Author: Prof. Richard Brixton


Registered Nurse Essay


The role Registered Nurses (RN) play in the society cannot be underestimated. With that in mind, there are many reasons why I desire to become a RN. First and foremost, I am confident that an education at Eastwick College would be essential to me because of a number of reasons. To begin with, Eastwick College is an approved nursing school and it has an impressive reputation in the training of nurse’s. Being admitted to the college would hence equip me with the necessary hands-on skills that will be extremely important in my clinical practice. This will enhance my competence when it comes to the provision of quality services to all those in the society who need my intervention.

Research shows that the demand for registered nurses is on the raise. This demand has been partly fuelled by the growing number of the elderly members of the society. If the demand for RN is not satisfied, it means that some members of the society will not have their health concerns addressed. In that regard, I do believe that I have a role to play when it comes to satisfying the demand for RN.

 Severally, the nursing profession has been referred to as the helping profession. Its impact on the society is paramount and in that regard, I would like to be part of the dedicated global team of nurses and as such play my role in ensuring that all societal members live more deserving and satisfying lives. My passion for Nursing coupled with the skills I will gather at Eastwick will help me serve members of the society better as far as competence is concerned in the delivery of health services.


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In a number of states in the United States we have a governmental agency which is charged with the responsibility of acting on information regarding the abuse of children. This agency is known as the child protective services, or put simply, just as CPS. In this text, I look at the history of the child protective services including its creation as well as the presentation of the mission statement of the child protective services in California. I will also present the financial reports as well as summaries of the operation of the child protective services, California and offer a detailed analysis of the effectiveness of the service. Lastly, I will give a commentary on ways top improve the child protective services in the state of California and wind up with a prediction as regards the future of the agency and its impact on the criminal justice system.


            The need for the creation of the child protection agency was identified in the year 1655 where there emerged a number of legal cases in regard to child abuse in what is currently the United States. Soon, the role local government as well as the private institutions in the care of those children thought to be abused was left to states as well as municipalities. According to Dolgoff et al. (1997), England first came up with the parens patriae principle where the royal crown was empowered to protect, care for and ensure that the various needs of lunatics, idiots, charities etc were addressed conclusively. Over time, this principle has been linked in a big way to the initiatives by the U.S government’s involvement in child welfare as well as protection and the subsequent establishment of child protection services in a number of states.

            Soon, developments were to be seen with regard to the child protection services when in 1825, agencies dealing with social welfare were empowered by the enactment of laws by a number of states to take away children suspected to be neglected from the care of their parents or the alleys and streets. Initially, all those children who were rescues were taken to orphanages, almshouses and in some instances; arrangements were made to absorb them in a number of familial setups. Further improvement in child protection would be seen in 1912 when there was an establishment of the children’s bureau whose main responsibility was the coordination of all the efforts touching on children welfare including but not limited to addressing all child mistreatment instances. Forty six years after the establishment of the children’s bureau, a social security act amendment which was seen as a big boost to the child protection services as well as initiatives laid out the ground for the funding of the efforts geared towards the protection of children by the states.

            Since then, efforts towards child protection have been boosted by a number of occurrences amongst them Kemp Henry’s publication of a piece that looked deeply into the case of the battered child syndrome. According to DiNitto (2010), no other piece of publication connected to child protection services has attracted the public attention like this publication did. In fact, this publication by Kampe Henry is widely thought as well as believed to have single-handedly informed and/or influenced the passing of child-abuse reporting laws by a minimum of forty nine states. This over whelming response towards child protection services by the states lead to the adoption of the child abuse prevention and treatment Act.

             With the worthy support of the federal government through funding, agencies dealing with child protection services came up with well laid out purposes which included but were not limited to the formulation of appropriate ways to look into instances of the maltreatment of children. The child protective service of California is one such agency dealing with issues related to child protection. The California child protection agency was established with the sole responsibility of looking into cases of child neglect as well as abuse. The agency also puts measures in place to guarantee the safety of all children and ensuring that the families in which this children are being raised are in one way or the other stable. In that line, the child protective agency has come up with innovative initiatives that involve the education and information dissemination to foster parents on the best ways to handle children under their care. The agency also has the power to license homes which act as daycare centers.

The mission statement of the agency

            The agency has a concise, well defined and brief mission statement. The mission statement of the agency states from the onset that the agency strives to enhance the state’s

Children by;

  • Enhancing children’s protection
  • Ensuring that families are strengthened
  • The provision of homes that are permanent
  • Enhancing partnerships at the community level

The agencies mission is executed through a number of programs as well as partnerships at the divisional level with a big number of agencies throughout the state.

Financial reports and summaries of the operations of the agency

             The financial statements considered in this case are for the year ended 31st march 2010.  The agency is non profit making and this is a critical consideration in the preparation of its financial statements. The agency financial statements have crucial financial disclosures which include but is not limited to information regarding the funding of the agency followed by other information of a financial nature. The budgeted funding actually falls short of the actual funding with the budgeted funding standing at $332,931,000 as the actual stands at $343,945,000. The actual total cost of services is presented as $329,654,000 while the total assets are reported as $87,747,000. It is important to note that aggregate funding is made up of the aggregate of recurrent funds as well as capital funding.

            The agency in the year ended 31st march 2010 also undertook some capital projects which included but were not limited to a renovation of the office block to be used for purposes of reporting and a relocation of the development office. The space left out on relocation of the development office was renovated to house a responsible parenting unit.

            The income statement gives a total expenses figure of $352,701,000 and a total revenue figure of 27,000,000 for the same financial period under consideration. The balance sheet as at 31st march 2010 gives a total asset figure of $87,747,000 and a total liability figure of $27,983,000. The equity section is made up of the contributed equity, surplus which is accumulated as well as reserves. The agency also has a statement of cash flows. The cash flows include cash flows from the state, cash flows from operating activities, cash flows from investing activities and lastly cash and cash equivalents at the period end. The cash flows from the state are listed as $372, 546,000 while the cash flows from operating activities are stated as a negative figure i.e. 301,900,000. Cash and cash equivalents as at the end of the period were 12, 321,000.

The agency executes its mission through the provision of a number of operational services which in one way or the other target children as well as their families. First, the agency carries out a detailed investigation of all the reports at its disposal regarding the abuse of children. The results of the investigation are the main determinants of the cause of action the child protective agency takes. Next, the agency is charged with the role of providing emergency shelter to either the child, family or both under special circumstances. At the familial level, the agency is felt through the provision of a number of emergency services including but not limited to counseling as well as emergency placements that are largely designed to be protective.

Next, the agency offers classes to do with parenting either on a voluntary or mandatory basis to parents throughout the state. There are also classes which deal with corrective initiatives to address concerns related to or involving substance as well as substance abuse. In this line, the agency does tests for drugs which underline its relevance in combating substance as well as alcohol abuse. For cases where counseling may be required as a corrective measure, the agency has in place mechanisms to enhance its capability to handle mental health services which may or may not be accompanied by counseling sessions. To all those within its jurisdiction, the agency has other peripheral services such as the provision of medical services coupled with the care of dental issues and concerns.

An analysis of the effectiveness of the child protection services

            When it comes to effectiveness in the delivery of its services, the child protection service’s performance can be said to be satisfactory. The services provided within the umbrella of the child protection services are wide and far reaching and their impact on the ground is widely felt. The children services are listed widely or generally as emergency services, parental information, dental and health initiatives, counseling and lastly adoption as well as foster care. The emergency services are made up of the crisis nursery and an arm that is charged with taking reports on child abuse.

            It is through this arm that the agency can be said to have links with the criminal justice. This arm has three general strategic departments which include the recording department, the filing department and the follow-up department. The recording department is charged with the role of taking complains as well as information on any aspect of child abuse and other emergencies. Emergencies are always addressed in consultation with the relevant law enforcement agencies. This department operates 24 hours a day. The filing department is charged with the duty of taking appropriate action where necessary and this includes liaising with the criminal justice system is the circumstances at play call for the same.

The follow-up department is charged with the duty of making follow-ups of what has been reported and the addressing of deviations from the planed action where necessary. This is an integral department within the agency as it ensures all the recommended action is adhered to and hence guarantees success of the various initiatives instituted by the child protection services.  All the departments within the child protection services are professionally hired to ensure they are fit for the advancement of the agencies mission. To keep them up to date on pertinent information that might in one way or the other enhance their service delivery, the agency organizes in-house seminars and workshops twice per year for those charged with overseeing the smooth running of the agency. This workshops are tailored into offer the necessary skills to those who attend as well as to give them motivation when it comes to the performance of the same.

 Strategies for purposes of improving efficiency

 Though the child protection services can be said to be fairly effective, more needs to be done to ensure it succeeds in delivering its social goals. First, the seminars and workshops it offers twice a year should be extended to those employees and volunteers at the low cadres as well. As things stand now, the seminars are organized with individuals at the supervisory level in mind. A departure from this can in one way or the other lead to the improvement of the skills of the workers at lower cadres as well as motivation. Given that those seminars and workshops have borne fruit according to Dobelstein (2003), an extension of the same to lower cadre workers of the agency will only enhance its effectiveness and ensure that its goals are met in full.

 Next, another way to enhance the effectiveness of the agency could be through embracing technology. Currently, the agency still relies in the outdated recording methods especially at the recording level. This not only slows the whole system but it also has been proven to be costly (Stanley 2003). Embracing technology not only makes things easier and cheaper but it also oils efficiency. The child protection agency will therefore make massive cost savings which can be diverted to other worthy uses by embracing technology. Lastly, the agency could also ensure that it collects feedback on its performance from a number of quarters.

According to Dobelstein (2003), the collection of feedback on performance is one of the best ways to evaluate the performance of a given organization as well as for decision making purposes. With that in mind the child protection services could collect feedback and use the same for purposes of decision making. For instance, negative feedback could stimulate corrective action to address deviation from the expected whereas positive feedback could be used for purposes of modeling decisions on a similar framework. Either way, feedback is a critical ingredient for purposes of decision making.


It is important to note that based on what it is currently doing, the child protection services has a big role to play going forward. The increasing cases of children rights violation in California puts the agency and its officers in the spotlight. The agency should hence ensure that it addresses all the concerns raised through referring to them appropriately. It is also important to note that without working hand in hand with the criminal justice system; most of the social goals of the agency may not be met. The protection of children rights should therefore be a concerted effort requiring the participation of all the stakeholders.


Dolgoff, R., Feldstein, D., & Skolnick, L. (1997). Understanding social welfare. Longman. University of Michigan

Retrieved on September 14, 2010 from:

DiNitto, D.M. (2010). Social Welfare: Politics and Public Policy. Pearson Education

Dobelstein, A.W. (2003). Social welfare: policy and analysis. Brooks/Cole–Thomson Learning

Stanley, N. (2003). Child protection and mental health services: inter-professional responses to the needs of mothers. The Policy Press


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The Mass Media



The mass media has been identified as one means of information dissemination that has a large influence on people’s lives. In that regard, it is important to note that our interaction with this means of information dissemination, i.e. the mass media, informs a big chunk of the popular culture. In this text, I look at the relationship between popular culture and mass media as well as other forms of information dissemination. I also look into the impact of the mass media on enculturation and lastly give a real life example of this impact.

 The mass media and popular culture

Denesi (2008) defines popular culture as the beliefs, fads, entertainment, arts as well as values which are in one way or the other shared by a large chunk of the society. Because of the arguably big impact the mass media has on the lives of the various members of the society, it informs a large part of the popular culture in that society. In that line a value, fad or belief whether negative or positive is likely to gain a large following in the society based on its coverage and insistence on the part of the media. This is also the case when it comes to the other forms of information dissemination.

In fact, according to Denesi (2008), most of the popular culture components in the modern world is informed by specific actions of the media as well as other forms of information dissemination. In recent times, popular fads like body piercing amongst others have been influenced in a large way by the mass media as well as other information dissemination forms. It is also important to note that as the media attention towards popular culture fades away, so does the society’s attention towards the same. Similarly, it is possible to predict future values, fads and beliefs based on the actions as well as focus of the media.

 Effects of the mass media on enculturation

Storey (2009) defines enculturation as a learning process through which a person identifies with the surrounding culture by learning of its requirements, values as well as adapting to its prescribed code of conduct. The impact of the mass media on enculturation is not hard to see. The media promotes enculturation and soon, one must adapt to the same either consciously or unconsciously so as to fit into the society. One of the real world examples of recent media promotion as well as support of enculturation is the hip hop culture. This artistic culture found itself integrated into the mainstream culture especially the African American segment in the late 70’s.

This with the help of the media as well as other forms of information dissemination became a way of life to thousands of urban young who subscribed to the hip hop culture way of dressing, walking, thinking as well as the various hip hop values (Storey 2009). In urban neighborhoods, those who did not subscribe to the hip hop culture were treated as outcasts and shunned by their peers. In all this, it is fair to say that the media played a gigantic role in populising the hip hop culture both in the urban neighborhoods as well as beyond where it turned out to be a way of life for the youth.


It is important to note that enculturation can either manifest itself unconsciously or consciously. Either way, it plays a big role in molding an individual to be acceptable at the societal level.


Denesi, M. (2008). Popular culture: introductory perspectives. Rowman & Littlefield

Storey, J. (2009). Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: An Introduction. Longman


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Greek Influence on Roman Empire


The Romans acquired the Greek military technology and developed the most organized military system at that time. In terms of culture, The Roman cultural foundation was based on Greece. The Romans adopted the Greek alphabet to form their Latin version. Roman writers, artistes and painters followed Greek models of writing, arts and painting respectively. Before the mid third century Roman literature was virtually non-existent (Noble, 2010).

The Roman actors improved on the genres already established by the Greek predecessors. Like Greece, Rome basic social structure was based upon agricultural economy composed of aristocrats and free farmers. The Roman economy resembled that of Greece. Aristocrats controlled large estates while smaller holdings belonged to free farmers. The Family structure of Romans followed the patriarchal pattern of classical Greece.

Rome adopted Greece policies on slavery. Slaves were used to provide labor in the agricultural and mining industries. The political system of the Roman Empire also borrowed a lot from the Greek empire as both relied on local authorities to exert control over their vast empires. They also relied on military force and clear legal regulation to exert control (Noble, 2010).   


Noble, T (2010), Western Civilization: Beyond Boundaries, Vol 1, 6th Ed, Wadsworth Publishing Company, U.S.A


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Benchmarking for Health Care Ratios


Benchmarking is a word that is used to describe sharing of performance and operational information’s of different associations with the objective of coming up with the best practices in improving performance of this companies.

 Stanko Brian (1997) on an article on health financial management suggested the use of factor analysis in Six Sigma Benchmarking whereby statistical technique is used to identify larger holding points whereby critical financial ratios can describe the major characteristic of a financial situation of a hospital.

This is due to the argument that when people are making financial ratio decisions in their associations it was found that most people comprehend 6-8 components of financial decisions while they are supposed to have up to 30 financial ratios as suggested by the typical financial reports. This solution can largely be applied in the rural areas since the traditional financial ratios have high relations in their characteristics with same denominators and also same numerators. (All 1999-2010)

 However in research conducted by the university of Minesota  on Critical Access Hospitals in 1998 showed that that the Critical Access Hospitals became profitable as suggested by the ISO Benchmarking and the Broadcasting Benchmarking Association whereby the hospitals with long term care became more liquid while those which where not in the long term hospitals became less liquid and therefore the Six Sigma benchmark was a preferable because it could give the financial position of the hospital for longer dates of existence. The financial ratios of a hospital or any other health center should cover the whole areas not just the long term care centers reducing the bad debts of the business. (Flex Monitoring Team May 2005)

 Reference (1999-2010). A year prospective on hospital financial ratio analysis

Flex monitoring team Briefin (2005). Financial indicators for critical access hospitals.


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Development of Cultural Competence


Sociologist Louis Wirth defines marginalized groups as groups of people who are singled out in the daily activities of the society due to their physical and cultural practices and therefore regarding themselves as objects of discrimination.

The marginalized groups are found in every continent in the world and these are the people who face quite a number of challenges due to their minority and thus their voices cannot be heard in any environmental engagement.

I was able to interview one of the persons who belong to this group in one of the cities in the US. Anthony Ojigba is a Nigerian born American citizen who stays in the New York City. He is blind and though is disabled I could communicate and could obtain a lot of information from him. He belongs to the Ibo people in Nigeria and even though he has for a while in the US he still has his cultural beliefs.

It came to my understanding that a man should always be the head of the house and must accept the responsibilities to the community whenever he is chosen by the council of elders or the council of chiefs in leadership. He gets to understand the new environment since the development of nursing health care centers as his faith was in the traditional herbal medicine from forests whereby he could easily describe the kind of medicine for various diseases to people who understand him better.

However, living in the US seemed rather challenging because he faced so many barriers in accessing safe, efficient or patient centered health facilities. “The physicians don’t respect me whenever I go for medication.” That is what he could say. The other barriers he encounters in accessing health care is communication and accessing information since the type of medication can not be written by Braille. This is why he actually has a negative perception on professional health care and also the belief of the traditional herbs.

Africa people and culture (2010) explains Ibo as the most populous people in Nigeria having a population of about thirty million. They believe there is a supreme god called “Chukwu” who has other gods as his children known as the “Umuagbara” and the spirit of the dead people called the “Ndi Ichie”. They belief in the reincarnation and that life is a continuous trend where a person transform into another living thing upon his death.

Decisions are made by anyone in the village right from the group of elders to the chiefs, secret societies and even sometimes women associations. It also entails that man has so many powers and authorities in a village or a society and the negative culture is that a woman and the disabled persons are the lesser persons in the community and do not contribute to the community.

Blind people are usually ignored in every aspect of living as being contributing any economic activity in the society. Blind person just like any other person needs good attention and excellent health care in nursing centers and also some assistance by other people so that he/she can take right dosages as prescribed by the doctor. A nursing officer should be able to handle the blind person in the right way like having the patient taking the dosage only at his presence.


African guide (1996-2010). African People and Culture.


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The role of IT Senior Management in the Strategic Planning Process



Over time, it has been noted that a large percentage of CIO’s or senior information technology managers are excluded in one way or the other from critical decision making forums most notably the strategic planning process. While this trend recently been seen to be changing, some U.S business organizations still exclude the senior information managers from the strategic planning process. In this text, I look at some of the reasons that may be cited for the exclusion of IT senior management from the strategic planning process. I also advance reasons why IT senior management should be included in the strategic planning process and lastly amongst other things state the justification for the capital outlay with respect to large systems funding.

 The exclusion of IT senior management from the strategic planning process

According to Shav (2003), though the role of the IT senior management when it comes to the formulation of the businesses physical infrastructure as well as network access cannot be underestimated, some businesses still see them as largely a technical team. This is a stereotype which according to Shav (2003) is far from the truth. This opinion could be informed by the general understanding that the technical teams are mostly involved with implementation rather than formulation.

Hence in this regard, the IT senior management is left out of the picture when it comes to the strategic planning process and left to grapple with implementation. As it shall be discussed later in this paper, this may in fact jeopardize implementation efforts. Similarly, IT managers are largely considered to be more inclined towards ‘the technical side’ as opposed to the ‘business side.’ In that regard, the strategic planning process is largely considered to be a business undertaking requiring input from professionals sourced from the ‘business side’. With that, IT senior management is considered to be wearing IT capes whereas strategic planning process requires people adept in business.

 It has also been noted that though he trend is fast changing, a number of businesses do not consider information technology as vital as they do other functions. In fact, information technology in a number of isolated cases is considered as a non-core activity and hence its role in the long term strategic planning process is overlooked (Maizlish et al. 2005). This assertion has been reinforced by the tendency of some business organizations to outsource their information technology undertakings to outsourcing firms.

            Another aspect that can be cited for the exclusion of IT senior management in the strategic planning process is as a result of their not being involved in other corporate functions apart from IT. In that light, their portfolio is seen to be too limited to inform their inclusion in the strategic planning process. Due to the relatively low portfolio of other corporate functions IT managers manage their contribution when it comes to the strategic planning process is put to question as most of the strategic planning revolves around but is not in any way limited to mergers as well as acquisitions.

              Shav (2003) however argues that in the last one decade, things have been looking up for IT senior management both in terms of their recognition as well as involvement in the strategic planning process.

 Reasons for the inclusion of IT senior management in the strategic planning process

            Increasingly, the role if the IT senior management with regard to the analysis as well as identification of the role of IT in a businesses long term growth strategy is being recognized and with this recognition comes their involvement in the strategic planning process. In the modern times, IT has come to be central for the success of a business entity both in terms of enhanced profitability as well as a way of cutting costs. it is hence a strategic weapon and its integration into the strategic planning process is timely if the business is to remain relevant in today’s business environment (Maizlish et al. 2005).

            It is important to note that one of the roles of the IT senior management is to propose the relevant information technology measures that must be taken into consideration if the business enterprise is to achieve its long term goals. A proposal of this nature is vital so that adequate plans can be incorporated into the budget for purposes of implementing the proposals. This underscores one of the reasons why it may be prudent to include IT senior management in the strategic planning process.

                Apart from cutting costs being one of the main priorities of IT managers, the development and innovation of IT in the recent past has brought to the fore other critical functions of the IT senior managers. This includes but is not limited to the enhancement of security as well as the IT infrastructure. Some of these functions are critical for the continued operation of the business and as such, the IT function should be taken with as much seriousness as the other functions. Given the fact that a business can be brought down by a simple compromise of its security, it makes sense today to involve IT senior management in every aspect of the strategic planning process.

            Shav (2003) notes that the tendency of some businesses to overlook some functions within the organizational structure by baring them from any form of participation in the strategic planning process and instead leaving them to do the implementation part can lead to poor implementation and/or even sabotage. This is informed by the fact that majority of those left to implement the formulated programs will inevitably feel left out and hence fail to own the programs. This will in one way or the other stimulate sabotage and hence defeating the purpose of the formulated plans. In the long run the entity may never achieve such goals. IT senior management is vital in the implementation process of specific plans and with that in mind, it may be prudent to involve ham in the strategic decision making process.

Justifications for the large capital outlay

            In most circumstances, large systems funding is linked to strategic information systems planning and in most cases calls for capital dollars funding. This capital outlay is however justified as the globalization trend has brought about IT platforms that are standardized. This is because as things are, strategies informing acquisitions as well as a wide range of other business processes are largely dependent on standardization for purposes of doing away with cases of wastage as well as the enhancement of economies of scale (Maizlish et al. 2005).

           The trends now dictate that IT investments bring in quicker returns and hence their role in improving efficiency is paramount. To come up with stable growth over the ling term, business entities should therefore permit the capital outlay.


It is important to note that with IT set to become a competitive advantage, the role of IT senior management in the strategic planning process cannot be in any way understated. Embracing IT senior management in strategic decision making will hence be a welcome and timely idea for businesses so as to remain relevant in the marketplace.


Maizlish, B., & Handler R. (2005). IT portfolio management step-by-step: unlocking the business value of technology. John Wiley and Sons

Shav, R. (2003). Impacting business: a simple model of IT management. Managebright


The Dynasties of China



The Ming dynasty ruled china from 1368 to 1644 and it proceeded the fall of the Mongols. In this text, I will address a number of issues including but not limited to the Ming dynasty emperors power base, factors contributing to the raise of the Ming dynasty, the role of women in this dynasty, Europe’s failure to achieve Asia’s success in terms of coming up with a stable society as well as the rise and the fall of Mongols. 

The Ming dynasty

Gascoigne (2003) notes that the Ming dynasty has been billed as arguably humans’ history’s greatest orderly government era. This dynasty constitutes china’s last dynasty and it was largely under the control of the Hans. One veritable power base of the emperors of the Ming dynasty was a superior navy and a strong army which according to some estimates had troops numbering about a million. In the 14th century, monarchs had a way of strengthening their rule using superior military strength and utilizing spies for purposes of power consolidation. Gascoigne (2003) also notes that ensuring that ones supporters were appointed to powerful positions was a strategy by monarchs to strengthen their rules.

Similar factors are what Gascoigne (2003) attributes to the raise of the Ming dynasty. The role of women in the Ming dynasty was not well defined. In fact, Li, an individual who advocated for the treatment of women as equals in the society was jailed and died in prison much lasted while still serving for what was labeled peddling of ideas considered to be “dangerous”. Li was advocating for women to be considered for better education amongst other things that kept them at par with their male counterparts. It is important to note that over time, women especially those possessing rudimentary education were viewed as promising audiences to a variety of vernacular Chinese arts performances as well as literary works.

The Ming dynasty had several accomplishments which have been well recorded in history. For instance, their building of the Great Wall was no mean feat. The Ming dynasty was also able to develop culturally and this can be seen from the development of novels tailored in the common language of the people as narrated by Chinese story tellers. In fact, it is not uncommon to find a Ming dynasty novel being read in the current day and age. The Ming dynasty is also credited for a number of other achievements including but not limited to writing of extremely important encyclopedias with crucial information an a wide range of fields.

It is good to note that there exists some connection between the raise of regional dynasties and European renaissance. During the European renaissance just like during the raise of regional dynasties, there we numerous dramatic changes and inventions. The other connection is the political domination upon the society and the development of the urban commercial attitude. It is important to note that the main reason why Europe did not achieve the success of Asia to a stable society was due to the infiltration of foreign culture coupled with the post war effects.


The raise of the Mongols was in a large way informed by their military ability, skills in organization as well as ability at war. The fall of the Mongols was informed by amongst other things refusal to acculturate to the social traditions of Mongol the various disciplines. Adoption of foreign ideologies has been describes as one of the chief causes of the decline of Mongols.


Gascoigne, B. (2003). The Dynasties of China: A History. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers


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Happy Oaks Nursing Facility



Happy Oaks is a skilled nursing facility and its location is stellar given the business it is in. It is located in the middle of a relatively large city and historically, this 180 bed facility has been run at or above the budget. However, in the recent past, the building has been losing ground and as the administrator, I hereby present a report on why he building is losing ground and how this trend can be rectified on time.

 Happy Oaks

After a careful and lengthy analysis of the Happy Oaks scenario, I am convinced that there are a number of inherent problems to blame for the facilities declining fortunes. It is clear that a speedy solution must be formulated if Happy Oaks is to maintain its relevance at the market place given the fact that amongst other things, it is sandwiched between two other health facilities, that is, a large hospital which is the only Trauma Level 1 in the locality and a health complex that houses quite a number of physicians in private practice. In this case, the bottom-line is to identify as well as address the problems at play in Happy Oaks and generate enough revenues to cover the costs and ensure that the facility makes a profit given the fact that it is a for-profit facility.

 The problems at play

The first issue the facility needs to address is the raising rates given the fact that currently, the corporate offices have raised them by approximately 12%. If nothing is done in the light of this, the facility may end up losing a big chunk of its residents to other cheaper facilities. There are a wide range of solutions to this but they will be addressed in the rectification suggestions of this case study.

 The second related problem that Happy Oaks faces is the raising costs in the services sector. According to Blocher (2004), businesses must be able to increase the prices of their goods and services to reflect inflation. Businesses that cannot adjust their prices upwards to reflect the increasing cost of doing business may face a hard time maintaining their relevance in the market place. With that in mind, happy oaks should be in a position to revise and/or adjust the price of its services across the board upwards over time so as to respond appropriately to inflation.

As will be seen in the rectification suggestions part, this issue can also be addressed conclusively in a number of ways. Next, the fact that the facility is sandwiched between two health facilities i.e. a large hospital and a medium sized health complex means that Happy Oaks must develop strategies to not only protect its market share and niche but also to exploit the opportunities that such a position presents. How this can be done will also be addressed in the rectifications suggestions section.

 Rectification suggestions

In this scenario, I would keep the whole decision making process open ended with the various departmental heads free to make suggestions and where appropriate, incorporate them into the grand plan towards the rectification of the current issues Happy Oaks. That is to say that their input will be highly encouraged.

 Jamie, the marketing director does not believe the rent increase is justified. She in fact believes that the whole facility is just overpriced. I however find her argument defective on several fronts. For instance, it is clear she has not conducted a SWOT analysis. Indeed, the facility isn’t the most expensive and realistically there is no way rates can be held constant over a large time period without upward adjustments to reflect prevailing dynamics.

                 To begin with, it is not the rates that should be looked into but other operational costs. There is an urgent need to reduce costs i.e. operational costs by utilizing a wide range of cost cutting measures so as to enhance profitability. According to Drucker (2007), one way of cutting costs is outsourcing the non core activities of a firm. In my own opinion, Happy Oaks has no business employing staff or maintaining fully fledged departments to address non-core activities. Considering that Happy Oaks is a skilled nursing facility, activities like marketing and maintenance should be outsourced so the Happy Oaks can concentrate on its core activity, that is, skilled nursing. Another effective cost cutting measure which the facility can utilize is laying off redundant staff members.

Currently, all the directors claim they are fully staffed. A meeting should be conveyed and the various department heads asked to identify redundant units and individuals the facility can do without. It is important to note that laying of employees for purposes of enhancement of profitability has been questioned on various quarters but in my own informed opinion, this would and is indeed a welcome step as it will free up some cash for other worthy developmental activities.

 Next, the facility should concentrate on value addition to its services to attract and keep clients. In all its services, the facility should ensure that there is an aspect that is not commonly offered by the other skilled nursing facilities. Kreitner (2006) argues that the concept of kaizen, that is, continuous improvement should guide an organization’s every decision in today’s global landscape.

This should also be the case with Happy Oaks and as it concentrates on value addition to all the services it offers it should ensure that the concept of continuous improvement takes root across the organization. The facility can also tap into its own niche market to avoid a direct competition with the other close players in the skilled nursing service delivery. Drucker (2007) argues that creation of a niche is a strategy that can be tapped by business entities as a response or strategy against direct competition. It should however not be lost that the facilities on either side of Happy Oaks cannot be viewed as competitors per se. This is because each has a market it serves which is relatively unique from that of Happy Oaks. Viewed from that light, Happy Oaks can act as a ‘support centre’ to both facilities once it enhances its own niche i.e. as a skilled nursing facility.


In my own opinion, rectifying the facilities current situation calls for wide consultations and involvement of all the department heads. In cases where the attainment or achievement of the desired results call for drastic changes, the involvement of all the functional heads as well as the departmental heads is critical. These individuals are the drivers of change in any organization and if they do not believe in the measures the organization is taking to address specific issues, they can in one way or the other frustrate the implementation of the same.


Blocher, E. (2004). Cost Management: A Strategic Emphasis. World Bank Publications

Drucker, P.F. (2007). Management challenges for the 21st century. Butterworth-Heinemann

Kreitner, R. (2006). Management. Cengage Learning


James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

Ethical Beginnings of Life



Over time, a number of tough ethical beginnings of life and end of life decisions have been identified. These decisions in one way or the other end up affecting the individual, the family, the society as well as the health care providers in unique and different ways. To the individual, these decisions may be distressing and hard to make especially when that individual is conscious of them.

According to Gittell (2009), the conflicting views often held by family members in such scenarios may end up bringing a wave of confusion among the healthcare providers. In this regard, the healthcare providers find themselves trapped between opposing views of those close top the concerned parties. For the society as a whole, tough ethical beginning of life and end of life decisions almost always end up being controversial. This can be likened in one way or the other to the effects these decisions have at the familial level in that positions are likely to be taken and hence conflicting views.


The eight principles of quality management can in one way or the other be used in prevailing medical errors status. According to Gittell (2009), a big portion of medical errors are preventable. When it comes to customer focus, health organizations are supposed to exercise care and concern when dealing with patients. This coupled with proper leadership at the organizational level and the involvement of both healthcare providers and patients in decision making can in a large way reduce medical errors. The health organizations are also encouraged to embrace kaizen or what is referred as continual improvement for purposes of adopting approaches that may help reduce the occurrence of medical errors.


Organizational codes are an essential part as well as component of the healthcare system. They are usually designed with the patient in mind and as such their main objective is to ensure that the best interests of the patient are met. It is hence important to note that without organizational codes in place, the effectiveness as well as efficiency of patient care would be put to risk. It is hence upon every healthcare organization to ensure that all those who work for it in all cadres understand and appreciate the relevance of the codes, procedures as well as policies.


Gittell, J.H. (2009). High Performance Healthcare: Using the Power of Relationships to Achieve Quality, Efficiency and Resilience. McGraw Hill Professional


Janet Peter is the author and is associated with which is a global research papers 24/7 provider. If you would like help in essays, research papers, term papers and dissertations, you can visit

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