Author: Prof. Richard Brixton


Sustainable Procurement in the UK and EU Countries



                   Sustainable procurement can be defined as all issues regarding policy through procurement. Public procurement strives to help to achieve all objectives of a given policy. This paper will analyze the effectiveness of sustainable procurement in the UK and EU countries.


How effective is sustainable procurement in the UK and EU Countries

                      The sustainable procurement in the UK is consistent with regard to the procurement rules set by the EU and this consistency enhances the effectiveness of sustainable procurement. Ever department has a lead policy that function s or aims to achieve the set objectives using effective ways. Examples of these lead departments are the Department for education and skills whose role is to promote adult basic skills and the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs whose role is to promote green issues. The availability of these lead departments has proved to be an effective way of achieving the set objectives to enhance sustainability (Great Britain: Department for Environment, Food and Rural affairs, 2005)  

                   The other effective way of promoting sustainability is seeking guidance from Office of Government Commerce (OGC). OGC functions in helping the lead departments with sustainable procurement and this makes the sustainable procurement more effective. The OGC Functions in advising the departments on the ways they can employ to achieve a sustainable procurement conforming to the Government’s Value for money policy and the rules of the EU (Farnworth and mike, 2009).

               Effectiveness of sustainable procurement can only be achieved if the sustainable procurement is compatible with the efficiency agenda. The OGC Functions as an advisory board to ensure that sustainable procurement is in line with efficiency agenda (Erridge, Ruth and John 2001).


Erridge, A., F. Ruth and M. John (2001) Sustainable procurement: public and private sector perspectives. Gower Publishing, Ltd.

Farnworth, C. and F. mike (2009) Sustainable Procurement. Chartered Institute of Purchasing & Supply.

Great Britain: Department for Environment, Food and Rural affairs (2005) The UK government sustainable development strategy. Great Britain: The Stationery Office.

Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Environmental Audit Committee (2006) Sustainable procurement: The Way Forward; Third report of Session 2005-06;Report, Together with Formal Minutes, Oral and Written Evidence. Great Britain: The Stationary Office.

Helmink, J., J. Marie and D. Frits (2008) Sustainable procurement: a thematic review on Sustainable procurement in higher education. DHO Publisher.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2007) Institutionalizing sustainable development. OECD Publishing.


James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.


A Variable



                  A variable is something that can vary or change with time. There are two types of variables, independent and dependent variables. Independent variables can be controlled by the person performing an experiment while dependent variables are variables that are measured by the person performing an experiment. This paper will discuss about the proposed dependent and independent variables and a description of the pan to find instruments for the variables.


Proposed dependent and independent variables

             The research study aims finding out the effects of work experience on the performance of college students. The study will be conducted by comparing the grades of students who have worked prior to joining college to those who have not worked prior to joining college. In this case, college grades are the dependent variable since these college grades depend on the work experience. The independent variable in this case is work experience. This is because work experience can lead to generation of two independent groups namely, college students with work experience and college students with no work experience (Delta Education (Firm) and Lawrence Hall of science, 2001).

                 The instruments to be used for the proposed dependent and independent variables are questionnaires that will be filled by college students indicating the number of years of experience they had prior to joining college. This will enable us identify college students with work experience and college students without work experience. Therefore, it will enable us measure the independent variable which is the work experience. We will also need about 100 college student volunteers who will fill the questionnaires (Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2007).

               Test exams papers will be used to obtain the dependent variable which is the college grades. The students volunteers will take an exam test to measure their level of intelligence and the grades obtained will be used as dependent variables. The grades obtained depend on the level of the students’ work experience (Cohen, 2007).

                  Since a test will be used as a measuring device for data collection, it is essential for the test to be valid and reliable. In this case, the test is aimed at measuring the level of intelligence or performance of college students. The test question should test the knowledge of what is learnt in class for instance a question on a given course topic. A good example of a way that can be used to measure validity is using a Scholastic Assessment Test and then the use of a correlation coefficient to compare the grades scored by college students in the Scholastic Assessment Test (Litwin, 1995).

                   Testing reliability on the other hand will be used to determine whether the exam test is consistent. The best statistic that will be used to test reliability is the reliability coefficient. An example of a method that can be used to test reliability will be to give the same exam test to two groups of students at different times. To know if the test is reliable both groups will score almost similar grades in both occasions (Litwin, 1995).


            Every research study should strive to be a solid research study and solidity can be achieved by having knowledge of how to manipulate both dependent and independent variables and controlling aspects that can affect the validity of the experiment.


Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. R. (2007) Research Methods in Education (6th Ed.). Routledge.

Delta Education (Firm), & Lawrence Hall of science (2001) Variables.  Delta Education.

Litwin, M. S. (1995) How to measure survey reliability and validity (3rd Ed.). SAGE


Rosemary Clinton is the Author of this paper. She is a senior academic writer and an editor and she offers custom research papers. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and lack of confidence by visiting

Economic Tools and Concepts in Health Care



Economic tools and concepts are used in health care to determine the accessibility as well as availability of health care to the public. The tools are also fundamental in determining the quality of health care services and facilities that are availed to different categories of people. Various key players in the industry hold critical roles in determining the nature of services offered at public as well as in private institutions although the government has a more significant role in regulating the health care industry. In the recent years, the health care industry has been hit by a severe shortage of health professionals as well as facilities such that m.ost people rarely access the basic heath cares services. Tools such as elasticity, demand and supply curves as well as marginal analysis in the health care industry are used to present this scenario.



Demand and supply curves as an economic tool in the shortage of nurses

These curves are quite relevant when identifying equilibrium from where the numbers of health care providers who are available to cater for all who are seeking their services. The number of nurses has gone down considerably in the past few years not only in the United States but all over the world. This shortage has led to an increased demand for health care services while the supply of the services is quite low (Getzen 2007).Low supply of nurses has been attributed to a step increase in populations all over the world such that the number of individuals seeking the same services has increased at a faster rate than the supply of health are services. Research has shown that more individuals are eager to venture into other careers than nursing as compared to the last century when nursing was among the most lucrative professions. This is mainly due to poor working conditions as well as insufficient remuneration for the nurses who are already practicing. Consequently, admission to nursing graduate school is quite competitive hence locking out many students who were aspiring to join the profession but their grades are low (Lutz, 2008).The low supply of nurses in relation to the high demand has been growing at a very alarming rate such that by the year 2020 the supply of nurses is predicted to be less by almost a half of the number demanded.


The table below shows the trend from 2000 until 2020.































US: Supply versus Demand Projections for FTE Registered Nurses

 Source: Data from the Bureau of Health Professions. (2004)Low supply of nurses has created huge disparities in the provision health care services such that the number of deaths has increased to very high levels. This is due to overworking of the nurses who are in the market because they have to stretch their services to all who are demanding for them hence increasing the ratio of patient to nurse. More patients than nurses predicts poor services being offered as the nurse is often very tired especially in facilities where there are few non-professional workers (Getzen 2007).

 Marginal analysis

Marginal analysis incorporates use of marginal, benefits and marginal costs to evaluate the best way of satisfying the needs of the public. Marginal analysis is based on utilitarian philosophy which calls for decisions which increase the benefits gained by the whole society or else give priority to choices which will improve the welfare of the whole society Bureau of Health Professions. (2004).Marginal costs in health care are the expenses incurred when more nurses are trained or when more health care facilities are established to minimize the shortage. This cost increases with increased production such that the more nurses who are admitted to training colleges, the more the cost of training them. The rise in costs as the number of trainee nurses increase is often associated to straining of the available resources which are often limited (Fullbrook, 2008).

Marginal benefits on the other hand refer to the additional benefits attained by society after more nurses have been through the training program. The additional benefits usually decrease as the provision of services increase apparently due to a rise in needs as well as number of recipients as population growth is always elevated (Conova, 2004).Graph showing marginal efficiency as a point whereby the marginal costs are equal to the marginal benefits Bureau of Health Professions. (2004).According to the utilitarian philosophy, the society gains more by training more nurses because the benefits accrued from increased supply exceed the costs. However, this may not be the case at all times as the society may incur huge expenses when training nurses who will take care of the elderly as this category of individuals contribute less to the society (Conova, 2004).


Elasticity is an important economic tool used in describing the distribution of welfare services to the society such as health care services. Elasticity in healthcare is essential as regardless of the economic crisis that is prevailing or the shortage of nurses, human beings never cease to demand healthcare services (Getzen 2007).Elasticity of the supply price indicates a positive link between the price of a service and the quantity which is supplied. In the health care sector, increased number of nurses who are undergoing training may take longer to generate the expected results of giving every patient equal access to healthcare services. However, after the training period, the health sector will realize that the delivery of healthcare services has been boosted and the mortality rate will be reduced (Lutz, 2008).


The three economic tools have clearly indicated that there are more benefits which will be accrued by the government when it implements a program which will see more nurses undergoing training. Society is predicted to benefit from provision of quality health care while the government will gain by cutting the costs of moving nurses from one region which is adversely affected to the other.The federal as well as the state government has played a crucial role in ensuring that most of the working population is insured as a way of increasing access to health care services. Similarly, the same concept has been used to create more avenues for training nurses as the looming shortage will only be controlled when everyone will be able to gain access to quality heath care services.


Bureau of Health Professions. (2004), findings from the national survey of registered        nurse. Retrieved on June 8, 2010 from:                                                     

Conover, C. J. (2004, October 4th)Health care regulation: A $169 billion hidden tax.                      Policy Analysis;(10) 527; p.1-29.

Fullbrook, S. (2008, May-June). Duty of care and political expectations. Part 5: standards             and clinical outcomes. British Journal of Nursing , 17(10), 650-652.

Getzen, T. E. (2007). Health economics and financing. (3rd ed.). John Wiley and Sons,       Inc., Hoboken, NJ.

Lutz, S. (2008, May-June). Happy together: Consumer expectation for a public-private                  healthcare system. Journal of Healthcare Management, 53(3), 149-152.

Rosemary Clinton is the Author of this paper. She is a senior academic writer and an editor and she offers custom research papers. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and lack of confidence by visiting

Consumer Demand For Health Care Services



 Health care providers are professionals who are concerned with delivery of activities which are meant to improve the health status of human beings. The health care field has many departments which are concerned with promoting health as well as managing diseases so that they are contained to prevent their spread.There has been a severe shortage of health care providers due to huge disparities posted by less professionals being trained as well as the longer periods of training before attaining the required standards. The impact of few healthcare providers is often exemplified by high mortality rate especially in women during childbirth. The infant mortality due to lack of adequate affordable health care facilities and personnel is often caused by the shortage.Research has shown that the shortage of health care providers has been felt more by the middle as well as the lower class society who cannot afford to pay for private services. The private health care facilities are usually costly while the public facilities are usually congested with few personnel such that the quality of the services is usually strained.


Shortage of Health Care Providers

Health care is the treatment and prevention of illness which is offered by professionals in medicine, hospitals and allied health. Access to health care in the United States has been hindered by failure of the public to understand various aspects of healthcare such as public health for the entire population and the medical management of illness Kane, (2007).Since its inception, health care has been delivered by trained professionals who are extracted from different disciplines such as nursing, dentistry, social work and pharmacy.

These sectors which incorporate the health-care industry are given the mandate of availing services and products which are related to human health. Health care activities are not necessarily held in hospitals as at times some are conducted in the communities where people live or at the workplace Isgur, (2008).Over the years, Americans have been facing  reduced health care provision due to the number of physicians receding hence making it hard to find  quality healthcare services which are affordable. One of the major aspects which is attributed to the shortage of physicians is the length of time taken to train doctors until they are through with their studies.

A general physician requires an average ten years to complete basic training such that within that period, more children are being born and they will require adequate health care before the student doctor is allowed to practice Raible, (2008).Similarly, changing lifestyles have led to development of diseases which were unknown a few years ago hence calling for more specialists in the field. As the demand for specialized treatment increases, the supply of medical professionals has declined thus causing a huge disparity as the demand is high above the supply Getzen, (2007).A major implication caused by shortage of medical professionals is high mortality rates among all age groups while the public loses trust in the health care system. This is quite complex because access to quality health care is an indicator of individual well being Raible, (2008).

 The impact of shortage of health care providers

Presence of few health care providers in the country has led to an increase in the number of deaths resulting from minor illnesses as some of the patients require counseling or patient based therapy to get well. Research has shown that patients who are constantly under the watch of health care providers regardless of whether medication is provided or not are able to recover at a higher rate than those who are ailing back at home. The presence of a health care provider creates a more comforting environment hence increasing the inner strength of the individual and they are able to fight for their lives Raible, (2008).Shortage of health care providers has created a certain degree of uncertainty among patients because they lack the surety associated with readily available health care Isgur, (2008).

Consequently, they are never sure whether they will be able to access the facilities even after they are reassured of its availability. This increases the mortality rate as the patients are never sure of what to expect whenever they fall sick Kane, (2007).Generally, shortage of health acre providers is a clear indication that the government tends to overload the few who are there especially in government owned health facilities. This causes a lot of strain to the health care providers such that they have a lot of work in their hands and the time allocated for each patient is limited. This reduces the quality of attention and service provided for the patient as the health care provider will rush to attend to more patients.Consequently, this leads to the health care providers being stressed and fatigued by the end of the day such that the probability of medical errors arising is quite high Raible, (2008).

Cases of wrong medication being administered to the wrong patient or else cases of incomplete health care are common in situations where the demand of health care providers exceeds the supply. This situation also limits the capacity of health care providers to get involved in the engaging the patients to participate in their own health care promotion in order to minimize occurrence of minor ailments Kane, (2007).Shortage of health care providers has largely caused racial discrimination as a white doctor attending to a hundred black patients and a few white patients will give preferential treatment to the whites as compared to the blacks. Racial discrimination is especially common in rural America as well as in areas which have more minority groups than whites. Similarly, very few health care providers are non-whites therefore the disparity is seen during preferential treatment of some patients Isgur, (2008).

 Supporting shortage of health care providers rationale

Generally a wide information gap usually exists between health care providers and their patients such that it is only by offering considerable time for individual patients that the health care provider can be able to gauge out the full information from a patient. Such a move calls for increased supply of health care providers such that the patient is able to share their problems with the health care provider and in the process a solution is found and administered. Such a scenario will reduce medical errors in addition to increasing patient participation in their own health care Kane, (2007).Congress plays a key role in determining the number of doctors to be deployed in each state dependent on the federal funding provided for residency. This has led to low numbers of doctors in certain areas where the demand is high due to inadequate funds Getzen, (2007).


Shortage of health care providers is a global pandemic which should be solved promptly to reduce the number of lives being lost due to unavailability of health care providers. Other than increasing their population the government should take note of availing medical facilities for all especially those who live in marginal areas. Many people lose their lives due to unavailability of health care services and providers in most areas hence a need to work on increasing the supply.


Getzen, T.E. (2007), Health economics and financing 3rd ed. Hoboken: John Wiley &        Sons

Kane, D. (2007), Strategies emerge to bring supply costs down. Hospitals and Health        Networks. Vol. 81, iss. 8. pp. 32

Isgur, B. (2008), Healing the health care staffing shortage. Trustee, Vol. 61, Iss. 2, pp.       18-21

 Raible, E. (2008), Looming shortage of health care practitioners due to systemic    inadequacies. Endocrine Today, vol. 6. iss. 14, pp. 1-11. 

Rosemary Clinton is the Author of this paper. She is a senior academic writer and an editor and she offers custom research papers. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and lack of confidence by visiting

Federal Air Marshal Program



After the wake of 9/11, the federal air marshal program’s sudden expansion of the former sky marshal program which had already been intact for the past three decades is currently expanding an in full force.  The federal marshal program, a branch in the Homeland Security Department, dedicated with trained agents is run by the Transportation Security Agency (TSA). The federal air marshal program is proudly embellished with highly trained aviation prоfеѕѕiоnalѕ who vow protect the homeland from terrorist acts.  No doubt, 9/11 changed the way the world views aviation here on the homeland and abroad.


                Federal  Air Marshall  Service(FAMS) is  a  United States Federal  agency under Transport Security Administration  of  the Department Of  Homeland Security (DHS). The air marshal program was created by President Kennedy in 1963.  President Kennedy ordered   the federal law to enforce an act that would see security officers ensure safety of high risk flights (Price, 2009, p 13).  Federal  Air Marshal  service began  to operate  as the Federal  Aviation Administration(FAA)  in  1969 also known  as the Sky Marshal   Program.By 1969, acts  of  air piracy had increased  which  saw  President Nixon  deploying armed  federal  agent  on  commercial  aircraft of the United States to counter the treats of piracy in  air travel.

prior to  the September 11, 20001 attack, the Federal  Marshall  air services had  various  number of FAMS which  depended  upon the availability of finds  and  on  perceive threats.  On 9th   September 2001 33 FAM were active (BBC news, 2003).  in  response to this president Bush ordered a  rapid  expansion of  FAM that would  comprise  of  federal  agencies such as US  Housing  and Urban  Development   Office  of; inspector General, Postal inspection service,  ATF,  US  customs  and Boarder protection,  CID, IRS and others.FAMS was implemented to ensure air safety and to win the confidence of public travelers and the general civil aviation. 

Federal Air Marshal has the responsibility of detecting, deterring and defeating hostile act that target the US in air carriers and the airports.  Passenger’s air crew personal safety is under FAMS (Transport Security administration, 2010).Federal Air Marshal operates independently without any back up.  It is therefore a program that holds the highest standard or hand gun accuracy (Transport Security administration, 2010). FAMS personnel  are well  trained  with  investigation b techniques,  fire arms proficiency ,  close  quarter self  defense  criminal terrorist and  behavior recognition  to ensure the highest level of  security to the traveling  public(Transport Security administration, 2010)Upon aviation coming to fruition, the united Ѕtatеѕ has become the headquarters of providing a safety aviation network across the world.

This program has been mounted with a costly burden against the war on terror.  Rоbеrt G. Bеll referenced, “more than 40 pеrсеnt оf hijackings around the wоrld ѕinсе 1960 havе invоlvеd Аmеriсan airсraft” (Dоbѕоn and Paynе, 1982). Тhе vaѕt majоrity оf hijaсkingѕ in thе Unitеd Ѕtatеѕ wеrе сarriеd оut by individualѕ whо were generally seeking travel from the U.S and Cuba.  U.Ѕ. hijack missions were executed by psychologically impaired individuals, сriminalѕ, and еxtоrtiоniѕtѕ seeking to voice their cause. The U.S aviation, vulnerable, embarked upon new regulatory practices and terroristic counteraction practices that continue to be competitive on a daily basis. Heinous attempts in the skies which slayings were carried out by individuals willing to ѕaсrifiсе paѕѕеngеrѕ and its shell to accomplish their ruthless mission was now a focal point in aviation security.

 As a result, U.Ѕ. aviatiоn ѕесurity has bееn subjected with rеlеntlеѕѕ еffоrtѕ оf tеrrоriѕtѕ whose main mission is to destroy.   Flaws of U.Ѕ. ѕесurity mеaѕurеѕ have proved fallible whеn acts of terror were executed in Wеѕtеrn Hemisphere airpоrtѕ and subway stations.  Unfortunately, protocol in its new regulatory practices involves profiling.  Muslim/Arab passengers quietly sitting on a plane have the potential by their presence to cause a stir because of past volatile situations with radical beliefs in religion.  Profiling is not always full proof but is found to have some merit in the ability to detect suspicious behavior.The Federal Air Marshal Service aims at continuously fostering an inclusive workplace culture and a device based on fairness, open communication, respect and cooperation.  A suitable environment will enables FAMS employees be able to provide the highest level of security and safety to the public and travelers. The employees  are the working  groups,  field officers,  directors listeners based in headquarter and email  personal  who provide constructive  feedback  in  improving  FAMS


Flight crews undergo rigorous training and are briefed when air marshals are to board flights. The air marshals are assigned duties in the soonest time possible   whenever there is high risk locations (BBC news 2003). The undercover air Marshall is deployed on flights out of and into the country. For example during the Super Bowl  XXXVI in  New Orleans in  20002,  flights that came near Salt lake city which hosted 2002 winter Olympics (Fox News,  2005)had  undercover air marshal.The air marshals carry the Sig Sauer P229 service pistol in a 357SIG Chambering.

The y are trained to “shoot to top” which is firing the largest part of the body and the head so as to incapacitate the nevus system (Thomas Frank, Mimi Hall & Alan Levin, 2005)In the United Ѕtatеѕ in 1973, the (Federal Administrative Agency) FАА ѕpесifiеd thrее arеaѕ that ѕhоuld bе dеѕignatеd fоr inсrеaѕеd ѕесurity mеaѕurеѕ: thе tiсkеt соuntеr, thе bоarding gatе, and the interior of thе airсraft.  Increased security came along with instructions of profiling individuals who would likely hijack planes. The task force in 1969 was lead by Evan Pickeral who informed its personnel  of 35 behavioral characteristics to observe in relation  to past hijacking.  In 1969 an (Federal  Aviation Agency) FАА taѕk fоrсе undеr thе lеadеrѕhip оf Evan W. Piсkеrеl idеntifiеd 35 bеhaviоral сharaсtеriѕtiсѕ соmmоn tо paѕt aviation hijaсkingѕ.

Elimation of those suspect where those in age ranges of 16 and 65 who purchased a single ticket for cash. (Bell,1996)Compliance of the boarding areas were to measures  steps that were taken  to prevent concealed weapons from being brought on board. Major airports in the U.S and its western allies all had installed walk through metal archways, x-ray machines to examine all carry on luggage. The wake of these much needed hardware on aviation was seen as a proactive deterrent toward safer air travel.  World wide,mеtal dеtесtоrs, X-ray maсhinе wеrе fоund tо bе еffесtivе aѕ thе individualѕ оpеrating thеm. Security glitches were discovered when  droves of passesngers walking  thrоugh thе ѕсrееning prосеѕѕ prоduсеd what was called “the assembly syndrome” сauѕing ѕесurity to become flawed. The terrorist was now able to seep ammunition, explosives and other fatal devices through the cracks of its system.

 Training and Qualifications

                For one to become an  Federal  air Marshall,  one has to have college or university   credentials on  criminal  justice,  criminal  law,  constitutional  law  or a related  course.  One should be under the age of forty.  Experience is earned when one undergoes Federal Air Marshall, Service training.  Prior  experiences  to be considered  before one is  appointed is  courses in  defense  tactics,  experience in  martial  art,  and hand to hand combat technique.  Experience earned when working with a law enforcement agency is an added advantage (e, How, 2010)The Civil aviation security specialist and the federal air marshals undergo intense training which air a two phase program.  The first phase takes duration of seven weeks which majors on basic law course.  The training is completed at Artesia’s Federal law Enforcement Training Center in Mexico.  

The Air Marshall later join William J Hughes technical center in New Jersey for a follow up training.  This training s is done with the aim of equipping the   federal air Marshall with the best performance skills on their job.  The training  involves  courses like  marksmanship,  physical  fitness,  defensive tactics,  constitutional  law,  emergency medical  assistance and law enforcement techniques. The candidates then undergo the second phase of the training for the purpose of gaining tactics that should be carried out in the field. The training emphasizes on perfection of marksmanship skills. This is because the job necessitates the candidates to be tightly confines to the aircraft and others outside it. The candidates after successfully compilation of the training are assigned to twenty one field officers for them to begin their duties and mission.

 Future of aviation

             FAM  has taken  an approach  that will  see  safety of selected flights deemed  as high  risk  and take long  distance journey  that were targeted on  September 11 2001.  This approach was taken because the number of air marshal is less   than the number of daily flights taken. The FAM aims at maximizing the coverage of flights in high risk categories ranked the top ten.The FAMS previous Director implement initiatives  and processes in  2008 that would  provide anonymous feedback  to the management through internal  website,  working  groups an listening  sessions. FAM  plans  to conduct workforce satisfaction  survey every two years(GAO,  2009) to build  upon the first survey done in  2007.thsi is with the aim of enhancing  and ensuring  that the questions on the survey answers  to provide  highest possible  response rates.

FAM continues to address various quality of life and operational issues that affect the ability of Air marshal to perform to the best possible level for it to achieve its mission. This will involve FAMS management involvement in oversight survey of key questions to foster career sustainability.  FAM is in  a mission of recruiting  and deploying  trained  and armed federal  air marshal  in  providing  the highest level  of  on board  security on  selected  flights.  FAM routinely determines which flights are to be provided with on board security presence and which are not.  Te service has developed an operational approach referred to as the agency concept of operation for deploying air marshal on selected flights (GAO, 2009)



              The FAMS still faces the challenge of the total number of service it has compared to the number of flights that operate on daily basis in the US. The management has however solved this by selecting the risk flights which are to have on board security presence.  This could still be a challenge in providing highly security to those which are seen to be less at risk. FAM also faces the challenges of addressing quality of life issue s and operational issues that affect the ability of air Marshall to carry out its agency mission (GAO, 2009).  Such issues inclusive, maintaining anonymity on boarded air craft and procedures to mitigate various health concerns associated with frequent flying.


The Federal Air marshal has an important mission to carry out in ensuring safety of aviation transport to all the passengers. The various initiatives and process have helped in addressing the concerns of the workforce, opening lines for communication and ensuring sustainable progress. The security of aviation transport sector should be the ultimate goal of FAM in gaining public confidence for air transport.


Transport security administration, (2010) Federal Air Marshall. Retrieved from  

           On May 27, 2010

GAO, 2008 the Federal air Marshall Service. Retrieved from


                On May 27, 2010

Price, D (2009) Practical Aviation Security (Burlington, M.A.: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2009), P 13

BBC news (2003) Air marshal grounded over security.  Retrieved from

             On May 27, 2010

Fox News (2005) air marshal, in spot light.  Retrieved from


                    On May 27, 2010

Thomas F, Hall, M& Alan Levin (2005). “Air marshals thrust into spotlight”. USA Today. Retrieved from


eHow (2010) How to become a Federal Air Marshall.  Retrieved from


                  On May 27, 2010


Janet Peter is the author and is associated with which is a global research papers 24/7 provider. If you would like help in essays, research papers, term papers and dissertations, you can visit

Effective and Ineffective Elements of Two Sites has established separate websites for its outlets in Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Japan and China such that the costumers in those countries are able to get personalised information which is local about their favourite on the other hand deals with all sorts of goods from different companies whether branded or not but rather its merchandise is specifically made for online selling by the company. deals with branded goods which are manufactured by specific companies thus making it favourite for consumers who are keener on brand loyalty. This strategy is quite effective as it enhances the sales from various manufacturers (, 2010).Similarly, relies only on direct sales of items while has indulged in online auctions which help other retailers to liquidate their property.

This increase the customer base for the company while at the same time increasing the provides international shipping services for purchases made in either online store such that the customer just presents the details of their location and the payment then wait for the items to be delivered. provides free shipping once when a new customer makes his/her first purchase. By making it easier for its customers to purchase and receive the purchases conveniently, becomes a favourite choice for many (, 2010).The other strategy which makes more effective in its operations is its worldwide market for all its products. on the other hand lacks a wider world wide market such that it has a narrower market share (, 2010) has included iTunes, iPhones and iPads as part of their merchandise. These are items which are highly demanded by young people such that they present higher sales. This category of customers would rather have all their music in an IPhones rather than purchase DVDs (, 2010).Feedback from customers is essential to any company which is in the process of enlarging the market share. has developed a software program which allows customers to write a review about the product they have purchased. This provides a forum for criticising a product as well as rating it (, 2010).One feature that makes the sales of books via more profitable for the company as well as the authors is the ability of customers to search for information in the book using key words.

This option prevents piracy as well as illegal reproduction of the same book as only some limited pages are accessible online thus the reader has to pay for them to gain access to the whole book(, 2010) provides its customers with the freedom to carry out online bargains such that they are able to compare prices of various brands of the same product being sold by the outfit. does not provide this feature and its customers end up buying goods which may be overpriced (, 2010) has also employed a key feature in its sales by incorporating third party sellers who earn commissions by referring potential customers to the Amazon website. This is made possible by creating links from the websites of the third parties into that of Amazon (, 2010).

  References (2010), about us. Retrieved on May 26 2010 from: (2010), international website. Retrieved on May 26 2010 from: 

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Illegal immigration


 The number of illegal immigrants in United States has increased much. Illegal immigration has negative effects to the country. First, illegal immigration interferes with the countries security. This is because most immigrants bring harmful items to the country like drugs and weapons. Illegal immigrants entering the country through the Mexican border have caused a lot of insecurity (LeMay, 2007). The immigrants have smuggled illegal drugs and firearms into the country. This has interfered with insecurity in the country. Secondly, illegal immigration has caused environmental degradation. The immigrants abandon their cars on the Mexican border near Arizona. The vehicles cause environmental pollution on the border. The illegal immigrants leave behind a lot of trash when they are walking. Residents along the border have complained of environmental pollution in the area.

This is because immigrants have dumped waste materials along the border. The immigrants have also caused environmental destruction as they walk along the parks. They have used the parks in the country to distribute illegal drugs. This has led to destruction of previously protected areas. Illegal immigrants have also caused danger to wildlife, plants as they have destroyed forests and habitat areas for the wildlife. The immigrants have caused destructions to land used for farming and grazing. In addition, they have caused security threat to citizens, wildlife in various parts of the country. The country should deport all illegal immigrants in the country. This is to prevent environmental degradation and stabilize the population. Another reason why the government should deport illegal immigrants is to improve security in the country. This will reduce smuggling of illegal drugs and firearms. It will also reduce terrorism (Chiras, 2009).


Chiras, D.D. (2009).Environmental Science. Jones & Bartlett Learning

LeMay, C. M.(2007).Illegal immigration: a reference handbook. ABC-CLIO

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Jay Marketing.


Job-oriented job analysis techniques

          In job oriented analysis the focus is on the various tasks and work activities that are to be performed in the specified job.  It has specific task description on task analysis, functional job analysis and job element method.  The position of Marketing Manager at Jay Marketing has these elements.  They include, overseeing market research and focus group, implement and researching on effective marketing strategies and best practices, and proactive approach to problem-solving.

 Worker oriented job analysis

          Worker oriented job  analysis focuses on  talents and traits that are necessary for the performance of the job in  examining broad human  behaviors that is required  in  work  activities(Raymark,  Schmit, & Guion,  1997, p 723-736).  Such qualities involve critical incident technique, and position analysis q1uetzionaaire.  In Jay marketing position, the position of a marketing manager requires one to provide leadership in resolving issues within the marketing department. The candidate should experience in marketing and excellent interpersonal and communication skills.  The candidate is required to have exceptional consultancy and management skills.

 The usefulness of job analysis

        The preparation of a job specification and job description helps the Human Resource department to hire the right workforce into the organization. Such a requirement helps in the understanding the needed qualities by employees that will provide optimum work performance.  Records of these descriptions should be stored for future comparisons. If the organization has to move to a higher level, the HR will consider adding more requirements and qualifications of needed candidates that will best elevate the position of an organization. Therefore the company will have to conduct another job analysis for this same position.

 The similarities and differences

             Time Warner careers web has a post in need of a marketing manager. The difference with the Jay Market post is that the candidate must be experienced in e-Commerce, consumer goods and home videos.  It is similar to the Jay marketing position for it requires educational qualification in business strategy and marketing (Time Warner, 2008) Main street station casino, brewery and hotel in Las Vegas require a marketing manager.  The post is similar to that of Jay Market because the candidate has to implement marketing plan and research that will effectively assist the company. The job requirement for this Las Vegas post however, wants a 21 year old candidate and must have necessary licenses (Body Gaming, 2009)


Raymark, P Schmitt, M& Guion, R (1997) identifying potential Useful personality constructs for employee selection.  Personal psychology, 50, p 723-736.

Body Gaming, (2009) Main street station casino, brewery and hotel. Retrieved from

On May 26, 2010

Time Warner careers (2008)Marketing Manager, Brand Development. Retrieved from

On May 26, 2010

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Databases In A Business


 Phase 3- task 1: Discussion Board

Business rules are a set of characteristics of an application which contributes to the efficiency of a database. A database has to be flexible such that any application that is put in place embraces the subsequent changes which will be included in the database when it is being updated. This minimizes the need to establish a new database each time a something has to be added or modified.In this case study, one of the most essential business rules is the program codes for the various types of information that is incorporated into the database. Such program codes include details which are quite permanent such as their name which allows for a more enhanced task of editing the database.

This gives a chance for the company to put data which is relevant at that particular time and the denormalizing engine used in the application should ensure that any additional information is added simultaneously.Seeking clarifications as well as understanding the business rules of a company is important especially to a database designer as it must meet the needs and requirement of the company. The logical design of the database should incorporate the essential features which are most important to the company as it will make no sense when the design fails to meet the requirements.  

 Phase 3-task 2: Individual Project

Inherent limitations and benefits of Microsoft Access, SQL Server and FoxPro



FoxPro database incorporates the use of codes which enable the user to execute user defined applications. The best feature in FoxPro is the ability to store back ups of the data that has been put in the database online. This becomes equally important for companies which are faced by recurrent power failure which may lead to lose of unsaved data (Datanet Solutions, 2010). However, this advantage is only effective for individuals who are very keen on their data input otherwise more errors may be experienced. It therefore calls for experienced personnel to use FoxPro especially during subsequent up dates to avoid harming existing data. Consequently, FoxPro is less compatible with most operating systems thus limiting the number of areas where it can be applied. Only UNIX and Windows Winus are compatible with the application while others are not quite efficient (Datanet Solutions, 2010).


This is the program of choice for most companies solely due to its flexibility as it is highly compatible with quite a number of operation systems. MySQL is quite fast during data input as well as being user friendly such that it does not require a qualified computer wizard to run and operate it(Oracle Corporation, 2010).This database provides for faultiness when entering data by allowing the user to edit and compile complete data by suggesting ways through which the data which is entered can be verified. However, the database does not allow usage of more than one code such as when a certain feature of employees is not constant, different codes cannot be used for that item.

Therefore, it may prove to be quiet challenging for the needs of Sorenson Medical (Oracle Corporation, 2010).Microsoft AccessMicrosoft Access offers a unique opportunity to database managers such that they can be able to import data for other sources such as other employee records. By creating links, the various sources of data are incorporated into one hence making data entry a less tedious task. Data that is entered into the Microsoft Access database is often faced with the risk of being corrupted by unknown applications. This is especially common in small files which are less than 10MB in size. Larger files are however quite safe hence it becomes quite important to compile large files or else store them in secondary storage devices (Microsoft Access, 2010).

 Why Microsoft Access is the most appropriate tool for this problem

Over the years, Microsoft Access has been modified to make it more efficient in storing al types of data regardless of size and complexity. Data which contains variant attachments as well as that containing different values such as information on level of education or home address may be incorporated without any problems. This makes it ideal for Sorenson medical as it will be flexible enough to enter all necessary data per employee (Microsoft Access, 2010).

An equally important feature of Microsoft Access allows different users to enter as well as edit their own data at the same time using different computers. This option reduces congestion as well as the workload which would otherwise be placed on a single employee. The company will thus save on manpower and time by ensuring all the computers are networked and each employee given the mandate to modify their information as they progress in their careers. This feature is exceptionally easy to execute as it offers a wide variety of queries which the user applies when entering any data (Microsoft Access, 2010).


Datanet Solutions. Inc, (2010), FoxPro vs. Access databases for medical and health           software. Retrieved on June 2, 2010 from:

Microsoft Access, (2010), what’s new in Microsoft Access 2010. retrieved on June 2,        2010 from:…/8794ea1b-ef03-4a09-a86a-0caabf590fcd

Oracle Corporation (2010), MySQL performance benchmark. Retrieved on June 2, 2010   from:…/Using-a-MySQLdatabase-with-PHP.htm.

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Race in the Honolulu Community



Honolulu is the most populated area of the Hawaii state in the United States while downtown Honolulu is the center of financial, commercial as well as the government center for the Hawaiian government. The Honolulu community is made up of mostly upper class districts where the residents live in high-priced homes. The upper class communities are made up of the Wai’alae’iki and the Hawai’i Loa Ridge. According to the 2002 census, the Honolulu community had approximately 20% whites in the total population, the African-Americans were 1.6% while Asians made up an entire 55.9% of the total population. Therefore the entire Honolulu population is made up of mostly Asians and whites who are the minority and they reside in the high as well as the upper class residential areas. Social integration has been one of the most prominent racial conflict affecting visitors and tourists who are visiting the community for the first time. The presence of more races in the city has been a blessing in disguise as the city has achieved quiet a lot through contributions of different races.


History of Honolulu

The first Polynesians to settle in Honolulu is thought to have migrated there in the12th century. This pioneer Polynesian together with other Native Americans established the Honolulu as the capital city of Hawaii after constructing modern buildings all over the town as a way of elevating its status (Honolulu: Municipal Government, 2009).

In the 1890s, the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown and this led to an attack by the Japanese which had damaging effects on the Pearl Harbor which left Honolulu as the largest city in the islands. Over the years, the city has grown especially with increased tourism and growing economy in the state. Establishment of modern air travel resulted into construction of the Honolulu InternationalAirport which was primarily constructed as a hub of tourist convenience

(Honolulu: Municipal Government, 2009).

In recent years, Honolulu has been categorized as the 29th city in the world where the quality of living is guaranteed. Cases of crime and sanitation have gone down in the recent years therefore making Honolulu a favorite destination for many tourists. The city has been less hit by instances of political instability while personal freedom and transport is at an advanced stage such that a visitor in the city does not get lost (Honolulu: Municipal Government, 2009).  

 Dialects in the Honolulu Community

Although Caucasians make up a larger percentage of the entire Honolulu population, the official language which is predominant in the community is English. Despite the fact that Hawaiian is the native tongue, most residents and especially the natives have incorporated Hawaiian/Asian words into English to come with a local “slang” which is closely related to Hawaiian pidgin (Villareal, 2005).The “slang” creates an even ground for various racial ethnicities to understand each other as well as to eliminate any communication barriers which may be present. The local dialect has evolved so much over the past few years such that it would be difficult to distinguish between locals and natives in institutions of learning. It has helped many foreign students in the local universities to adapt quickly as well as to learn their way through various parts of the county (Villareal, 2005).

 Racial integration in Honolulu community

Most of the races in the Honolulu community who are exposed to racial discrimination in schools are the immigrant Asians who are subjected to the same by the Polynesians who are natives. The conflict arises where the native Asians have adjusted to the life in Honolulu as well as adopting the culture of the Hawaiians in all aspects such that it would be different to tell them apart (Honolulu, 2010).  Discrimination is often ignored such that it is not strange to hear a Polynesian boy shouting at his Asian counterparts in the presence of adults who do not raise any qualms about it. Similarly, most Asians possess deep hatred for the Polynesians and racist jokes are considered as part of life for them. Polynesians are branded ignorant bullies as they have changed their culture and ethnicity to adapt a foreign one.

This increases the racial tension and the rival races usually blame each other on crimes committed from either camp (Honolulu: Municipal Government, 2009).The racial discrimination has been so intense that most Asians are known to take their children to private schools which are mostly composed of mixed races. This reduces discrimination along racial lines due to even presentation of all races. The same case applies for whites who are discriminated as well along racial boundaries by the Polynesians. On the extreme end, the social places in Honolulu have being built in a such a way that the whites do not feel welcome in any of them and hence creates a form of discrimination as they are not included in such programs. This has led to development of social places which cater for the specific ethnic backgrounds such that they are made with the tastes and preferences presented by specific races(Villareal, 2005)..

  Commercial activities in Honolulu

The minority whites are more involved in most of the major industries in Honolulu. These include the sugar industry which has been a major income earner for the larger Hawaii as well as involvement in intensive agriculture. Aquaculture has been a reserve of the African-Americans while the Asians have more interests in the financial field (Honolulu: Municipal Government, 2009).The rate of unemployment is below 5% which is attributed to increased growth of the economy the agricultural sector has greatly contributed to increased employment opportunities while the government has spent quite a lot in improving the working conditions for all in Honolulu. The Office of Economic Development has been up in arms to creating a business-friendly environment for investors as well as those who are interested in starting their own business (Honolulu, 2010).   

Much effort has been placed in the involvement of all races in community activities such as commemoration of the close relationship between Honolulu and its counterpart in China known as Zhongshan. Other income generating activities which involve people from all cultural backgrounds include the Honolulu Cultural and Arts District Association. These activities have been developed as a way on creating more revenue for the city as well as ensuring that the disparity portrayed by the different racial groups is eliminated(Honolulu: Municipal Government, 2009).The Honolulu community has benefited greatly from tourism which is made possible by proper utilization of the famous beach resorts. The favorable weather and presence of mixed races in the community is another aspect which has led to increased domestic and international tourism (Villareal, 2005)..

 Honolulu cultural festivities

 Presence of diverse racial ethnicity in Honolulu has significantly contributed to availability of quite a number of cultural festivals in the city. The first holiday is marked in January of February each year and it is called the Narcissus Festival which marks the begging of anew Chinese year. This festivity is characterized by beauty pageants and lion dances throughout the entire season (Honolulu, 2010).The Japanese also have their Cherry Blossom Queen festival which runs from January to March each year. This festival has its climax whet e entire population selects their favorite Cherry Blossom Queen and Court. Later on in the month of March, the whole community comes together to celebrate the Honolulu Festival which is an attempt of the government to celebrate the ethnic harmony that is exhibited in the city (Honolulu, 2010).  The students who are in schools also have a chance of exhibiting racial harmony every year during the annual Hawaii Invitational Music Festival which oversees all learners in junior, school as well as those in colleges presenting their musical prowess. This musical festivals are often a center of attraction for many especially the lovers of Honolulu symphony as they also get a chance of receiving an equal share of the genre. This is especially emphasized by the Hawaii International Jazz Festival which is celebrated every year in late July and it incorporates artistes from all ethnical backgrounds.

 Other festivities include the Lei day which is celebrate don may 1st each year and it encompasses plenty of hula dances in addition to crowning of the Lei Queen which brings the festivals to a climax (Honolulu, 2010).Most of the festivities are carried out at the Neal SBlasdellCenter which is the largest social site in the city. All major events which affect the diverse cultural backgrounds of the residents are held here as the center is composed of a variety of features such as an exhibition hall, a multi-purpose hall and a concert hall such that a wide range of events can be held there at the same time. Similarly there is an outdoor amphitheater near Waikiki beach that seats more than two thousand five hundred people at a go (Honolulu: Municipal Government, 2009).Another important facet of the Honolulu community is the Bishop Museum which is popularly known for its Polynesian artifacts. The Polynesian artistes are arguably the best in the world and most of their works has been put on display in the museum. Consequently, Asian artifacts are displayed in the Honolulu Academy of Arts which also houses permanent exhibits by Italian artistes (Honolulu: Municipal Government, 2009).


The races on Honolulu community have been of great significance to growth of the city in various dimensions such as the agricultural sector as well as the tourism industry. Consequently, establishment of festivities for different cultural ethnicities has greatly reduced the racial discrimination which was eminent in past years.


Honolulu (2010), Honolulu community. Retrieved on May 28, 2010 from:

Honolulu: municipal government (2009), Honolulu: economy. Retrieved on May 28,          2010 from:…/HonoluluEconomy.html

Villareal, M. (2005), Does social integration create homogenous preferences?” presented   during the annual meeting of International Studies Association. Retrieved on May       28, 2010 from:

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