Author: Prof. Richard Brixton


Mathematics: Sampling Statistics.

Mathematics: Sampling Statistics

a) Using a tail of one;

Power = 1.0000

Df = 73

Critical t = ­-1.665

Non Centrality Parameter = 5.000

 b) Using a tail of one;

Power = 0.9999

Df = 525

Critical t = ­-1.6478

Non Centrality Parameter = 2.3072

 c) With a power of 90, an effect size of 0.4 and a confidence interval of 95%, the sample size will be 764.

 d) Some of the 15 demographic characteristics I might hope CNN, Fox News etc to consider when they conduct telephone interviews on various topics for news programs include location, employment status, education, mobility, disability, income, home ownership, size of the family, marital status, generation (i.e. generation X, baby boomer generation etc.), social class, religion, ethnicity, nationality, occupation, the lifecycle of the family etc.

4) The scenario recounted herein involves the determination of a satisfaction survey of employee pay. I have a single week to get as many replies as possible as the end of the years as fast approaching and hence my boss must come up with a decision on whether to increase the pay or leave it as it is. My boss’ decision will be informed by my findings. My organization has 4,085 people and hence with that in mind, it is clear that the population is fairly large and hence gathering data from each constituent will not be workable.

For this case, I will use sampling which Fuller (2009) describes as the deliberate limiting of the study’s cases. It is important to note herein that while the issue at hand i.e. the determination of a satisfaction survey of employee pay is important and the participation of each and every individual would have been desirable but for practical reasons, sampling will be highly appropriate.

 For this scenario, I will use non-random sampling. According to Levin et al. (2000), this procedure does not in any way allow all the cases the same probability of being included in the sample. The study’s context in this case will in one way or the other give me discretion when it comes to selecting a given sampling method or the criteria I will use to carry out the sampling.

 The criterion I will use in the sample selection will primarily be the people’s willingness to participate. I select this criterion because in my view, it is not in any way related to the various variables I would want to capture from the sample. This is important so as to avoid bias. The selection of persons will be also be based on population demographics which will include age, race as well as gender.

 The sample size I will select will be determined by the population size which stands at 4085 as well as study’s purpose which is the determination of a satisfaction survey of employee pay. I plan to use a sample size which is more or the same as that of a study carried previously which is in one way or the other similar to the study I want to conduct now. I will however carry out a detailed review of the various procedures utilized in such a study so as to avoid repeating errors committed in the sample size determination of the previous study.


Fuller, W.A. (2009).  Sampling Statistics. John Wiley and Sons

Levin, J. & Alan, J. (2000). Elementary statistics in social research. Allyn and Bacon 


Medical Case


               The case included the birth of a baby girl on 30/09/2000. During her mother’s pregnancy, there was medical negligence which resulted to the injury of the baby. During her last pre-natal visits to the clinic, the mother complained of getting decreased movements of her baby. Despite the cardiotocography tests giving patterns that were not assuring the doctors chose to ignore it and told the mother that it was normal in some pregnancies.

 When the mother went to the hospital to deliver, there were traces of baby stool (meconium) in the amniotic fluid. Normally, this would necessitate urgent delivery through a cesarean section or induced labor. However the mother was left to go through the normal laboring process. The baby girl she gave birth to had a blue skin (cyanosis) and she appeared lifeless. There were severe pH abnormalities and this showed that she was deprived of oxygen during birth. She therefore suffered hypoxia and was later diagnosed with hypertonic spastic cerebral palsy. Now at 10 years, the girl is unable to walk and even talk.

 The doctors went wrong in that they failed to respond to the fetal distress that was clearly shown by the fetal and maternal conditions and should have been treated in time. They also failed to induce labor or perform a cesarean section to save the baby. The girl’s parents therefore filled a case under the medical practice law regarding the doctor’s negligence in attending to their unborn daughter.

 After five years of negotiations, the court ordered compensation of $ 7,000,000,000 for the damages caused and contingency fee for the lawyer. These damages included the economic damages in terms of medical expenses and future earnings since this negligence rendered the girl unable to work. They also included the pain and suffering that the girl and the parents are going through.


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Racism is taken to mean the view that the race constituents such as genetics in one way or the other largely influence human capabilities as well as traits. Taken further, this view holds that given races have an ingrained inferiority as opposed to other races which are considered superior. In this text I amongst other things explore racism as an ideology and describe the race idea.

 The racism ideology

Talking of racism as an ideology, Feagin (2001) notes that it was in place as a scientific racism back in the 19th century and the main agenda here was to classify humanity in racial terms. It is important to note that after the holocaust as well as the Second World War, an ideology of that nature was largely abandoned and discouraged but it refuses simply refuses to go away. This according to Marger (2008) is informed by amongst other things the ratio of blacks in prison versus those who are not in comparison to those other races. It has been noted however that it is highly irresponsible to make assumptions that a given race has a high crime prevalence rate based on this figures or otherwise.

 DuBois is on record as noting that it is the culture that people are concerned or think about as opposed to the race. This can be summed up as a collection or an aggregate of similar habits, religion, history, common laws and history etc. (Juan 2002). Nationalists and scholars in the 19th century began to accept discourses which were considered contemporary with regard to ethnicity and race. This is what was the genesis for new nationalist doctrines.

 With time, the race slowly come to be taken as a representative of a human body’s vital traits and ultimately as a model of a nations personality as well as character. This view seems to advance that ethnic groupings create culture as a physical manifestation of racial traits. According to Marger (2008), race and culture were taken to be intertwined and in some instances, a set of definition in that respect incorporated language and/or nationality. When it cane to pureness of race, it was linked to a wide range of other characteristics that were largely superficial and which included but were not in any way limited to blondeness. With that, geographic distribution became de-linked to racial qualities. Instead, these qualities were largely linked to language and nationality. When we take Nordicism into consideration race superiority was informed by the Germanic domination.

 It is this view of superiority when it comes to race that changed over time to put itself apart from other cultures that were taken to be either impure or inferior. It is important to note herein that values considered ethnocentric and nationalist have been considered to have largely bolstered this change. This cultural emphasis according to Feagin (2001) laid ground to the modern racism definition. In his own words, Feagin (2001) notes that “racism cannot be taken to be built around or informed by races existence.

Racism originates from social division processes and with that in mind, racism can happen to anybody irregardless of his or her religious, cultural or somatic inclinations.” Of course this view does not take into consideration the race biological concept which is still a bone of contention in the scientific arena. It has been noted that as long as scientists continue to be dazzled by race and the other components of human diversity, the racial component will continue to be a common occurrence in biology as well as other areas (Juan 2002).

 When it comes to the institutionalization of racial thinking into legislation and policies, there has been a series of international legislation as well as local attention on the same. To begin with, ‘the declaration on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination’ looks into instances of racial prejudice and it was adopted on 20th Nov in 1963 by the United Nations General Assembly. It is important to note that race legislation has undergone a number of phases in history.

In 1776 great gains were made in respect to this when the declaration of independence explicitly stated that ‘all men are created equal’. In fact, this piece is the one which many scholars attribute to the enactment of the other subsequent amendments including the 13th, 14th as well as 15th amendments. Another notable enactment in this regard was the February 1942 executive order 9066 in which the internment into war of individuals of Japanese descent was done. This internment it might be noted was not only for individuals of Japanese descent but it targeted Germans as well as Italians.


It is important to note that while the biological conception of race exists today, it did not exist in the earlier days as biology was in itself not well defined then. During that time, racism was largely taken to be an unintended climate effect on individual’s physical characteristics.  


Feagin, J.R. (2001). Racist America: roots, current realities, and future reparations. Routledge

Juan, San. (2002). Racism and cultural studies: critiques of multiculturalist’s ideology and the politics of difference. Duke University Press

Marger, M.N. (2008). Race and Ethnic Relations: American and Global Perspectives. Cengage Learning


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Social Learning Suite


1) What learning solutions are provided by the Social Learning Suit?

 (A)Stream lining training development and delivery

The social learning suit aims to manage all learning types, from formal (instructor-lead learning, web based learning etc) to social learning (blogs and discussions) within one platform.  The suite tries to combine the formal and the social forms of learning into one effective process.

 (B) Develop talent and careers

The suite attempts to identify employee skill gaps and then drive social and formal learning programs to target those areas.

© Improve time to competency

The suit aims at increasing time to competency by up to 41% by addressing multiple adult and generation learning styles through a blend of social and formal learning.

(D) Increase learning program/ event value and effectiveness

The suit aims at increasing the effectiveness of learning programs and events by enabling users to interact and discuss key topics before, during and after the event or program. Communication is improved during learning programs.

(E) Build business agility and bench strength

The suite also aims at building business agility and bench strength by facilitating knowledge transfer from retirees to younger workers, to future proof an organization and prevents it from losing key intellectual capital

$12) Do you believe that these solutions are effective?


3) Justify your response.

The suite increases the level of interaction between different levels employees in an organization there enhancing learning between the employee fraternities. It also attempts to increase the level of attraction and communication between employees during learning programs and events therefore making the learning process more effective.


The suite also attempt to identify training need among employees of an organization and develops training programs in response to the needs identified. This could work well for an organization as training programs would be tailor made to suite employees training needs.

It also attempt to combine social and formal learning into one platform. This could make both learning processes effective as they can advance each others interest.  


Mzinga Inc (2010), Social Learning, retrieved on September 27, 2010, from


Mahaya: Pure Land Buddhism and Zen



In the Vietnamese society, both pure land Buddhism and Zen are extremely popular. In this text, I look at the ideas as well as issues which the two concepts have in common and examine where they differ. Last but not least, I expound and examine which component the speaker thinks is better. 

 Zen and Pure Land Buddhism

It is important to note that both Zen and pure land Buddhism have some similar outlooks. To begin with, both schools of thought aim to bring suffering to its logical end. In doing away with suffering, they both seek to bring about nirvana. Another similarity of these two outlooks is their popularity in Vietnam. While it may be noted that the way of Zen is largely the Buddhist temple monastic way of life, it is also true that pure land practice is well ingrained in the monastery.

 However, the speaker also brings out some distinct differences in the two. It is clear from reading the text that one of the differing aspects of the two schools of thought is the path that leads to the logical end of suffering. This is to say that both Zen as well as pure land have their own unique paths to end suffering. Next, the schools of thought differ in terms of practice. For Zen, self-discipline is relied upon greatly. This means therefore that one has to strive to reflect on the mind on a continuous basis. This is in sharp contrast to pure land where there is no well defined emphasis on self effort.

 It is important to note that while the practice of pure land is primarily practiced through coming up with faith as regards Amitabha Buddha existence, Zen practice in anchored on awareness. The argument according to Zen is that mindfulness as well as awareness can be taken to be the chief supporting condition. It is also important to note that the idea of ultimate enlightment which is basically a Zen issue is considered by pure land Buddhism as inherently difficult to achieve in a single lifetime. Save for that, It should however be noted that all in all, the Zen ultimate enlightment idea is not objected to in its entirety by the pure land Buddhism.

 Concerning what the speaker has to say as to which school of thought is better, he notes that while pure land Buddhism may prove workable for some individuals, Zen remains to be superior in principle. The speaker argues that it is very difficult for one to go wrong in practice if one takes time to understand Zen which has its sights trained on the Buddha mind, that is, the original mind.


It is important to note that the speaker recommends pure land as an intermediate level one can settle for and then with time advance to Zen. All this is with the worthy assistance of Amitabha Buddha.


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Media Literacy in the Information Age: Current Perspectives



The mass media heavily influences popular culture. The ideas and opinions displayed in the mass media seem to permeate the society’s daily lives. In this text, I look at the relationship between media literacy and the responsible consumption of popular culture as regards to violence.

 The media and popular cultures as relates to violence

The media seems to influence a big number of things the society engages in. According to Silverblatt (2007), a large chunk of the society lacks media literacy and as such their ability to evaluate as well as analyze media messages is inhibited. This assertion is echoed by Kubey (2001) who notes that today, most people especially those between the ages of 16-27 do not ask any questions at all as regards what they read, hear or even watch.

Hence a large chunk of those within this age bracket have their every move influenced by the media. It can hence be reliably stated that forms of media advertising such as print advertisement have the real ability o inform as well as influence cases of violence based on their presentation. Silverblatt (2007) notes that due to the huge following the media attracts, its messages that seem to exalt violence almost always elicit a response or a consequence. Violence depiction will hence seem acceptable and be largely be seen as the “cool” way to life.  

 Kubey (2001) argues that today, individuals must be increasingly vigilant so as to enhance as well as reinforce their ability to question what they read, hear or even watch. Individuals should critically evaluate as well as analyze print advertisement and other forms of media advertisements so as to increase their media experience and in that line develop ways to identify and identify bias and propaganda.


It is important to note that the one of the ethical approaches to the consumption of popular culture as far as the minimization of negative consequences is concerned includes treating the mass media and its various forms as a notion that demands much evaluation and analysis. 


Kubey, R. (2001). Media literacy in the information age: current perspectives. Transaction Publishers

Silverblatt, A. (2007). Media literacy: keys to interpreting media. Praeger


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Creation Science



Creation science tries to bring to light compelling scientific facts that in one way or the other support the creation story in the Genesis Book and cast a shadow of doubt over other scientific paradigms, theories as well as facts that strive to explain earth’s history as well as evolution.

Problems inherent in the concept

Though the whole of concept of what has been regarded as scientific science programs at some universities has been welcome in some quarters, there has been some discomfort about the whole idea with some arguing that this could present some problems. Some of these problems include its supposed conflict with evolutionary science.

Creation science is largely seen as a critique of evolutionary theories which have been in one way or the other gained much prominence in the education system over time. The concept will hence motivate an inevitable clash with evolution theorists.

 Secondly, creation science have been accused of not being in touch with anomalous facts force, those that due to one reason or the other can not be conclusively explained using the theory at the moment (LeConte 2009).

 Science and faith

Over time, most observers have viewed science as a critique of religion and vice versa. However, this need not be the case. In my own opinion, science and religion are representatives of reality and hence any clash between them is unnecessary. However, there are those who truly that religion and science are absolutely incompatible. To reconcile the two and reach a middle ground, proponents of both must abandon their hard-line positions and conservancy. This is because as I state above, both science and religion are representatives of reality from different viewpoints.


It is important to note that all the issues brought to the fore by “creation science” programs should be addressed by all the stakeholders so that the discipline can gain acceptance alongside geological as well as biological sciences. This would be a great step towards liberalizing individuals’ outlook of life and its origin.


LeConte, J. (2009). Religion and Science. Books LLC


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Marketing Plan: Predator Shield


 1. Executive summary

Extreme adventure is in the course of releasing a predator shield of its kind which will be referred to as extreme adventure predator shield. Our preoccupation as at the moment is to exceed customer expectations and with that in mind we shall mainly focus on the quality of the product. With that in mind, the predator shield has been designed to last long by incorporating a lithium X1V45 battery and to withstand any extreme condition, the product is encased in a rubber casing.

As a first mover in the industry, we plan to execute a well coordinated promotion to secure a large chunk of the market share before competition sets in. Our target market is the adventurous youth and middle age individuals who spend about $2000 annually in touring the world’s jungles. Our survey shows that 65% to 75% would be interested in a predator shield due to the dangers they are exposed to in the jungle. For purposes of the project, we require about $109,000.

 2. Situation analysis

a) Company analysis

Extreme adventure prides itself as the leading supplier of camping and mountain climbing equipment as well as a wide range of other expedition equipment. Currently we have 60% of the market share. Our mission is ‘to provide quality and reliable expedition equipment to all our customers on a global scale.’

 b) Industry analysis

The predator shield is being introduced in an industry whose net worth has been estimated to be well over $786.8million. Those who explore the jungles spend an average of $1342 on jungle exploration all over the world on an annual basis.

 c) Market analysis

A recent study conducted by this company to chart customer demographics as well as lifestyles took into consideration a jungle exploration list of about 200,000 jungle exploration customers.

Based on the findings, customers were divided into groups which are in one way or the other distinguishable and the base for segmentation included age and sex.

 d) Competitor analysis

The focus in this case is our indirect competitors. As at the moment, Extreme Adventure remains a first mover as far as the predator shield is concerned and hence the only licensee in regard to the same. With that in mind, our drive aligns itself against a wide range of methods which can be taken to be substitutes when it comes to protection against an attack by predators. The alternatives as at the moment include but are not limited to the use of rifles which are in some quarters seen to be unethical.

The use of a rifle for defense ends up killing the predator. There is also the use of an injector gun which temporarily paralyses the predator but its use has been put to task due to alleged negative long term health complications on animals it is used against. The company is hence in a good competitive position when it comes to the predator shield. Its established market for expedition equipment and given the fact that there is no known side effect of using the predator shield as compared to the other products is expected to remain our competitive advantage.

 e) Environmental analysis

Our main strong point is the fact that the predator shield is not known to cause any harm to predators in any way. The developmental stages preliminary research shows that only a temporal discomfort is caused to the predators by the high sound waves emission of the predator shield. This shield is hence in line with measures being taken to avert the extinction of some predators such as the tiger which face extinction.

 3. SWOT analysis

Extreme Adventures is the sole producer of the predator shield in the market place. With that in mind, there are a wide range of opportunities in the market place as direct substitutes are nonexistent. The only threat is the entry of competitors in the market place. Our strengths are informed by our sufficient understanding of the expedition market as well as a superior market share. Our increasing revenue base is also impressive and hence with that trend, we can in future afford to finance distribution expenses (Exhibit 1). As at the moment, we do not have any significant weaknesses.

 4. Marketing strategy development

The target market segment is active jungle expedition adventurers. The product will be made readily available and the design has been done to attract attention from expedition adventurers . We shall focus on the products environmental record as well as its protective and safety aspect. For the jungle expedition lovers below 20 years, we have a wide range of designs to choose from. The product comes in three colors i.e. blue, black and pink. This is a deliberate move to make it appealing to customers of both sexes.

 5. Marketing mix development

With regard to promotion, Extreme Adventure has twin objectives. One will be to stimulate the acceptance of the shield and secondly to enhance sales for the same. Posting to appropriate social media will be our main technique when it comes to promotion. This will be supplemented by advertising in appropriate expedition journals (exhibit 2). 

 With regard to the place, we shall initially be the distribution channel for our seven strategic outlets in several cities as well as 39 other affiliates globally. In the next 7 years, we plan to increase our distribution to include direct sales and delivery from our website.

 When it comes to pricing Extreme Adventure will utilize a cost-plus pricing strategy. This will go a long way towards gaining a better cost control. The price of the predator shield is informed by a development cost of $400 per unit and a markup of 30%.

 When it comes to packaging, all our products are sold in recycled packs. This is a deliberate step to underscore our commitment to environmental conservation. The packaging of the predator shield will not be any different.

 6. Marketing objectives, budgets and timelines

As stated elsewhere, our marketing objective is to stimulate acceptance of the predator guard at the market place and secondly to enhance sales. All the marketing tasks should be completed in a time frame of two years and as this is a resource intensive undertaking, estimates will be developed for the budget. The total cost projections as at the moment is $109,000 (Exhibit 2).

 7. Marketing performance evaluation

To evaluate its market performance, the company will use the profitability index coupled with demand levels. Feedback will be encouraged so as to gauge customer satisfaction. Positive feedback will be an indicator of customer satisfaction while negative feedback will be acted upon by enhancing corrective measures.

Exhibit 1

 The extreme adventure revenues                                                                               

                                                            2005    2006    2007    2008    2009    2010

                                                            $2.3B  $2.9B   $3.3B    $3.9B   $4.2B   $5.1

 Exhibit 2

The marketing expense budget


                               year 1

                               year 2

Postings to social media




Postings to expedition journals










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It is said disability is not in any way inability. This is exactly true as we have seen instances where disabled individuals have outperformed their able counterparts be it in academics or otherwise. The question that however keeps baffling us is whether or not there is a good response to disability. This is the question I seek to address in this text.

 Is there a good response to disability?

Albrecht et al. (2001) argues that there are a number of ways in which an individual can respond to disability challenges. It is good to note that apart from the responses discussed here, there are many other responses which can be successfully adopted so as to reinforce adaptation to disability. Albrecht et al. (2001) notes that an individual can respond to disability in a number of phases; these phases include but are not limited to crisis and chronic phases. The crisis phase is informed by sourcing of as much information as it is possible about the disability and how to live with it. This is important as the individual will here be faced with grief as a result of losing his or her abilities.

 Sourcing as much information as possible about the disability is vital as it determines how an individual will deal with this in the long term. After this phase is the chronic phase where there is full appreciation of the condition or disability. Acceptance and appreciation that things are unlikely to change i.e. one is unlikely to regain his or her ability is important so that the individual can move on and avoid denial.


It is important to note that while the question as to whether or not there is a good response to disability is a difficult one to answer, the responses above are not conclusive and as such other responses should be incorporated for a conclusive addressing of the same.


Albrecht, G.L., Seelman, K.D., Bury, M. (2001). Handbook of Disability Studies. SAGE


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Nursing Competence


Effects of the competence of nursing students on decreasing drug administration errors: a literature review

Whether the competence of nursing students/nurses have any effect on decreasing drug administration errors has been a subject of debate for quite a period of time. A review of the existing literature in this area is not only appropriate but also timely so as to ascertain whether there is any literary evidence to support the claim that the competency of students in medication calculation can lead to decreased medication errors.

 According to Masters (2005), amongst all hospital errors, medication errors have been identified to have the highest frequency of occurrence. He goes on to note that a big percentage of these errors are in fact caused by the incompetence on the part of nursing students. It is hence clear that the incompetence of nursing students or their competence thereof has some kind of a ripple effect when it comes to the delivery of healthcare. It should not be lost on this that the blame at times tends to fall squarely on educators who according to Aspden (2007) fail to prepare students well for the many tasks going forward. Naylor (2002) also notes that educators have a very big role to play when it comes to enhancing the competence of nursing students so as to avert any instances of medication calculation and other drug administration errors.

                 To echo the sentiments of Aspden (2007), the safety of healthcare is increasingly getting worse. While some percentage of this errors are way beyond the ability of nurses as far as their aversion is concerned, a big chunk of them still fall within the nurses jurisdiction as regards what they did or failed to do. In that regard, Masters (2005) argues that the medication calculation and other drug administration errors which have over time been blamed upon the competence of nurses include but are not limited to the administration, dispensation, transcription as well as the monitoring of medications. For instance, an administration route may be conspicuously omitted for an amoxicillin order. This is just a single yet clear example of a case of incompetence on the part of nurses.

While it is true error-is-to-human, and that sometimes some errors lead to negligible effects on patients, some errors have the potential of bringing about disastrous effects upon the patient. These medication calculation and other drug administration errors are the ones that are commonly referred to as potential ADEs or serious medication errors. A good example of such an error which can be attributed to incompetence on the part of nurses is an amoxicillin order for a patient having a previous penicillin anaphylaxis (Naylor 2002).

 To further underscore the role competency of nursing students/nurses plays as far as drug administration errors are concerned, Aspden (2007) notes that there have been instances where nurses have not observed the five medical administration rights. This rights which relate to the administration of medications include the right patient, the right administration when it comes to frequency as well as timing, the correct dose, the right administration route and lastly the correct drug. Failure by nurses to follow these simple rights actually has a domino effect as far as drug administration and medication errors are concerned. 

 The competency of nurses on their part plays a big role in enabling them to accomplish their duty with regard to enhancing the safety as well as safety of healthcare advanced to patients. The institute of medicine in fact paints an ugly picture as regards the number of deaths which are attributable to medication calculation and other drug administration errors. According to the institute, about 98000 deaths annually in hospitals are attributable to medical errors. The costs as a result of these errors are even more alarming. According to Masters (2005), an annual estimated figure of about $29 billion in the same institutions underlines the urgency of the issue. Naylor (2002) notes that if drug administration error instances are to be brought down then the competence of nursing students/nurses must be upheld as well as enhanced.

Incompetence has been blamed on a number of things and as Aspden (2007) notes, it has even become standard practice for nurses in some instances to sign out narcotics whereas giving other members of staff the responsibility of the actual medication administration. This is just one example of a practice that borders on incompetence and in fact has the very potential of bringing about errors. The only favorable possibility in such a practice is the assumption that the first nurse gives the second nurse the correct medication and hopes that this nurse will actually administer these medications to the right patient. The other possibilities are not plausible. For instance, the other possibilities include the second nurse administering the drug to the wrong patient or even administering the medication contrary to the order.

There is also he possibility of the second nurse keeping the drug in what Naylor (2002) calls diversion. In regard to this scenario and many other similar ones which play out in a wide range of health facilities, it does not only make sense but it is also highly appropriate to enhance the competence of nurses so as to decrease drug administration errors such as the one recounted above and many others. 

 According to Masters (2005), the need for qualified, competent as well as well trained nurses cannot be overstated. In his view, when the competency of nursing students/nurses is enhanced, reported cases of medication calculation and other drug administration errors. Masters (2005) goes ahead to note that competence dictates that nurses administer medications having a physician’s signed as well as written order and in cases where one or two things is unclear, clarification should be sought with the ordering physician as soon as it is possible. Competency also dictates that nurses check and ensure that the contents of the medication order are in line with package label. However, this is not usually the case as there have been instances where medications which are unlabeled or tabled in a way that is unclear are used or replaced in the cabinet.

 Competence also dictates that instructions be followed as precisely as it is possible when dispensing medications. In instances where one has doubts concerning a drug name or otherwise, timely verifications should be made. Aspden (2007) notes that due to some reason which can be only explained as sheer lack of competence, some health practitioners still go ahead to dispense medications in instances where there exists doubts as to their calculation, dosage etc.

 A lot of research has also gone into the ascertainment of the effects of miscalculation of drug dosages. While in some quarters a miscalculation of drugs is not attributed to any serious drug administration error cases, Anema et al. (2009) argues that the calculation of medications is paramount to the enhancement of safety as far as the administration of medicines is concerned. However, it is important to note that when it comes to medication calculation, specific problems have been identified. These problems can be attributed to a wide range o factors which include but are not in any way limited to the students inabilities to integrate their basic mathematical skills into the real work situation.

 All in all, nursing students/nurses should not jeopardize the well being of their patients by amongst other things failing to use superior judgment as far as the administration and signing out of medicines is concerned. This will be a big step in the attempt to lower as well as decrease drug administration and medication errors.


While the role of educators when it comes to training as well as preparing nursing students can have a big impact on reducing as well as decreasing instances of drug administration errors as well as a wide range of other medication errors, it is important to note that Health Centers should also be at the forefront in ensuring that the competence of their healthcare professionals is not in question. Given that a large chunk of medication errors are a direct consequence of the incompetence on the part of nurses as seen above, a step in this direction will be seen to be a concerted effort towards ensuring that the rates as well as instances of drug administration errors are brought down or decreased.


Anema, M.G., & McCoy, J (2009). Competency-Based Nursing Education: Guide to Achieving Outstanding Learner Outcomes. Springer Publishing Company

Aspden, P. (2007). Preventing medication errors. National Academies Press

Masters, K. (2005). Role development in professional nursing practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning

Naylor, R. (2002). Medication errors: lessons for education and healthcare. Radcliffe Publishing


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