Author: Prof. Richard Brixton


Virtual Reality Technology and Potential Problems Associated with it


                     Virtual reality is defined as environments simulated through the use of computers and these environments can in turn simulate given places in the imaginary and real worlds. Examples of virtual reality environments are primary visual experiences that are displayed through stereoscopic displays or displayed on computer screens.

           Virtual reality technology involves creation of an artificial environment by use of software. This environment is then presented to user who accepts it as a real environment regardless of his or her beliefs. In order to experience virtual reality through a computer, one has to make use of sound and sight. A good example of virtual reality is a three dimensional image that can examined and explored through manipulation of keys and mouse of a computer.

                  Virtual reality technology can be used for training and education though it is associated with some problems which will be discussed below. First of all the virtual reality technology is expensive since there is use of a lot of money for purchasing software and other machines such as computers. The other problem is that the technology has a lot of complications and this makes it hard for students and even students undergoing training.

               There are several failed virtual reality technologies and this makes the use of this technology in training questionable and less effective. The use of virtual reality technology also increase the cost and time spent in training. This is because one has to spend a lot of time and undergo training that will help him or her know how to use the machines for virtual reality technology (Burdea and Coiffet, 2003).

 Distance learning

                Distance learning is a form of learning that helps individuals to achieve their academic goals without suspending their other life commitments for instance job and family. This type of learning also reduces the problems associated with learning and transfer of training. It is essential to design distance learning programs is such a way that they suit an individual’s lifestyle. This enhances flexibility because it enables one to enroll in a distance learning program any time that he or she has some free time.

               The other point that is noteworthy is that the distance learning programs to be designed is such a way that there are unlimited options and hence one can study any given course regardless of the place or location that he or she is. The other way of designing that can be used to avoid learning and transfer problems is having many short terms in throughout the year which enables one to take as many courses as possible within a year. This is better than traditional training programs that consist of only three semesters a year.

                       The other way that can make the process of distance learning much easy and beneficial is providing financial aid. This can be achieved through provision of income tax credits and students loans to individuals taking distance learning programs. This reduces the cases of distance learning participants suspending their learning process due to lack of money (Noe, 2008).

                      In conclusion, distance learning is beneficial since it enhances diversity and hence provides an environment that enables participants to interact with students from different backgrounds, with different life experiences and work. This in turn makes learning interesting, lively and enriching.


Burdea, G., & Coiffet, P. (2003) Virtual reality technology. Wiley-IEEE

Noe, R. A. (2008) Employee Training and Development (5th ed.), McGraw- Hill Irvin.


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ICD-9 System



                     ICD-9-CM means International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. This system is used officially in the United States for classifying and assigning codes to different health conditions. ICD-9 system is made up of alphanumerical codes representing specific diagnoses and the recorded procedures in the hospital care.


Impact of the ICD-9 System

               It is evident that the use of ICD-9 system which employs standardized codes has led to improved consistency among doctors or physicians with regard to recording a patient’s diagnoses and symptoms.

              Over the years, several changes have been made to the ICD-9 CM codes for instance in the year 2006, 173 new codes were introduced, 14 codes deleted and 28 codes were revised. These changes affect doctors and medical care providers since they increase the complexity of the ICD-9 CM system. Moreover, these changes may lead to exposure of medical care providers both financially and legally, which is inappropriate.

              However, it is essential to note that proper use of these diagnoses codes enhances the level of health care services provided and also improves medical procedures done. Inappropriate use of the codes result to either under-coding which greatly affects the medical operation revenue or over-coding which results to exposure of doctors to potential misconduct under given state regulations and laws.

          Since ICD-9 codes are many and quite complex, there is need for doctors and medical care providers to understand the various classifications of the codes including the sub-classifications. Understanding of these codes will enable proper diagnosis and identification of various health disorders.

                  In conclusion, it is evident that the ICD-9 CM system is of the essence since it has led to general improvement of the health care system through a comprehensive system of delivering medical information with a high degree of consistency.


James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

A Health Care Organization



                 A health care organization is an organization that deals with treatment and prevention of illnesses on an on-going basis. Health care organizations are public sectors. Health care organizations are different from other organizations and this paper will highlight some of those differences.

                     One of the key differences of health care organizations from other types of organizations is that all health care organizations are operated and owned by the government while other sectors other than health care may be composed of organizations that are not operated by the government. Therefore, this shows that health care is a public body or federal institution.

                   The other difference is that health care organizations function in supplying services to the public and do not compete with other institutions in terms of profit making. Other organizations on the other hand are often profit-making organizations that compete with other institutions. These organizations set goals that aim at overtaking the competing organizations in order to increase the amount of profits made.

                     It is also noteworthy that health care organizations are managed by a chain of control and command while other organizations that are under the private sector are managed in a corporate setting. It is also evident that health care organizations have to stick to what is in the government laws while other organizations operate under the laws and rules set by corporate owners and shareholders.

                    Lastly, it is important to note that the general public is the key beneficiary of the services provided by health care organizations. This is not the case with other organizations whereby the general public is considered the key consumer of the goods and services provided by these organizations which aim at generating profits.

                 In conclusion, the health care organization is greatly different from most other organizations due to the mentioned points.


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Strategic Management as a Way of Coping with Health Care Challenges


                  There are so many challenges facing the health care system and the health care organizations find it challenging to deal with these problems. The best way to cope with the challenges associated with health care systems is through strategic management. Strategic management aims at identifying initiatives taken by general managers and these initiatives involve utilizing resources in order to enhance an organization of firm’s performance.

                     Strategic management also enables an organization such as a health care organization to be prepared for any future challenges that may arise and have specific mechanisms to deal with the challenges. The management will enable a heath care organization to identify its goals, mission and objectives and implement policies that will enable it achieve the stated objectives. It is also clear that strategic management will provide direction to the health care organization.

                  A health care organization that has employed strategic management as a way of coping with future challenges should portray a strategic consistency whereby the actions of the health care organization are supposed to be consistent with what the management team expects. It is therefore clear that strategic management will enable a health care organization to set specific goals and strategies that will help tackle challenges that may arise in the future.

                The strategies have to be reassessed regularly in order to determine whether it is working or not. This will help the health care organization know whether it is on the right direction. It is also a way of determining whether the health care organization is ready to face the challenges that may arise at a given point.       

James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

A Day when Luck Prevailed


           That Tuesday seemed just like any other day though it was one of the most important days of my life. I work up at the crack of dawn and hurriedly prepared myself because I was to go for an interview whose positive response would change my life. The interview meant a lot to me especially at that time when I had been jobless for quite a long time. The previous night had been one of my longest nights, spending several hours rehearsing and formulating imaginary questions in my mind. Vivid images of my interviewer sitting in front of me kept running through my mind. I believed in myself and knew deep inside that I could achieve whatever I wanted.

          After spending a few hours preparing myself, I went to the bust station so that I could catch the earliest bus to town. There were quite a few buses that went to town daily from my hometown and that is the reason why one had to be early enough to catch one of the earliest buses. I waited for a few hours and was filled with joy when one of the buses that went to town arrived. I boarded the bus with my heart still leaping with joy. As soon as the bus started going, I realized that the driver was driving at a pretty high speed. I and other passengers started complaining and asking him to reduce the speed but the driver could not heed to our wishes.

              I felt so sad and suddenly had a bad feeling deep inside. No sooner had I realized what was happening than I saw our bus skidding and falling sideways. I heard the anguish cries of my fellow passengers and children crying for help. No sound could come through my mouth despite everything that was happening. I guess I was shocked and could not believe what I had just seen. I saw a child who was seated beside me crying in pain and felt touched. I immediately carried the child and got out of the bus through the window.

               So many people and reporters had surrounded our bus and were asking several questions regarding the accident. I answered where I could and told them that I had to be in town for an interview despite what had just happened. Many people were shocked to hear that and advised me not to go in the situation I was in. First of all my clothes were tattered and one of my shirt sleeves had blood stains. Despite their warning, I decided to board another bus heading to town and went for the interview.

           The interviewing committee was shocked when I entered and informed them that I was there for an interview. I explained to them what had happened and why I was in that situation. I could tell that some of them understood while some still believed that it was a mistake for me to come for an interview in that situation. Despite all that, they decided to ask me a few interview questions which I answered confidently.

            One of the questions that I was asked is to talk about myself and I told them that I was a very determined person who had to accomplish whatever task at hand despite the situation that I was in. The biggest surprise of my life is when the committee informed me that I had passed my interview and had landed myself my dream job. That was the luckiest day that I will live to remember.     


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Cooperative Learning



                  Cooperative learning is a learning curriculum and it requires students to learn working together so that they can acquire and retain information. This type of learning involves students clustering themselves in small groups so that they can work together on various academic tasks and assignments. It encourages working together and hence avoiding competing against one another. This paper will discuss about cooperative learning and its benefits.


Cooperative Learning

                   Cooperative learning encourage students to work together and learn together in order to accomplish various academic assignments and tasks. The various characteristics defining cooperative learning are as following:

              First of all, it is characterized by students working together on common academic tasks which can be handled through group work. The other characteristic is that students work together in groups consisting of two to five members. It is also noteworthy that cooperative learning is characterized by students making use of pro-social and cooperative behavior to accomplish given tasks or activities. The other characteristic to note is that students who practice cooperative learning portray interdependency. This is due to the fact that structuring of activities enables students to need each other in order to accomplish the activities and tasks. The final characteristic is that individual students take account for their learning activities or tasks (Gillies, 2007).

                      There are several learning structures and techniques used for cooperative learning. The first technique is known as the three-step interview. This technique is a tool that enables students in a given group or team to know one another. It can also be used to gain an in-depth knowledge of specific concepts through assigning activities or roles to students. This technique may involve formulating and giving students interview questions that enable a faculty to know more about the students. It also involves students from the same group asking interview questions among themselves in turns.

                       The other cooperative learning technique is known as roundtables whereby a single question is used to generate answers and ideas from several students arranged in a roundtable structure. It is essential for the faculty to ensure that a question asked is able to generate more that one correct answer. The question should also be related to the course unit and be simply stated. The responses of various students can be discussed as a multitude or shared with the whole class (Jolliffe, 2007).

                       The third technique of cooperative learning is known as the focused listing technique. This technique is a way of obtaining definitions and description of several concepts. Focus listing technique requires students to give words describing or defining a given concept. The lists of definitions obtained from various students are used to form or facilitate a discussion in groups and discussion as a class. Combination of focused listing technique with other cooperative learning techniques can lead to development of a learning structure that is powerful.

                         The other technique that is noteworthy is known as structured problem-solving technique. This technique can be used in combination with other techniques. Group members are required to choose a problem or question that needs to be solved. Numbers are then assigned to group members and the task to be done discussed as a group. Each group member is also required to give a response to the problem in question without the help of other group members. Individuals from the group are identified by their specific numbers and asked to respond to the question (Jolliffe, 2007).

                     The other technique of cooperative learning is called one minute papers technique. Students are asked to comment on a given set of questions within a time period of one minute. One minute papers can be employed as a tool for teachers to begin the following day’s discussion session. The technique also enables facilitation of a group discussion and gives a teacher feedback on the level of understanding of students on a given study topic or material.

                  There are some elements associated with cooperative learning and they will be discussed below. These elements describe the conditions that facilitate cooperative learning. One of the conditions is positive interdependence whereby each student in a group is expected to contribute to the entire group’s academic excellence. Each group member should also have a contribution that is unique due to the assigning of different roles and resources to each student in a group (Jacob, 1999).

                    The other element or condition is face-to face interaction which involves explaining the ways of solving a given problem orally. This enables transfer and sharing of knowledge between students in a group. It also checks the students’ understanding and enables discussion of concepts learnt in class. The other role of this kind of interaction is to connect the present learning with the past learning (Jacob, 1999).

                     The other conditions necessary for cooperative learning to be effective are individual and group accountability, inter-personal and social skills and group processing. Social skills include several skills such as decision-making, communication, trust-building, conflict-management and leadership skills (Jolliffe, 2007).

                      There are so many examples of class learning activities and two of these examples are as following. The first example is the jigsaw whereby there is setting of groups containing five students. There is assigning of different learning materials to each student and at the end of it all each student is required to teach the other group members. The other example is think-pair share whereby students get in pairs and share or exchange thoughts on various questions given by teachers or instructors. The above examples have proved to be successful in facilitating cooperative learning (Gillies, 2007).

Benefits of cooperative learning

                 Research has shown that cooperative has more advantages compared to individualized and competition learning. It is evident that cooperative learning leads to higher individual achievement and achievement as a group compared to individual learning. The other benefit is that cooperative learning leads to acquisition of high-quality reasoning strategies that are transferred from the group to individual group members. This leads to generating a lot of ideas and solutions to given problems since each group member gives a new and unique idea or solution (Jolliffe, 2007).

                      Cooperative learning gives learning a social concept or aspect which is beneficial since it encourages a student’s education. The other benefit is that it allows students to be flexible and meet other students from different cultures and backgrounds.

                   Cooperative learning is known to enhance student learning through various ways. First of all this type of learning motivates students to learn materials given. It also ensures construction of knowledge by individual students and passage of this knowledge to the entire group (Jacob, 1999).

                  In conclusion, cooperative learning is the best method that should be employed by students since it has numerous advantages and benefits. Moreover, it is the surest way to students’ academic excellence.


Gillies, R. M. (2007) Cooperative learning: integrating theory and practice. SAGE Publications.

Jacob, E. (1999) Cooperative learning in context: an educational innovation in everyday  classrooms. SUNY Press.

Jolliffe, W. (2007) Cooperative learning in the classroom: putting it into practice. SAGE Publications.


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Ethnic Flags


                      Ethnic flags are defined as the cultural differences displayed by the various ethnic groups members. The purpose of these cultural differences is to differentiate a given ethnic group members from the members of another ethnic group. An example of an ethnic group that has ethnic flag is the Malaysian community whereby the Muslim women cover their heads in public. The act of covering their heads distinguishes them from other members of other ethnic groups.

                   The other example is the New found landers who have a unique accent. The ethnic flag that differentiates them from other ethnic groups is the Anglo-Irish accent associated with their group members. Though these ethnic groups can be labeled without much difficulty, it is quite challenging to specify the groups in terms of culture.

Race as a cultural construct

                    The definition of race has proved to be difficult due to the fact that various scholars and even cultures have different definitions. However, race may be termed as a cultural construct since the classification of people into races helps individuals to have knowledge about the differences between the classified people.

                  A cultural construct is defined as model shared by people representing reality. Some anthropologists believe that the human race scheme may not be a reality model or fact but instead an ideology representing inequality. The use of race as a cultural construct has led to racism which is defined as differences between people of different races and in most cases one race is more superior compared to others.

              In conclusion, the human race is a single species but interbreeding has lead to diversity and subdivisions.                                                                                         


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Impact of Print Media Advertising on Consumerism and Cultural Values



                Consumerism is defined an economic and social order that creates and fosters the urge to buy goods or services in large amounts. The term may also refer to a movement which aims at informing and protecting consumers through encouraging of practices such as honest advertising and packing and improving safety standards. Advertising seeks to arrest human intelligence in order to get money from it. Print media advertising ahs a great impact on cultural values and consumerism and this essay will highlight some of the major points that show the impact.


Impact of print media advertising on consumerism and cultural values

                     Print media advertising leads to consumerism whereby people find themselves buying goods and services which they never intended to buy in excess. Moreover, it has led to people losing traditional culture and replacing it with what the print media terms as cultural. This has led to acquisition of a culture that is less diverse globally. Print media advertising has affected every life’s aspect for instance the work preference and ethic is dictated by television and movies. This occurs when the characters in movies portray the desirable jobs and the less desirable jobs (Stearns, 2005).

              It is important to note that justice, social responsibility and other concepts are portrayed differently in print media such as radio broadcasts, television and movies. The print media may twist, promote and even abuse the social responsibilities, justice and other aspects.

                      The other major concern of the print media is the happiness of consumers especially when it comes to the human body. The print media gives consumers views on what consumers need in order to be happy and how they are supposed to look. Most of the times the views given by the print media are conflicting and do not give full attention to consumer’s self worth. Hence, media has molded in such a way that they can fit into a given culture dictated by the media. Consumers who do not fit into this culture dictated by the print media are considered or viewed as abnormal or unfit.

                    Advertising has grown exponentially in the last few years due to people using electronic media such as the Internet. This has in turn led to increase in consumerism which most people have employed as a form of culture and way of living. An example of a trend that has become a key issue due to increased consumerism is the trend of pollution. This is because a great percentage of the population is driven by desire to purchase goods or services rather than the need to buy the goods or services. This leads to waste of unnecessary goods and hence pollution (Biagi, 2006).

           Consumption of goods based on desire instead of need leads to many forms of pollution such as noise pollution, water pollution, air pollution and even visual pollution.

                  The print media has changed the human mind in that it has begun to lose a sense of self worth. This is due to the ever changing values and lifestyles dictated by the media. People tend to adopt a trend or value that the media declares healthy and fashionable regardless of whether it is needed or not needed.

                    The second example of a trend that has developed due to print media advertising is the rise in depression cases. Depression arises due to the fact that the human mind seems to be controlled and dictated by the media. People can no longer make their own decisions and this leads to devaluation of self worth and personal feelings. This in turn may lead to depression and most of the times a low self-esteem. There has been a global rise in depression in recent years especially in developed countries and this is clearly due to the impact of print media advertising. This has greatly affected the Americans who have shown increased cases of mental disorders.

                    The third major trend that has developed due to print media advertising is the gradual loss of culture. People are gradually doing away with the traditional values and cultures that were strongly upheld. The traditional culture has been replaced by a totally foreign culture dictated by the media and believed to be fashionable and healthy. Most of the times, the culture dictated by the media is that of the people who rank highest in the social hierarchy. This has lead to the poor people or those who are who are at a lower hierarchical level socially to view themselves differently and unfit. This leads to discrimination and development of a wide social gap between the rich and the poor (Biagi, 2006).

                   In conclusion, electronic media has taken consumerism and advertising to an entire new level especially the Internet. This is a threat to humankind since it will eventually lead to increased pollution, mental disorders and even the loss of culture.


Biagi, S. (2006) Media/Impact: An introduction to Mass Media (8th ed.) Cengage Learning.

Stearns, P. N. (2005) Consumerism in world history: the global transformation of desire (2nd ed.). Routledge


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Personal Statement


           My greatest childhood motivation was the fact that my father and uncle believed in me and my abilities. They always encouraged me and made me realize that I could be any person I wanted to be so long as I believed in myself. My uncle always showed us love, care and kept me and my cousins united. He was a major inspiration and he is the one who believed that I could make a great doctor. For this reason, I decided to take a career in the field of medicine. I do not regret taking that big step of taking a career in medicine because I have passion and the will to take my job as a physician to greater heights.

                 My exceptional virtues such as my easy going nature and caring personality go in line with the medicine field. The education process has helped me achieve and learn a lot. This is due to my perfectionism and inquisitive nature that gives me the urge to research and learn more. My inquisitive nature kept me on toes and helped me learn more from my professors. I would make sure that I asked my professors as many questions as possible so that I understood each and every concept.

               One of the greatest achievements that has made me realize the fruits of my efforts is my induction in National Honor Society in May 2003. I have also initiated various projects and some of them are designing a paramedic Chest Compressor which is currently a provisional patent field, working with Dr. Amitabha Basu with his book named Pathology Systematic Book, creating a portal system for parents, teachers and students with Mr. Guy Lodico, President of NYSCATE. I also plan to take Spanish medical course which would be extremely beneficial.

              The caring and inquisitive adjectives that describe me best have contributed chiefly to my field of specialization. The caring adjective is the one that led me to pursue a course in the field of medicine since I knew that this field required empathy and caring for people. The inquisitive nature has helped me find more about the issues faced by people, solve them and help them lead a better and healthier life.

                My intentions are to work in the fields of pediatrics, family medicine and internal medicine. I have done clinical rotations consisting of family medicine, surgery, ob/gyn, Pscy, Internal medicine and pediatrics. The electives are radiology, nephrology, intensive care, sports medicine and family medicine electives. I have done the mentioned clinical rotations for 75 weeks.  

              My key professional goal and dream post-residency is to grow or become a dedicated and skilled physician. I will give it my best in order to achieve this goal. I intend to pursue my medical career and do an intensive research in order to gain profound knowledge and stay at the forefront. I believed my continued dedication and desire to gain more knowledge will help me become an established physician. As an established physician, I aim to start my own clinic and assist people in my local community.

                  Other than being a physician, I have additional skills such as planning and designing. I have the ability to reorganize and reshuffle elements or stuff into unique designs. My planning skills will be greatly essential for planning a medical clinic or starting new ventures.


James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

A Nurse Administrator



                  A nurse Administrator is also known as a head nurse and performs several administrative roles including supervising staff nurses, recommending policies and making various changes that give help in implementing the proposed changes. This paper is about an interview carried out on a Nurse Executive to find out whether the individual meets all the standards of a Nurse administrator. The interview revealed that the individual had several qualities and skills such as leadership skills, decision-making and critical thinking skills that are of the essence in order to perform Nursing Administration roles. The individual was also highly qualified and had the several credentials necessary for a Nurse Administrator.


                     A nurse administrator is a registered nurse whose role is to manage all the activities of nursing in addition to assigning duties to nurses and arranging for visiting and training patients. This paper will show the findings of interviewing a nurse executive in order to determine how the individual meets the scope and standards for Nurse Administrators.


                The nurse executive had a clinical master’s degree in nursing which emphasized in administration field, according to the interview. This is recommendable for an individual to qualify as a Nurse administrator. The other supporting evidence is that students who have high chances or possibilities of supervising nurses and different programs are those with a master’s degree in nursing (Wolper, 2010).

                  A successful nursing administrator should have the ability to make things happen and also be able to enjoy and cope with challenges associated with the act of improving things. The interview revealed that the nurse executive was a determined individual who was ready to face any challenge and could initiate different projects or make things happen. This fact proved that the individual could make a perfect Nurse Administrator. The Nurse executive portrayed a high degree of perseverance and self-discipline and both of these virtues are of the essence in order to play a Nurse Administration role. Perseverance enables a Nurse Administrator to meet or achieve the long-term goals and objectives (American Nurses Association, 2004).

                  According to the interview, the Nurse executive had many years experience in practicing registered nursing which included providing patients with direct care in a home-health setting. The many years experience could enable the Nurse executive to perform the recommended duties of a Nurse Administrator. Moreover, the executive had worked as an Administrator and supervisor in hospice care and hence gained experience in performing administrative roles (Wolper, 2010).

              According to the interview, the Nurse Executive had good decision-making skills and could make fair judgment. One of the key responsibilities of a Nurse administrator is financial decision making and the ability of the Nurse executive to make fair judgment and decisions proved that the individual could perform Nursing Administration functions or responsibilities. The other point that is worth noting is that the Nurse executive had the ability to plan. One of the key roles of Nurse Administrators is to develop and plan the various policies and procedures with regard to nursing. Hence, the Nurse executive’s good planning skills qualified the individual for Nursing Administration roles (Roussel, Swansburg and Swansburg, 2006).

                        The other information obtained from the interview is the willingness of the Nurse executive to assist individuals facing variety of problems. Since a Nurse Administrator is also a registered nurse, he or she should assist families, individuals, groups and even communities to achieve emotional, physical and even spiritual health being.  As per the interview, the willingness of the Nurse executive to assist individuals proved that the individual could also be a perfect Nurse Administrator (Rousell, 2006).

                    The Advocacy, teaching and counseling experience of the executive as revealed in the interview also proved that the individual could perform Nursing Administrative roles. One of the functions of a Nurse Administrator with regard to registered nurse functions is to counsel, teach and advocate individuals with the aim of enhancing their well-being and health. Researching skills are also vital for an individual interested in the field of Nursing Administration. This is due to the fact that Nurse Administrators are involved in performing research related to the field of health and nursing practice. According to the interview, the Nurse executive had exceptional researching skills which could enable the individual perform administrative roles (American Nurses Association, 2004).

                   One of the tests aimed to know the Nurse Executive’s definition of health. The individual defined health as the level at which a group or person can realize aspirations, cope with the environment in which they reside and satisfy needs. This is how a registered nurse should define health and hence the interview proved that the Nurse executive qualified to be a registered nurse in addition to a Nurse Administrator (Rousell, 2006).

                   The other test was aimed to inquire whether the Nurse executive had knowledge on the various determinants of health. The response gotten from the individual was that the determinants of health include social status, employment, education, working environments, genetic factors, health care system among other determinants. This proved that the Nurse Executive had relevant and enough knowledge on health issues and hence qualified to be a Nurse Administrator (Wolper, 2010).

                 The interview also tested to find out whether the individual knew the domains within the registered nursing profession. According to the interview, the Nurse Executive identified all the four domains within the profession of registered nursing which are administration, clinical practice, research and education. Knowledge of these domains proved that the individual was aware that nursing administration was one of the domains within registered nursing and hence could stick to the scope and standards of registered nursing professions (American Nurses Association, 2004).

                       The Nurse executive had good communication skills according to the interview. This proved that the individual could perform the role of a Nurse Administrator which involved communicating policy and knowledge to an individual and communicating them. According to the interview, the Nurse Executive portrayed exceptional leadership skills. The role of the Nurse Administrator is to staff administration and various other leadership roles. Therefore, the possession of leadership skills and capabilities showed that the interviewee could perform assigned roles as a Nurse administrator (Wolper, 2010).

                          A Nurse Administrator should support nursing leadership and this is achieved by ensuring that there is accountability and autonomy for the practice of nursing in the given practice environment. The interview revealed that the Nurse Executive had the ability to ensure that there is accountability and autonomy within the nursing practice and hence it showed that the individual qualified to be a Nurse Administrator. The other scope of Nurse Administrator is to ensure that support systems such as technologies, research and education programs are in place. According to the interview, the interviewee had perfect organizational skills which proved that the Nurse Executive could organize and ensure that the support system were in place and hence fit for the Post of the Nurse Administrator (American Nurses Association, 2004).

                    The interview could actively play different management roles which qualified the individual for the post of a Nurse Administrator. Managing health care delivery services and also representation of nursing services is the responsibility of a Nurse Administrator. Therefore, it is evident that the interviewee could perform this role excellently as a Nurse Administrator. The other important skills that a nurse administrator has to have are critical thinking skills in addition to the ability to empower registered nurses. The interview proved that the Nurse Executive could think critically and make rational decisions and hence was fit for the Nurse Administrator post (Rousell, 2006).

             In conclusion, all these findings obtained through interviewing a Nurse Executive proved that the individual could perform the designated roles of a Nurse Administrator. It also proved that the individual met all the standards required for Nurse Administrators.


American Nurses Association (2004) Scope and standards for nurse administrators (2nd Ed.)., American Nurses Association.

Roussel, L., Swansburg R.C, & Swansburg, R.J (2006) Management and leadership for nurse administrators (4th Ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.      

Wolper, L. F (2010) Health Care Administration (5th Ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.        


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