Author: Prof. Richard Brixton




 Las Vegas

              Las Vegas is the second hottest brand in the city according to the brand consultancy Landor Associates.  Las Vegas marketing is a form of destination marketing which as been done by Las Vegas Convention and visitors Authority (LVCVA).  LVCVA mission is to attract visitors from all over the world to come to Las Vegas as the Worlds most desirable destination for business and leisure travel. Up to now, Las Vegas has been the favorite destination for millions of visitors as a place for recreation.  Tourism is the most critical industry in which Las Vegas relies upon.  For example in the 1950’s Las Vegas community leaders identified the importance of tourism especially with the increased number of visitors.Tourism industry was identified as the crucial element that would see the growth of the city.  LVCVA has become driving force of Las Vegas development by representing both the hotel and general business market.  Las Vegas has therefore become a successful product where millions of consumers have bought the brand through visiting the city as tourist and for businesses. Nearly forty million visitors flock Las Vegas each year.

   The three levels of product to Las Vegas.

             A product is anything that can be offered to a market for acquisition, use, attention, or for consumption that would satisfy a want or a need. There are three level of a product; these levels are the core product, the actual product, and the augmented product. The core product is not a physical or tangible. It is the kind of product that makes it valuable to a consumer.  Las Vegas is a product that can be a core product.  It is a city and not a good that it is tangible.  Consumers to Las Vegas are the visitors who according to them the city has an emotional connection.  Las Vegas is more than an assortment of amenities and facilities.  These are the qualities of a total brand experience. Las Vegas as an actual product is the tangible and physical aspect of the city.  The city has classy casinos and hotels, expensive shopping malls and various luxurious goods.  Visitors can test, buy, and collect the unique goods found in these places.   Lastly, the city is an augmented product which is the non physical part of the product.  This non physical aspect has an added value which may or may not require the payment of a premium. The visitors can also enjoy the freedom found in this city which is not found possible in their own home countries.  This is an added value which tourist can get only while in Las Vegas. The visitors can stay out in the longer part of the night and gamble and spend more money in dining and shopping.  Las Vegas is the ultimate center of adult freedom.

 Importance advertising for Las Vegas

                Advertising is an important aspect for Las Vegas. Advertising has assisted in re-branding of the old Las Vegas into a new Las Vegas.  The old picture of Las Vegas has been considered as the ‘sin city’ where it was about gambling in smoky casinos;  where one get buffets, a bawdy gall girl revues and Elvis impersonators.  Advertising has enabled Las Vegas to reinvent itself as a destination for luxury.  Hotel business is now occupancy 90 % of businesses in Las Vegas; casino and gambling account for less than a half of the city’s revenues. Advertising has enabled assisted in contributing to the high number of visitors flocking Las Vegas each year to enjoy luxury goods, fine entertainment and restaurants runed by world renowned chefs.

 Brand development strategies

           Strategies that assist in brand development include; conducting a product research, considering the target consumers through their taste and preference, and brand positioning which is a brand statement that promise the consumers on the authenticity of the product. Winning the heart and minds is an aspect of development strategy which creates a positive emotional attachment without customers necessarily seeing the product.

 The most sense strategy for Las Vegas

          Two of the marketing strategies make the most important since in Las Vegas.  First there is the product position which the LVCVA catchphrase- “Only Vegas: What happens here, Stays here.” The slogan talks of the experience the new comers undergo in Las Vegas. It is okay for them to be a little naughty in Las Vegas. The simple phases have become the most successful in the history of campaign which has transformed Las Vegas image from being a ‘sin city’ to the only enticing and luxurious city of Las Vegas. The second strategy which has been successfully in branding Las Vegas is that of winning the heart and the mind. Through this strategy, Vegas has become a city with emotional connection that has seen over forty million visitors arriving in the city each year (Kotler, & Armstrong, 2001, p, 47 ).


Kotler, P & Armstrong G (2001) Principles of Marketing, edition 9, 清华大学出版社, Publisher, p 47 . 

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The Midsummer Night Dream


 The Midsummer Night Dream

 The film, a midsummer Night’s Dream was released in 1999.  It was directed by Michael Hoffman. The film is an America adaptation from Shakespeare’s play A Midsummer Night Dream.  This is one of the five first major cinema adaptations of the play. Others were  silent film of 1909  directed  by Charles  Kneer,  the 1935  film  by Max  Reinhardt  and Czech  animation  of  1959 by Jiri Trnka  and the 1968  British film by Peter  HALL.The major stars  were Kevin Kline acted as Nick bottom,  David  Strathairn as  Theseus   the Duke of Athens,  Sophie Marceau  as Hippolytia  the queen  of  amazons  betrothed  to Theseus.  John Scions as Philostrate. Dominick West as Lysander who was in love with Hermia. Christian Bale acted as Demetrious also in love with Hermia.  Anna Friel acted as Hermia and in love with Lysander.  Claista Flochart acted as Helena who is in love with Demetrious. 

Bernard as Eugeus and father to Hermia.  Stanley Tuccci as Puck, Michelle Pfeffer as Titania.The film is set in a classical Athenian backdrop. Shakespeare explores the universal theme of love with its attendant complications of frustration, depression, confusion passion, lust and marriage, the plot of the story runs with three parallel stories; the world of the Fairy King and Queen and their servants, trials and experiences of two sets of lovers and a group of rude craftsmen attempting to stage a production of a play entitled “Pyramus and Thisbe” to be played at the wedding of the Duke of Athens.Shakespeare utilizes his creative imagination to present wonderful lyrical expression of Shakespearean themes of love and dreams. Symbolism has played a major role in authenticating the play.  A midsummer Night’s Dream has symbolisms like Athens, woods, moon, craftsman’s play, and love potion just as well as the characters Theseus and Hippolytia.

They represent the abstract ideas that give the play a deeper meaning.The dramatic structure that the playwright is the uses is mythological imagination   like the use of fairies magic and classical mythology.  There is also the use of supernatural elements in presenting the theme of love.  This film was taken in Tuscany and Lazio and also at Cinecitat Studios in Rome Italy. The action  of the play is a  transformation  from  Greece  and Athens  into a fictional Athena  that is  located  in  a  region  of  Italy known as  Tuscan.  Mentions of Athens that are in the text are however maintained.The film utilizes incidents music for the past stage production done by Felix Mendelssohn’s.Michael Hoffman presents a film that depicts the Universe as being inhibited by satyrs, fairies and dwarfs of various kinds.

They are the mischievous folks  that live in the forests and  a times  come into the the life  of  the mortals  fiddling  freely with  destinies  and  affecting  the  mortals  with  their magic. The scene opens with bustling preparation of the wedding to come. This wedding  feasts  is  in celebrations of  Hippolytia and  Theseus  represented  by Sophia and  David  respectively.  Then later, Hoffman drifts away from Shakespeare plot by finding his own voices in fetching synergy of the modern and ancient.  Of operatic and Shakespearian and of pagan and Christian. The setting is in Tuscan village called Monte Athena in the turn of the centaury. This stands in place of Shakespeare Athens.  Outside, there is a little  developed  village  are numerous  forests  ruled  by the fairies like  Oberon who is Repett  and Titania  acted  by Mitchell. They are jealous of the love of the mortals and plan to create disorders. 

And with their love  portion, they cast  foolish  pair of  mortal  duos  Helena  and Demetrious and  Hermia  as  Lysander. When viewers see this film what comes to mind is that the film is more of an opera or operatic.  The costume designer of the film is by Gabriel   Pescucii and the production designer is by Luciana Ariighi.  The cinematographer is Oliver Stapleton. . The film is anchored by Simon  Boswell  which  is  whole an  imitation  of  Italian  opera.  The  music  has  Stapteleon   lush    with warm  photography  that  audience  are drawn  into a  romantic  and lighthearted  mood.  Hoffman has managed to stay in the Bards marvelous language despite the over the top production values.  The casting is okay   with special, kudos to the scene -stealing Kevin Kline and Garbo-esque Michelle Pfeiffer.  They are the finest comic actors of this play.

The final scene’s antic comedy came out as being anticlimactic.  This is because at the end Nick Bottom -the Weavers conquered the audience instead of Kline as the ridiculous character.The film has managed to understand Shakespeare intentions in presenting the unpredicted nature of humanity.  The director successfully managed to create an atmosphere of magical realism through effective lighting and costume. There are both  shines  and fails,  opulent décor,  lush  and  golden  -hued  which  are the lighting  schematic  supplement  in this film.The lighting supplement of Shakespeare’s soaring verse    occasionally prevents some scenes from becoming fully comic.  The message to the audience is a representation of the unpredicted nature of man. Rupert Everett as Oberon and the King of fairies    acts like a god like creature   who is above alls   as ever sneering into the lives of the mortals.



Time out London (2010) A Midsummer Night Dream

On June 1, 2010

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Oil Spill


               On Tuesday April 20th 2010 there was an explosion by the Deepwater Horizon which sunk. The drilling rig caused oil to spill into the Mexico Gulf.  Federal  agencies  like the ASTSDR and  CDC and  other federal  agencies   and  the department s  of  state health  have  worked  together to recommend measures in protecting  pubic health.  These  departments are working with  medical  professional  and  emergency response  to check  on  any health  hazard and  issues  related to the oil spill. ATSDR and CDC are on the opinion that the residents pay attention to state and local health official’s safety and health recommendations.  The democrats  party  has been  criticized on  how  it  handled  the issue of  the Gulf  of  Mexico  oil  spill.  President  Obama  denied  the claims  that Bp  had  shown  more  initiative  than  the government  in  regard  to the  disaster response. 

He  says  that  this  is  not true  yet  what  the people, saw  was that  the US  government was plagued with  confusion  and indecisions  on  how  to deal with  one of the worst  oil disaster  that that  has  ever hit the US. Political critics have  predicted  that this  could  damage  the Democratic Party  electoral  chances  in  November mid  term  congregational  elections(City A.M, 2010)  The republicans are pointing fingers at the Democratic Party over the oil spills.  Dan Haley states that Obama’s administration is part of the problem since Salazar is included. The oil industry and the US government have been one for generations. The republicans are on the idea that   the government should take over BP and the Gulf oil spill.  it  has failed   to marshal  an  adequate responses  in  a months  time  to that crisis’s . 

The republicans accuse the government for failing be effective not only is in this last disaster but also in drilling leases else where (e letters, 2010)The parties educate its members, the public, and the government about its concerns or mission through catalogues, e journal, and database material available in the national archives.  The Republican Party is one of the two biggest political parties in the United States of America.  The republicans are also known as the conservative.  It is also known as G.O.P meaning the Grand Old Party.  It uses the elephant as its symbol.  The party is chaired by an African American Lawyer and former Lt Governor of Maryland.  The party stands f or beliefs like abortion should not be legalized, they are against gun control, they support death

penalty and supports wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. These views are aired through media,   parliamentary proceedings, magazines, web and national gazettes. (Republican National Committee 2010). The Democratic Party   is the other main party in the US.  In every four years the party holds national convention to agree on their candidates for presidency. The Democratic National Committee coordinates the various activities of the Democratic Party through the fifty states in the US. The symbol for the Democratic Party is the donkey. The democratic are some times known as the progressive or the liberal.  The party is further divided in to the left wing liberals and the moderates (The Democratic party 2010).  

 Many of the democrats support pro-choice, progressive income tax   withdrawing  of  US  troops  from Iraq, believe in  Keynesian  economic  ,health  care reform and need  of  government to do  something on  global warming. This information is passed to the people and members through the democratic committee which channels it views through media and national gazettes.  Both party committees plan the party’s presidential nominations and promote party candidature through financial and technical support.  The parties  work  with  the states, the ,national  as  locals  party organization  in  the election of  officials, constituencies representatives and candidates  . The officials are responsible to respond to the views and need of the national and there respective electorate.


 Republican national committee (2010) THE Republican Party of the United stares. Retrieved from

On June 1, 2010

The Democratic party (2010) the DEMOCRATIC PARTY

On June 1, 2010

City A.M (2010) Spill could hurt democrats. Retrieved from

On June 1, 2010

e letters, (2010) questioning  Ken  Salazar’s  behavior’s  behavior  in  wake of  oil  spill. Retrieved from

On June 1, 2010

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Diabetes And Obesity


The U-shape of diabesity among high income earning New York Hispanics is attributed to consumption of expensive foods which are full of highly refined sugars as in addition to them being nutritionally poor. This combination is insignificantly affected by exercises as their diet is composed of high calories Wallach and Rey (2009).Diabesity is quite common such that the whole of New York City is alarmed by the prevalence. The local health officials have developed adequate plans to educate the public on diabetes and obesity by crating awareness on nutritious foods and emphasis has been put on restaurants to incorporate the same in their menu Wallach, (2009).

One thing that makes the “Doctors without borders” unique is their ability to offer assistance in all areas of medial care to patients. They do not discriminate against the various forms of health issues or the catastrophe at hand but rather they always look for ways of helping Doctors without borders, (2010).  The Louisiana Department of Health and hospitals has played ac key role in warning the public against getting into contact with the spilled oil or that water.

The same warning has been given against consumption of any sea food which might have been in contact with the oil spill Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals (2010).Overheating is caused by various factors among them presence of an individual’s favorite food within easy reach. The taste and color presented by the food increases the chances of overeating Kessler (2010).The recent drug-free community’s initiative to provide funding to member communities so that they can identify and deal with drug abused cases is a fast one in eliminating the vice Office of the National Drug Policy (2010).


Doctors without borders, (2010), Haiti- time pass but medical needs persist. Retrieved on             May 24, 2010  from:

Kessler D. (2010), Controlling Food Urges (The End of Overeating). Retrieved on May    24, 2010 from :

Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals (2010), what you should and should not    do in areas affected by the oil spill. Retrieved on May 24, 2010 from:

Office of the National Drug Policy (2010), drug-free communities. Retrieved on May 24,             2010 from:
Wallach J. B, and Rey MJ. (2009), A socioeconomic analysis of obesity and diabetes in     New York City. Retrieved on May 24, 2010 from:                                                             


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Public Policy



The US illegal immigration policy has continued to be a subject of debate but less has been discussed concerning legal skilled worker visa.  Instead there have been structure rules for immigrants especially after the September 11 attack. This paper will examine the liberal labor and the action of political committee in relation to Border Security of the US and Prosperity Skilled Worker Visas


           Since the late 1980’s, America had foreseen the change in labor force which was shrinking and aging.  This is as a result of the baby boom generation.  Today America has the same challenges to face.  There is shortage of  labor and more so, on the department of  nursing  as  our  health care facilities which is  getting flooded  with old  people in  need  of  acute medical  attention. Engineering is another department in need of skilled man power. Most firms have found it difficult in finding qualified workers. These firms have also found it expensive in hiring the few available qualified personal because they are expected to offer better benefits and higher salaries so as to remain competitive. As the majority of the workforce individuals retire, there has been an increase of manufacturing jobs, off shoring design services   and much more restrictive rules on laws required to immigrate.  These factors have jointly caused labor shortage since 2007.

Liberal-labor coalition

               International corporations based in the US are always in search of the best people to work in them. This therefore means that the current attitude of implementing structure rules on legal work force in to the current situation is a fallacy (Bhagwati, 2010, p16).  The corporations hire from world class technological centers and institutions which are set up and sponsored by the US.  Visa for skilled workers such as the H-1B have not been expanded yet politics have shifted to increasing quotas for illegal immigrants.  Yet if such  a move could  be undertaken,  the bill would benefit  firms  like Microsoft and  Intel which are in  need of  skilled  laborers.  Many are against the use of skilled foreigners because of the public notion that the foreigners would take away jobs from them. This brings a serious battle ground that harms globalization (Gelatt, 2006, 23)   king visa are eligible to work in a foreign country.   The US has always benefited from foreign workers for the general development of the country. Holders of H-1B visas have come from world recognized technical institutions.  By labor it doesn’t mean just and other graduate but a hugely successful people to enrich the US immeasurably.   The Outdated immigration policy is threatening the economic well being of the US (COHA Research Associate Jamie Heine, 2010).  This is because the immigration policy does not allow skilled immigrants to work in the US. The country is therefore loosing the race for talented immigrants.  In 2007, for example, Microsoft opened   a software development in Vancouver, Canada but the qualified skilled workers were prohibited to live in the US. 

A Canadian venture has recently noted the growing number of ventures in need of talented workers through of shoring.  Thais has been attributed to lack of modern policies that fill the need of skilled immigrants      Another challenge with the current US policy for skilled workers immigrant is the inability to receive US work permits through the professionals has been educated in the countries universities.  This forms an ironical scenario where by the US government fully funds valuable resources to these universities for education with no restrictions as to weather one is an immigrant or not.  Yet when it comes to employment, the foreigners are not given work permits to work for the country. Therefore, the US misses out on substantial economic benefits especially from those graduating from our universities.    Green cards and H-1B visas are the only legal documents used in obtaining employment opportunities in the US. The H-1B is reserved for those individuals with unique skills that are specific (U.S. Department of Homeland Security n.d.). The country issues only 65,000 of them annually while the green cards are140, 000 annually. (Willly 2008, 76).

This is a small number of work permits being sought by foreign workers.  Companies in need of enough skilled labors are forced to move to other countries. This is why Microsoft after labor shortage in Vancouver moved to Israel, Ireland and Denmark (Gohring 2007, p 45).Since the middle of the twentieth century, highly qualified personal have lacked opportunity in their countries went to the US. Currently this trend is being reversed. As countries expand their policies to accommodate skilled immigrants into the economy, the US has tightened its policy to restrict foreigners in to the country. The UK has a Highly Skilled Immigrant Program which evaluates the skills that specific immigrant have as they apply for work permit. Australia has also opened doors for skilled immigrants which   have seen the growth of Australian economy.

 Political action committees

           The Obama administration has implemented new strategies to carry out immigration strategies of enforcement responsibilities in regard detention, criminal aliens and the employers.  Other efforts are to be done in collaboration with Mexico to reduce drug war violence and arms trafficking. The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant responsibility Act involves it self with hastening deportation of unauthorized immigrants who committed crime.  The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation welfare denied access to federal benefits to unauthorized immigrants. Such benefits included Supplemental security Medicaid and food stamps. The antiterrorism and Effective Death penalty act made it easier to deport arrest and detain non citizens.  The Congress enacted the American Competitiveness in the Twenty First Century Act in 2000.  This act was to measure the demand of skilled immigrants   especially in engineering, math and science to bring an economic boom to the US. This has to the rise of the number of H-1B visas from 115,000 in 2000 to 195,000 in 2003. 

However the number has currently been reduced to 65,000. The attack of September 11, 2001, posed a threat to National security.  The Department of Home land security merged twenty two federal agencies and dissolved INS.  The functions of the INS which was part of the Department of Justice, was distributed among three new agencies. These roles were Immigration and Customer Enforcement ICE.  Its responsibility was for enforcement of customer requirement and immigration and customs requirements. This included employer removal and detention.The US Citizenship and Immigration service Added visa benefits, naturalization Applications, and refuge and asylum application.  Customer and Boarder Protection oversee the entry of goods and people at all ports of entry. 

America global skills leadership is now under challenge, the long term end of baby boomers in the form of stagnating US education attainment and retirement. This has jeopardized long term economic growth opportunities and High-tech sectors.  Policy makers have not stopped the graying population and mass retirements.  Now that the boarder peculiarity and illegal immigration has become the prominent subject of debate, they should consider recruiting highly skilled worker from abroad. Along side this the government should aim at improving the education system as a quick solution and a more realistic one as we can now foretell skill shortages.

US policy makers can only hope to counter the long term phenomena by reforming high -skilled immigration policies. They should also facilitate the continuing and economically necessary inflow of skilled workers from off shores.This is an aspect that has not been considered by recent policy makers by in fact becoming more tangibly moiré restrictive through political emphasis.The issue of skilled immigration has however been subsumed by highly polities aspects like, the heated immigration debate on border control security and the reinforcement of high labor standards. The technology industry is currently missing out opportunities to expand production and employment (Keeter, 2009, 342).


               The Immigration policy undermines economic characteristics which include mastery of new advanced technologies and entrepreneur vitality.  Most competitive companies cannot get visa from foreign high skills workers they want to hire. Such companies like Google, eBay and Yahoo. US should copy other countries such as China and India, which offer incentives for skilled workers and are now fast growing.There are not enough US citizens with these skills in such of technological jobs. The number of H-1B visa issues annually should be increased in number so as to allow more skilled legal immigrants   for the benefit of this country.


 Bhagwati, J and Hanson, G (2009) Skilled Immigration Today: Prospects, Problems, and Policies, Oxford University Press, p 17

COHA Research Associate Jamie Heine ( 2010). Retrieved from

On May 26, 2010

Department of Homeland Security (2008) Office of Immigration Statistics. Retrieved from

On May 26, 2010


Gelatt, Julia (2006.) House Passes Enforcement Bill Lacking Temporary Worker Program. Migration Information Source, p 23


Keeter, S  (2009). Where the Public Stands on Immigration Reform. Pew Research Center, p 342

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Personal Primary Insights Style


 As information on the individuals personal primary insight was being obtained, the connection was made in color yellow which calls for teamwork and it so happened that the respondent had a distinctively different personality. The discussion was more of an interactive session in which both parties were able to learn from each other as well as each side being presented with equal opportunities to air out their views (Caproni, 2005).One of the implications associated with changing the personality of an individual so as to adopt a new personality is reluctance to try out new things.  A person with an unsociable personality is always at pains to freely open up to any discussion as well as sharing in major areas especially those related to personality and work.

Another implication is emphasis on the advantages of teamwork in addition to the feeling of appreciation by helping others in their tasks (Caproni, 2005).One crucial strategy which may help such a person change their personality is by making them get involved in projects which require the team members to work together so as to achieve the set goals. The aspect of being flexible to any changes as well as the ability to cope with a variety of personalities during the course of the project will create an impact on the overall change.

Consequently, by paying closer interest on their activities and tasks such individuals learn to open up as they feel that they are appreciated and they would not wish to loose their reputation (Caproni, 2005).The individuals who do not enjoy sharing their personal details are often privy of any information which could be prodding their private lives such that discussions with them should be void of questions that are so personal. The individual should be given a chance to give details without being asked (Caproni, 2005).


Caproni, P.J. (2005), Management skills for everyday life: the practical coach. 2nd ed.         Prentice Hall.

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Writing is an important form of communication which features in most disciplines of education. This journal will help me improve in written self expression and to provide a means through which I will bring writing into this discipline.  the skills I am aiming  to gain from this field are exploratory writing  which  will provide name the space and time  to relate a  new knowledge and theory to discover what I have already learned from  previous knowledge from my topic of research (Moon, 1999, 87).Through writing I will be required to employ critical thinking so that I present a paper that interrelates with inputs and to provide a personal response in the form of doubts, speculations and questions.  I will also have to give various examples that illustrate the diversity of the topic.

I will have to clarify the issue to be researched and select a research method or methods that will best enable me find the data I want. The research methods will assist in conducting the research according to a design or plan. It will then  be clear of  what kind of  data I need and therefore I will  be at a good position to decide what sample size  and the amount of  data I  require.APA format will be the writing style for the research writing. This is because the format will suit my research content. I will also have organized the ideas in the topic for the research paper to have a flow and cohesion throughout the program. This involves emphasizing buy making heading, making cross reference and1highlighting. 

Cross referencing may include colored paper stickers or icons. The quantitative analyses of the journal entry will reveal interpersonal relations through team communication vs. individual work, personal improvement and criticism, lessons learned and future actions. To evaluate and improve ones performance this will call for a goal to be set that will be the final achievement of the program.  Combining of  all the resources we need as a team  like technology,  energy and technology will  assist in  preventing  procrastination  and  time wastage.  Procrastination can be a major problem in ones personal life as well as ones career.  It will also tamper in the goal set which is to be achieved at a certain period of time.

This will require me to place a time table that will assist in time management.  Self discipline is another aspect to be considered in preventing procrastination. Time management will require good planning of financial aid and technology as well as the energy needed in carrying out a research. Finally, support is another most important aspect that is essential in this paper. Interpersonal group support between team members and the tutors is essential.  I will also expect the support from my family members to give me the moral and understand the times I won’t be available while I am undertaking the doctorate program.  I will require constant encouragement from them. This also applies to my peers.


Moon, J, (1999) learning Journals:  a handbook for academics, students and professional development, Rutledge publishers, London, p 87

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Home Healthcare Business


            Home healthcare business is becoming popular with the increase of people above the age of 60.  They are relied upon by the elderly, those with physical disability and those who require constant medical attention. The home care services usually offer non medical care service. However, home health care business operators prefer nurse assistants and retired nurses because they know a lot about quality health care. These nurse are currently very few in the country especially now with the increase of population of older adults who require maximum care. 

Hospitals are also experiencing the strained equitation of the labor with the shortage of registered nurses.  Home health care will therefore be affected whereby there will be no qualified and trained nurse to raise the standards of services provided by these home health care businesses.I will mainly want to discuss the qualities that health care workers should have in these home health care business.  This is vital because I believe in every health care service there should be a leader with greater experience than others so that the quality of the health service should be upheld.  A home health care worker needs to have tremendous assessment and observational   skills.

 They should be gifted care givers and have strong personal relational skills. Home health care business has the greatest challenges in getting such skills because the skills are acquired through long term experiences. Another issue I would like to explore concerns funding which is another  problem that these business face.The community and social issue s to address in this topic is rise of an aging population alongside a deficit of experienced care givers to provide quality health care.  There is an increase of demand for home based care. Another issue is low income of the older people who are supported by government health insurance to some percentage. They cannot afford expensive quality treatment that is effective for their quick recovery.


  Oliver, (2010) the senior tsunami’: Home health care jobs are booming as an aging population remains independent.  Retrieved from

On May 22, 2010

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The Impostor Syndrome


The impostor syndrome is a psychological feeling of insufficiency or lack of confidence when doing a certain activity. Lack of self-confidence leads to individuals faking various aspects of their day to day activities such as; an adult learner engaging in discussions at school in pretense of contributing to the topic while in they could be learning new things. Is it really worth wasting ones energy in activities which are not directly benefiting an individual or which are not contributing to achievement of certain goals? The article gives a clear impression of the different ways in which individuals can apply pretence or else ways of imposing ones aspirations on other areas Argosy University, (2010).Most students who think they are inadequate usually impose their feelings on others while some of them who are not wiling to share end up engaging in dubious methods of handling their academic work.

Cases of inadequacy can result to an increase in cheating such that a student will impose a bright learner while they cover up their inefficiency by copying their assignments from colleague such that it would be difficult to identify the syndrome ArgosyUniversity, (2010).The impostor syndrome may act as a barrier towards achievement of a learner’s doctoral degree because at one point the student will be expected to carry out a research study. The study cannot be faked as the student has to go to the field and collect data this will pose a serious problem to a student who is used to copying work from others. The syndrome will have created a poor basis for the doctoral degree by failing to provide the necessary skills required to successfully handle extensive research work ArgosyUniversity, (2010).

 Becoming a scholar-practitioner

A scholar-practitioner is an individual who never ceases form learning new things as well as applying the new information into practice. A scholar-practitioner is always informed about new developments in the field of academia and research which is enhanced by their thirst for knowledge. A practitioner incorporates what is learnt in class theoretically to practice when one is carrying out various activities in their area of specialization be it research, teaching or writing. Frequent as well as subsequent application of the knowledge increases the efficiency of the practitioner such that this aspect is encouraged ArgosyUniversity, (2010).   There are various things which assist individuals aspiring to be practitioners such as identifying a mentor who has adequate experience in the field.

The mentor will act as a supervisor and as a role model such that the young practitioner will always look up to the mentor. Another important component of growth is the flexibility of an individual to learn new things such that the practitioner is able to keep abreast with all forms of changes in research and other areas in the field ArgosyUniversity, (2010).A major goal for promoting the progress of a young practitioner includes reading widely and obtaining a clear understanding of the profession. This involves meeting and obtaining advice from seniors as well as consulting relevant authorities who could provide the necessary information. The other goal which is equally important is learning to write in a reflective manner such that the reflective journal should be updated always ArgosyUniversity, (2010).


ArgosyUniversity, (2010), Online university programs. Retrieved on May 22, 2010                       from: states

James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.


Learning Journal


           Literature review

       The article reflecting on practice using learning journals in higher and continuing education helps students understand the importance of journal in the learning process (Langer, 2002). Most researchers have discussed the use of journals in critical reflection, but the researchers have not discussed the use of journal in assisting adult non traditional students like professional students. This journal analyzes how the use of journals has affected the learning process of adult students in professional fields. The definition of reflection differs from one researcher to another (Langer, 2002). Some researchers like Moon argue that reflection helps one consider something deeply. Other researchers like Dewey and Huffish argue that reflection helps people reflect on purpose so as to process a useful outcome. Learning journals have many uses. For example, learning journals help students in different departments like science, engineering and mathematics master the content they have learned. Several people carried research to analyze the uses of journals. In science learning journals helped students improve their learning skills and communication (Langer, 2002).

In another study, learning journals were found to help mathematics students develop abstract thinking (Langer, 2002). This helped students conceptualize meaning of technical definitions .In addition to improving skills and communication, journals helped students improve their skills in problem solving. This is because students were allowed to write their findings instead of memorizing the content. Journals also helped physics students clarify their ideas and thoughts after carrying out experiments. They also helped students’ synthesis the content they learned and reflect the content (Langer, 2002). They were able to reflect the content and how it affected their learning experiences and personal experiences. Moreover, journals helped adult students apply what they learned in their work place. It helped students relate theory and practice. This made it easy for students to reflect on what they had learned (Langer, 2002).

 Research methods

Two methods were used in the research. In the first method, the instructor requested the students to submit learning journals on weekly basis (Langer, 2002). The journals were required to reference the content learned in the previous weeks. Students used different formats to present the journals. The instructor provided a sample format for the students to use. The students submitted two journals to the instructor. The instructor retained one of the journals, and each student received a journal from the instructor with comments. A total of 20 learning journals from the students were selected for the study. The researchers used various methods to select the journals (Langer, 2002). The researchers used gender representation, departmental representation and session presentation. The journals were selected using equal gender representation. Students were selected equally from the three departments. The journals were selected using the last name of every tenth student. The names were placed in alphabetical order.

This was to ensure equal distribution in terms of gender and department. A total of 300 learning journals were read in the selection process. The researchers read each journal to identify the content, the format styles used and the subject in the journal (Langer, 2002). The researchers identified student reflection in the journals. Common themes were identified and put together to develop questions for an interview. Another method that was used in the study is interview. Two researchers identified 10 students to be interviewed (Langer, 2002). The interview date was set six months after the students completed the course. The interview was aimed at identifying how students perceive journal writing assignments, and the impact the journals had on students.The instructor requested the students to sign a form to authorize their interview data to be used in research. The researchers used the interview guide to check if the interview touched on the right topic (Langer, 2002).

 Results and data collection and analysis

Most students did not format their journals, but they used the sample format given by the instructor to write journals. The researchers identified various reasons why the students did not format their journals. First, the students lacked skills on how to write reflective assignments. The students also had fear. This is because the students are used to writing assignments, but not reflective assignments. Another reason why the students did not format the journals is privacy (Langer, 2002). The students did not want to expose their privacy. Lastly, poor relationship between the teacher and the student affected the students’ performance. Other researchers like Fisher and Abba had different reasons for the results. They associated the poor formatting of journals with teacher student interaction. They argue that journals encouraged teachers and students to interact well. The students did not present the content well. About 55% of the students were able to submit journals that reflected the last part of the choice.

The other percentage did not manage to submit reflective content .The students were able to submit reflective content and how it affects their life (Langer, 2002). This is because the instructor provided weekly comments to guide the students. This helped students learn how to reflect the content and apply it in their lives. The journals encouraged interaction between the teacher and the students. The interaction encouraged students to develop reflection skills. The reflection of the last part of the course is as a result of various experiences and practices the students had. The students were required to submit weekly journals and this helped them develop reflection skills which they used to reflect the last part of the course (Langer, 2002).Less than 5% of the students did not have an experience with journals. The results support DE Acosta’s idea that journals are important as they help students learn how to reflect. 45% of the students submitted journals that did not show reflective thinking. This is because the students did not want to analyze the content outside the book. They did not want to apply the content to learning experiences and life experiences (Langer, 2002).

 Research question

Various research questions were used. The questions covered issues like students reaction to journals, how the student used learning journals during the course, importance of learning journals, disadvantages of using learning journals etc (Langer, 2002).

 Strengths and weaknesses

The article has various strengths that made it be published. The article provides important information on how learning journals help students (Langer, 2002). Learning journals help students apply what they have learned in class in the work place or in their lives. Most people support the article because it encourages students to practice what they have learned. The article also encourages reflection of the content learned. It allows students to use the learning journals in their classes and this helps improve mastering of content. Students do not memorize the content, but they apply the content learned. This makes the journal important in learning as it supports reflection. The journal has some weaknesses in that it does not provide examples of how students can use learning journals and reflectikon (Langer, 2002).


The journal is important as it contains important information. The information is new to me. This is because I was not ware of importance of reflection and learning journals. It has helped med learn how to reflect content and apply it in personal life and work place. The author conducted the research in a fair manner used methods that are logical and the representation of the participants was fair (Langer, 2002).


Langer, A. M. (2002). Reflecting on practice: Using learning journals in higher and continuing education. Teaching in Higher Education, (7)3, 307–351

James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.


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