved on May 26 2010 from: (2010), international website. Retrieved on May 26 2010 from: 

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Illegal immigration


 The number of illegal immigrants in United States has increased much. Illegal immigration has negative effects to the country. First, illegal immigration interferes with the countries security. This is because most immigrants bring harmful items to the country like drugs and weapons. Illegal immigrants entering the country through the Mexican border have caused a lot of insecurity (LeMay, 2007). The immigrants have smuggled illegal drugs and firearms into the country. This has interfered with insecurity in the country. Secondly, illegal immigration has caused environmental degradation. The immigrants abandon their cars on the Mexican border near Arizona. The vehicles cause environmental pollution on the border. The illegal immigrants leave behind a lot of trash when they are walking. Residents along the border have complained of environmental pollution in the area.

This is because immigrants have dumped waste materials along the border. The immigrants have also caused environmental destruction as they walk along the parks. They have used the parks in the country to distribute illegal drugs. This has led to destruction of previously protected areas. Illegal immigrants have also caused danger to wildlife, plants as they have destroyed forests and habitat areas for the wildlife. The immigrants have caused destructions to land used for farming and grazing. In addition, they have caused security threat to citizens, wildlife in various parts of the country. The country should deport all illegal immigrants in the country. This is to prevent environmental degradation and stabilize the population. Another reason why the government should deport illegal immigrants is to improve security in the country. This will reduce smuggling of illegal drugs and firearms. It will also reduce terrorism (Chiras, 2009).


Chiras, D.D. (2009).Environmental Science. Jones & Bartlett Learning

LeMay, C. M.(2007).Illegal immigration: a reference handbook. ABC-CLIO

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Race in the Honolulu Community



Honolulu is the most populated area of the Hawaii state in the United States while downtown Honolulu is the center of financial, commercial as well as the government center for the Hawaiian government. The Honolulu community is made up of mostly upper class districts where the residents live in high-priced homes. The upper class communities are made up of the Wai’alae’iki and the Hawai’i Loa Ridge. According to the 2002 census, the Honolulu community had approximately 20% whites in the total population, the African-Americans were 1.6% while Asians made up an entire 55.9% of the total population. Therefore the entire Honolulu population is made up of mostly Asians and whites who are the minority and they reside in the high as well as the upper class residential areas. Social integration has been one of the most prominent racial conflict affecting visitors and tourists who are visiting the community for the first time. The presence of more races in the city has been a blessing in disguise as the city has achieved quiet a lot through contributions of different races.


History of Honolulu

The first Polynesians to settle in Honolulu is thought to have migrated there in the12th century. This pioneer Polynesian together with other Native Americans established the Honolulu as the capital city of Hawaii after constructing modern buildings all over the town as a way of elevating its status (Honolulu: Municipal Government, 2009).

In the 1890s, the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown and this led to an attack by the Japanese which had damaging effects on the Pearl Harbor which left Honolulu as the largest city in the islands. Over the years, the city has grown especially with increased tourism and growing economy in the state. Establishment of modern air travel resulted into construction of the Honolulu InternationalAirport which was primarily constructed as a hub of tourist convenience

(Honolulu: Municipal Government, 2009).

In recent years, Honolulu has been categorized as the 29th city in the world where the quality of living is guaranteed. Cases of crime and sanitation have gone down in the recent years therefore making Honolulu a favorite destination for many tourists. The city has been less hit by instances of political instability while personal freedom and transport is at an advanced stage such that a visitor in the city does not get lost (Honolulu: Municipal Government, 2009).  

 Dialects in the Honolulu Community

Although Caucasians make up a larger percentage of the entire Honolulu population, the official language which is predominant in the community is English. Despite the fact that Hawaiian is the native tongue, most residents and especially the natives have incorporated Hawaiian/Asian words into English to come with a local “slang” which is closely related to Hawaiian pidgin (Villareal, 2005).The “slang” creates an even ground for various racial ethnicities to understand each other as well as to eliminate any communication barriers which may be present. The local dialect has evolved so much over the past few years such that it would be difficult to distinguish between locals and natives in institutions of learning. It has helped many foreign students in the local universities to adapt quickly as well as to learn their way through various parts of the county (Villareal, 2005).

 Racial integration in Honolulu community

Most of the races in the Honolulu community who are exposed to racial discrimination in schools are the immigrant Asians who are subjected to the same by the Polynesians who are natives. The conflict arises where the native Asians have adjusted to the life in Honolulu as well as adopting the culture of the Hawaiians in all aspects such that it would be different to tell them apart (Honolulu, 2010).  Discrimination is often ignored such that it is not strange to hear a Polynesian boy shouting at his Asian counterparts in the presence of adults who do not raise any qualms about it. Similarly, most Asians possess deep hatred for the Polynesians and racist jokes are considered as part of life for them. Polynesians are branded ignorant bullies as they have changed their culture and ethnicity to adapt a foreign one.

This increases the racial tension and the rival races usually blame each other on crimes committed from either camp (Honolulu: Municipal Government, 2009).The racial discrimination has been so intense that most Asians are known to take their children to private schools which are mostly composed of mixed races. This reduces discrimination along racial lines due to even presentation of all races. The same case applies for whites who are discriminated as well along racial boundaries by the Polynesians. On the extreme end, the social places in Honolulu have being built in a such a way that the whites do not feel welcome in any of them and hence creates a form of discrimination as they are not included in such programs. This has led to development of social places which cater for the specific ethnic backgrounds such that they are made with the tastes and preferences presented by specific races(Villareal, 2005)..

  Commercial activities in Honolulu

The minority whites are more involved in most of the major industries in Honolulu. These include the sugar industry which has been a major income earner for the larger Hawaii as well as involvement in intensive agriculture. Aquaculture has been a reserve of the African-Americans while the Asians have more interests in the financial field (Honolulu: Municipal Government, 2009).The rate of unemployment is below 5% which is attributed to increased growth of the economy the agricultural sector has greatly contributed to increased employment opportunities while the government has spent quite a lot in improving the working conditions for all in Honolulu. The Office of Economic Development has been up in arms to creating a business-friendly environment for investors as well as those who are interested in starting their own business (Honolulu, 2010).   

Much effort has been placed in the involvement of all races in community activities such as commemoration of the close relationship between Honolulu and its counterpart in China known as Zhongshan. Other income generating activities which involve people from all cultural backgrounds include the Honolulu Cultural and Arts District Association. These activities have been developed as a way on creating more revenue for the city as well as ensuring that the disparity portrayed by the different racial groups is eliminated(Honolulu: Municipal Government, 2009).The Honolulu community has benefited greatly from tourism which is made possible by proper utilization of the famous beach resorts. The favorable weather and presence of mixed races in the community is another aspect which has led to increased domestic and international tourism (Villareal, 2005)..

 Honolulu cultural festivities

 Presence of diverse racial ethnicity in Honolulu has significantly contributed to availability of quite a number of cultural festivals in the city. The first holiday is marked in January of February each year and it is called the Narcissus Festival which marks the begging of anew Chinese year. This festivity is characterized by beauty pageants and lion dances throughout the entire season (Honolulu, 2010).The Japanese also have their Cherry Blossom Queen festival which runs from January to March each year. This festival has its climax whet e entire population selects their favorite Cherry Blossom Queen and Court. Later on in the month of March, the whole community comes together to celebrate the Honolulu Festival which is an attempt of the government to celebrate the ethnic harmony that is exhibited in the city (Honolulu, 2010).  The students who are in schools also have a chance of exhibiting racial harmony every year during the annual Hawaii Invitational Music Festival which oversees all learners in junior, school as well as those in colleges presenting their musical prowess. This musical festivals are often a center of attraction for many especially the lovers of Honolulu symphony as they also get a chance of receiving an equal share of the genre. This is especially emphasized by the Hawaii International Jazz Festival which is celebrated every year in late July and it incorporates artistes from all ethnical backgrounds.

 Other festivities include the Lei day which is celebrate don may 1st each year and it encompasses plenty of hula dances in addition to crowning of the Lei Queen which brings the festivals to a climax (Honolulu, 2010).Most of the festivities are carried out at the Neal SBlasdellCenter which is the largest social site in the city. All major events which affect the diverse cultural backgrounds of the residents are held here as the center is composed of a variety of features such as an exhibition hall, a multi-purpose hall and a concert hall such that a wide range of events can be held there at the same time. Similarly there is an outdoor amphitheater near Waikiki beach that seats more than two thousand five hundred people at a go (Honolulu: Municipal Government, 2009).Another important facet of the Honolulu community is the Bishop Museum which is popularly known for its Polynesian artifacts. The Polynesian artistes are arguably the best in the world and most of their works has been put on display in the museum. Consequently, Asian artifacts are displayed in the Honolulu Academy of Arts which also houses permanent exhibits by Italian artistes (Honolulu: Municipal Government, 2009).


The races on Honolulu community have been of great significance to growth of the city in various dimensions such as the agricultural sector as well as the tourism industry. Consequently, establishment of festivities for different cultural ethnicities has greatly reduced the racial discrimination which was eminent in past years.


Honolulu (2010), Honolulu community. Retrieved on May 28, 2010 from:

Honolulu: municipal government (2009), Honolulu: economy. Retrieved on May 28,          2010 from:…/HonoluluEconomy.html

Villareal, M. (2005), Does social integration create homogenous preferences?” presented   during the annual meeting of International Studies Association. Retrieved on May       28, 2010 from:

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 Las Vegas

              Las Vegas is the second hottest brand in the city according to the brand consultancy Landor Associates.  Las Vegas marketing is a form of destination marketing which as been done by Las Vegas Convention and visitors Authority (LVCVA).  LVCVA mission is to attract visitors from all over the world to come to Las Vegas as the Worlds most desirable destination for business and leisure travel. Up to now, Las Vegas has been the favorite destination for millions of visitors as a place for recreation.  Tourism is the most critical industry in which Las Vegas relies upon.  For example in the 1950’s Las Vegas community leaders identified the importance of tourism especially with the increased number of visitors.Tourism industry was identified as the crucial element that would see the growth of the city.  LVCVA has become driving force of Las Vegas development by representing both the hotel and general business market.  Las Vegas has therefore become a successful product where millions of consumers have bought the brand through visiting the city as tourist and for businesses. Nearly forty million visitors flock Las Vegas each year.

   The three levels of product to Las Vegas.

             A product is anything that can be offered to a market for acquisition, use, attention, or for consumption that would satisfy a want or a need. There are three level of a product; these levels are the core product, the actual product, and the augmented product. The core product is not a physical or tangible. It is the kind of product that makes it valuable to a consumer.  Las Vegas is a product that can be a core product.  It is a city and not a good that it is tangible.  Consumers to Las Vegas are the visitors who according to them the city has an emotional connection.  Las Vegas is more than an assortment of amenities and facilities.  These are the qualities of a total brand experience. Las Vegas as an actual product is the tangible and physical aspect of the city.  The city has classy casinos and hotels, expensive shopping malls and various luxurious goods.  Visitors can test, buy, and collect the unique goods found in these places.   Lastly, the city is an augmented product which is the non physical part of the product.  This non physical aspect has an added value which may or may not require the payment of a premium. The visitors can also enjoy the freedom found in this city which is not found possible in their own home countries.  This is an added value which tourist can get only while in Las Vegas. The visitors can stay out in the longer part of the night and gamble and spend more money in dining and shopping.  Las Vegas is the ultimate center of adult freedom.

 Importance advertising for Las Vegas

                Advertising is an important aspect for Las Vegas. Advertising has assisted in re-branding of the old Las Vegas into a new Las Vegas.  The old picture of Las Vegas has been considered as the ‘sin city’ where it was about gambling in smoky casinos;  where one get buffets, a bawdy gall girl revues and Elvis impersonators.  Advertising has enabled Las Vegas to reinvent itself as a destination for luxury.  Hotel business is now occupancy 90 % of businesses in Las Vegas; casino and gambling account for less than a half of the city’s revenues. Advertising has enabled assisted in contributing to the high number of visitors flocking Las Vegas each year to enjoy luxury goods, fine entertainment and restaurants runed by world renowned chefs.

 Brand development strategies

           Strategies that assist in brand development include; conducting a product research, considering the target consumers through their taste and preference, and brand positioning which is a brand statement that promise the consumers on the authenticity of the product. Winning the heart and minds is an aspect of development strategy which creates a positive emotional attachment without customers necessarily seeing the product.

 The most sense strategy for Las Vegas

          Two of the marketing strategies make the most important since in Las Vegas.  First there is the product position which the LVCVA catchphrase- “Only Vegas: What happens here, Stays here.” The slogan talks of the experience the new comers undergo in Las Vegas. It is okay for them to be a little naughty in Las Vegas. The simple phases have become the most successful in the history of campaign which has transformed Las Vegas image from being a ‘sin city’ to the only enticing and luxurious city of Las Vegas. The second strategy which has been successfully in branding Las Vegas is that of winning the heart and the mind. Through this strategy, Vegas has become a city with emotional connection that has seen over forty million visitors arriving in the city each year (Kotler, & Armstrong, 2001, p, 47 ).


Kotler, P & Armstrong G (2001) Principles of Marketing, edition 9, 清华大学出版社, Publisher, p 47 . 

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Learning Journal


           Literature review

       The article reflecting on practice using learning journals in higher and continuing education helps students understand the importance of journal in the learning process (Langer, 2002). Most researchers have discussed the use of journals in critical reflection, but the researchers have not discussed the use of journal in assisting adult non traditional students like professional students. This journal analyzes how the use of journals has affected the learning process of adult students in professional fields. The definition of reflection differs from one researcher to another (Langer, 2002). Some researchers like Moon argue that reflection helps one consider something deeply. Other researchers like Dewey and Huffish argue that reflection helps people reflect on purpose so as to process a useful outcome. Learning journals have many uses. For example, learning journals help students in different departments like science, engineering and mathematics master the content they have learned. Several people carried research to analyze the uses of journals. In science learning journals helped students improve their learning skills and communication (Langer, 2002).

In another study, learning journals were found to help mathematics students develop abstract thinking (Langer, 2002). This helped students conceptualize meaning of technical definitions .In addition to improving skills and communication, journals helped students improve their skills in problem solving. This is because students were allowed to write their findings instead of memorizing the content. Journals also helped physics students clarify their ideas and thoughts after carrying out experiments. They also helped students’ synthesis the content they learned and reflect the content (Langer, 2002). They were able to reflect the content and how it affected their learning experiences and personal experiences. Moreover, journals helped adult students apply what they learned in their work place. It helped students relate theory and practice. This made it easy for students to reflect on what they had learned (Langer, 2002).

 Research methods

Two methods were used in the research. In the first method, the instructor requested the students to submit learning journals on weekly basis (Langer, 2002). The journals were required to reference the content learned in the previous weeks. Students used different formats to present the journals. The instructor provided a sample format for the students to use. The students submitted two journals to the instructor. The instructor retained one of the journals, and each student received a journal from the instructor with comments. A total of 20 learning journals from the students were selected for the study. The researchers used various methods to select the journals (Langer, 2002). The researchers used gender representation, departmental representation and session presentation. The journals were selected using equal gender representation. Students were selected equally from the three departments. The journals were selected using the last name of every tenth student. The names were placed in alphabetical order.

This was to ensure equal distribution in terms of gender and department. A total of 300 learning journals were read in the selection process. The researchers read each journal to identify the content, the format styles used and the subject in the journal (Langer, 2002). The researchers identified student reflection in the journals. Common themes were identified and put together to develop questions for an interview. Another method that was used in the study is interview. Two researchers identified 10 students to be interviewed (Langer, 2002). The interview date was set six months after the students completed the course. The interview was aimed at identifying how students perceive journal writing assignments, and the impact the journals had on students.The instructor requested the students to sign a form to authorize their interview data to be used in research. The researchers used the interview guide to check if the interview touched on the right topic (Langer, 2002).

 Results and data collection and analysis

Most students did not format their journals, but they used the sample format given by the instructor to write journals. The researchers identified various reasons why the students did not format their journals. First, the students lacked skills on how to write reflective assignments. The students also had fear. This is because the students are used to writing assignments, but not reflective assignments. Another reason why the students did not format the journals is privacy (Langer, 2002). The students did not want to expose their privacy. Lastly, poor relationship between the teacher and the student affected the students’ performance. Other researchers like Fisher and Abba had different reasons for the results. They associated the poor formatting of journals with teacher student interaction. They argue that journals encouraged teachers and students to interact well. The students did not present the content well. About 55% of the students were able to submit journals that reflected the last part of the choice.

The other percentage did not manage to submit reflective content .The students were able to submit reflective content and how it affects their life (Langer, 2002). This is because the instructor provided weekly comments to guide the students. This helped students learn how to reflect the content and apply it in their lives. The journals encouraged interaction between the teacher and the students. The interaction encouraged students to develop reflection skills. The reflection of the last part of the course is as a result of various experiences and practices the students had. The students were required to submit weekly journals and this helped them develop reflection skills which they used to reflect the last part of the course (Langer, 2002).Less than 5% of the students did not have an experience with journals. The results support DE Acosta’s idea that journals are important as they help students learn how to reflect. 45% of the students submitted journals that did not show reflective thinking. This is because the students did not want to analyze the content outside the book. They did not want to apply the content to learning experiences and life experiences (Langer, 2002).

 Research question

Various research questions were used. The questions covered issues like students reaction to journals, how the student used learning journals during the course, importance of learning journals, disadvantages of using learning journals etc (Langer, 2002).

 Strengths and weaknesses

The article has various strengths that made it be published. The article provides important information on how learning journals help students (Langer, 2002). Learning journals help students apply what they have learned in class in the work place or in their lives. Most people support the article because it encourages students to practice what they have learned. The article also encourages reflection of the content learned. It allows students to use the learning journals in their classes and this helps improve mastering of content. Students do not memorize the content, but they apply the content learned. This makes the journal important in learning as it supports reflection. The journal has some weaknesses in that it does not provide examples of how students can use learning journals and reflectikon (Langer, 2002).


The journal is important as it contains important information. The information is new to me. This is because I was not ware of importance of reflection and learning journals. It has helped med learn how to reflect content and apply it in personal life and work place. The author conducted the research in a fair manner used methods that are logical and the representation of the participants was fair (Langer, 2002).


Langer, A. M. (2002). Reflecting on practice: Using learning journals in higher and continuing education. Teaching in Higher Education, (7)3, 307–351

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 When Lenny seeks out for Max’s biological mother, he finds her being a prostitute although her husband had passed years on. In the course of knowing her he poses as a client but during the initial meetings he does not sleep with her but rather offers advice and help on ways of changing her profession. As their meetings progresses he at one time comes to see her when he is much stressed and the next minute they are in bed as Linda’s way of consoling him. However, Lenny does not feel guilty about his expedition as Amanda on the other hand has had her equal share of unfaithfulness Allen, (1995).While Lenny was busy trying to help Max’s biological mother change her lifestyle as well as understanding Max and his excellent intellectual capability his

wife Amanda seeks consolation from her colleague-Jerry.

Amanda could have reacted as a result of neglect by her husband who was paying more time and attention matchmaking for Linda and Kevin rather than nurture his own marriage. It is only after Lenny realizes that his wife has been having an affair and is guilty about it that they forgive each other and life becomes better for them Allen,  (1995).Unfaithfulness in the institution of marriage is often caused by lack of appreciation of the other partner and this is exemplified by Lenny when he takes his wife out one evening and as his marriage is on the rocks he envies the couple in the next cab. He wistfully imagines if the same happiness by the couple could be duplicated in hi sown marriage but them the guilt of sleeping with

Linda is so great that he does not see anyway out of the predicament Allen,  (1995).In the modern world, unfaithfulness is part and parcel of most marriages such that both parties of any marriage have been known to cheat on their spouses. Most people cheat as a result of revenging for their cheating spouses while others are unfaithful to their partners for no apparent reason. This was similar to the case of Lenny sleeping with Linda as a result of finding out that Amanda was having an affair with Jerry. Marriage partners who got married for convenience are more likely to end up cheating on their spouses than those who got married as a result of mutual consent Allen,  (1995)

 The career woman

Lenny’s wife Amanda is a career woman who is so much involved with her career that she fails to see the since why she could be inconvenienced by pregnancy although she really wants a child. Therefore, she opts for the best solution available and that is adopting Max although her husband Lenny does not see why she does not give him a chance to pass on his genes which he refers to as “award winning” although looking at him would leave little to that imagination Allen, (1995).Amanda fails to understand that her husband would very much wish to father her children but by her persistence and refusing to become pregnant is evident when she strongly opposes the idea of bearing children. According to her, nothing including pregnancy and child bearing should prohibit her from attaining her dreams and aspirations.

On the other hand, Lenny fails to see why he is not being given a chance to father their child and this makes him look out for Max’s mother who he thinks is a better match to Amanda Allen, (1995).Women who are quite occupied with their career and professions rarely see the essence of having to go through the full pregnancy term then undergo labor as according to them this is a waste of precious time. This category of women would rather seek children borne by other women and purchase them rather than give birth to their own flesh and blood Allen, (1995).The modern day professional woman has similar characteristics as they are often busy chasing their careers as well as advancing their education as a way of attaining their goals or dream career.

This leaves little or no time for pregnancies and child bearing which is seen as a burden or barrier towards attainment of the dream. Most young women who are holding high profile jobs have kept child bearing on hold so as to achieve the high profile position. Most regard child bearing as an added burden and responsibility which may lead to failure or delayed attainment of an individual’s childhood dream. Women who originate from societies which have little regard for career women prefer adoption or delayed child bearing so as to achieve the same professional recognition as their husbands. This has led to more women having the upper hand when it comes to child bearing when and how they will acquire children Allen, (1995).


Allen, W. (1995), The mighty Aphrodite: sweet land films. Retrieved on May 25, 2010                 from: 

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The controversy of Global warming


 There has been an increase in average temperature of the earth near surface of the ocean and air.  This is condition that started in the mid 20th century and is still continuing.  The increase of surface temperature has risen from 0.74 ± 0.18 ° C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) since then.  Reports from  the Intergovernmental  Panel On  Climate Channel (IPCC), shows that most of the observed  increasing temperatures are likely to have been  caused by the increase in concentration of  human activity like deforestation, and fossils  fuel  burning. Greenhouses gases have also contributed to this. The panel also concludes that isolations in natural phenomena such as vocalic eruptions and solar radiation have some cooling effect after 1950 (Hegel, 2007). Global surface temperatures are likely to rise further in the 21st century. 

  Many authors have written various books and articles on global warming; its cause, effects and the future of global warming. Some have written on the predicted impacts and how detrimental effects can be reduced. However, other authors, journalist and academicians have refuted the whole issue of global warming. Some say global warming does not is inexistent while others say that the earth is currently at cooling effects.This paper will present some of these sources in a brief unnoted bibliography that will describe whether the authors are in support of the issue of global warming and its existence or not.

 The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (2007): Climate change; a synthesis report.    

           Retrieved from


           On May 21, 2010

The IPCC  repost defines climate change as  a state  that can be identified by the use of  statistical tests, or changes in the variability or mean  of its properties which may persist for  an  extended  period of time such as through  decades. These changes are caused by human activity and greenhouse gases.  The report  indicates that temperature increase is widespread  all over the globe   which is  evident in the increase  of  sea  level, decrease  in  ice and snow, unpredictable  climate changes and increased in  intense tropical cyclone activity in  the North Atlantic since 1970. The book further presents various sectors like the agriculture, human health tourism energy, water sector, infrastructures and settlement zones. These are the sectors for adaptation that amends mitigation options.

Maslin, M (2007) Global warming: causes, effects and the future, world life library,

               Voyageur Press, p 50- 72.

 The author defines and presents a brief overview of the issue of global warming. He then presents the evidence impacts of global warming. One of the chapters deals with the devastation that has been felt in the Amazon forest and the Gulf Stream. Other areas are wildlife, agriculture and the costal region. The causes to this Is mainly the changes caused by the human activities. The author then presents that efforts being made to solve the effects of global warming and ways which we can adopt them.

Spencer R (2004) the discovery of global warming, Harvard University press, 

                 p 145

The author presents the bits and pieces of global warming as a complex topic which threatens human survival.  The book is a reminder that scientists can not work alone in   addressing the issue of global warming.  Other systems which have to interact are the public and political systems.  The book analyses the nature of modern scientific work as it confronts difficult questions concerning the earth surface.

 Liverman, D.M. (2008) conventions of climate change:  the construction of danger and

              the dispassion of the atmosphere, p 12–14. Retrieved from


               On May 21, 2010

The author acknowledges the dangers that are already being experienced in the world due to climate change.  The paper argues against the powerful article which obscures the historical geographies of climate change. Such articles are the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change of 1992 and the 1997 Kyoto protocol.  These narratives have fostered solutions which are somewhat ineffective an unequal in reducing the risks of global warming. Such narratives, according to Liverman avoid the dangers of climate change.

 New York Times (2010) we can’t wish away climate change by Al Gore. Retrieved from


              On 31st March 2010

             Gore holds the fact that we are responsible to take an alternative to reduce and even eliminate the predicted effects that global warming has to the rising water level, marine life,  and on desertification. He believes that the danger is growing as we continuously dump ninety million tons every twenty four hours in to the air that poses global warming pollutionVarious regions of the world are now experiencing different temperatures that make it had to predict the weather. The heavy snowballs that occur in winter months is  no longer  a predictable occurrence yet people still insist that global warming is a myth (Gore, 2010 p 1). Global warming has increased the rate of evaporation from the oceans leading to heavy downfall as both snow and rain, for example what is experienced  in the Northeastern region of  the United Sates.

 Ball, T (2007) GLOBAL warming: the cold, hard facts, Canada press, retrieved from


             On May 21, 2010.

Ball, the former professor of geography denies the whole issue of global warming.  He says that since the 1940’s the earth surface has been cooling down.  The satellite data shows the cooling effects and the whole evidence of global warming is nothing but distorted records. Carbon dioxide is not retained up one the earth surface and therefore no heat will be held by the CO2.

 WSJ opinions archive (2008) Global warming delusions by Daniel Botkin. Retrieved 



                 On May 21, 2010

Botkin, though a scientists, he dose not believe on scientific analysis of climate change and global warming. He says that the forecasters of climate are out there to scare and frighten people in the society.  He also states that the scientific methods that have been used to predict climatic change have been unrealistic and crude, for example in the case of Mt Kilimanjaro; he acknowledges that it is melting away but not because of global warming. The melting pattern of the mountain according to him is due to change of air temperature around this mountain. This shows the different notion of Botkin towards the realty and existence of Global warming which is a skeptical way of persevering environmental reality.The last two materials by Botkin and Ball will assist in the research for they refute thee first three articles.  The resechers will therefore deal with the controversy that exists on the environmental topic- global warming.


 Hegerl, G .et. al (2007). Understanding and Attributing Climate Change.  Retrieved from.

On May 21, 2010

Janet Peter is the author and is associated with which is a global research papers 24/7 provider. If you would like help in essays, research papers, term papers and dissertations, you can visit


Hosting Solutions


The two major hosting solution companies sin the web are Microsoft Partner network which offers online training services to people who are willing to get a clear understanding of the features and functions of items produced by Microsoft. This company also offers web hosting services to its partners and clients. The other company is Rackspace Hosting which offers a wide variety of web hosting solutions to corporate and individual clients.

 Important features offered by the service

Hosting solution companies provide support to their clients dependent of the price that has been set up. Most companies will provide great support regardless of the price especially where a client has an important website. However, some companies will provide low level support especially if you paid a lower amount. Thus, it becomes essential for clients to seek more expensive plans which will guarantee them high level support. The prices should act as guidelines for new clients to single out hosting solution companies which are out there to fleece clients while at the same time they provide low quality hosting services Microsoft Corporation, (2010).Hosting solutions companies offer unlimited traffic as part of the many services to their client thus ensuring that at all times the client can access the internet conveniently. Similarly, this ensures that the client is able to have a domain as well as sub-domains which work flawlessly for longer periods.

This reduces the costs of running the site in addition to boosting the ratings of the company Web hosting Solutions (2010).Most hosting solution companies such as Rackspace offer products which are innovated to suite the current market. This is quite substantial especially with increased technology and a ready market for custom made goods. The highly innovative products are usually sold to key industries such as the financial sector which may be in need of fact sheets or consumer data sheets. Health facilities which require previous medical history of their clients are also key beneficiaries of these innovations Rackspace hosting (2010).New companies which are looking forward to creating their websites should seek the services of web hosts who will provide a product that is not only easy to use but also free from web-based fraud as well as flooding of the site with spam.

Websites which lack anti-spam devices are unprofessional and as potential customers of the company are known to judge its prospects of by looking at the website, the overall business of the company may decline. Therefore, reliability of a product and the intended use of the same acts as a criterion of choosing the best hosting solution provider in order to avoid negative publicity during the early stages of growth Web hosting Solutions (2010),.Companies such as Microsoft offer free features such as allowing the clients to possess a domain which is free until the company ceases to exist. This allows the company to enjoy free subsidiary services which are not charged. Consequently, some companies offer free marketing services for their clients as part of after sales service. The marketing bonus varies form company to company hence it would be equally convenient to choose the company which offers a better package Web hosting geeks (2010).


Microsoft Corporation, (2010), products and solutions for Microsoft partners.                                Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from

Rackspace hosting (2010), why Rackspace? Retrieved on May 20, 2010 form:                     

Web hosting geeks(2010), top 10 web hosting- best web hosts of 2010. retrieved on May              20, 2010 from:

Web hosting Solutions (2010), Complete Internet Business and Marketing Solution.          Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from: 

Janet Peter is the author and is associated with which is a global research papers 24/7 provider. If you would like help in essays, research papers, term papers and dissertations, you can visit

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