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Poverty and Children in the United States

 


 Introduction

            Poverty can be defined as the lack of basic needs including nutrition, clean drinking water, education, healthcare and clothing as well as shelter. Poor people are unable to afford these basic needs, and this is known as destitution or absolute poverty. The state of not being able to afford or having lesser income and resources than other people in a nation or society or in comparison to worldwide standardized averages is known as relative poverty. Historically, poverty reduction has been made possible through economic growth.


               Increased production within flourishing economies fostered by modernized industrial technologies has created more wealth, thus making available and cheap goods that were unaffordable by many in earlier years. Despite economic successes and technological advancements the United States has been unable to totally eliminate poverty amongst the populace. President Lyndon declared war against domestic poverty in 1964. In response the federal government has been channeling billions of money to all towns across America providing aid in through programs such as the welfare programs. This aid has facilitated basic needs such as food, shelter and clothing. Nevertheless, the war on poverty has not been won yet.


             A Fordham University generated research report of 1996 indicated that many more millions of Americans lived in poverty in 1996 than they were in 1964. The report also stated that America’s social well being had declined to its lowest point ever in a quarter of a century, and this had mostly affected young people and children. In present day America recession effects still remain with over 14 million children living in poverty-this large number translates to about 19% percent of the nations children. This is a grim picture, keeping in mind that the future of any nation depends on how the nation handles its young population.


            The high rate of unemployment that is ever rising is cited as the main factor that greatly contributes to child poverty. However, it has also been noted that most of the poor children in America hail from families with working parent/s. The parents in this case work in low paying jobs, and as a result there earnings are unable to sustain their families and raise the standards of living above the poverty level designated by the federal government. Notably, poverty is high in other demographic groups compared to others. The percentages of children living under poverty in America are as follows, 37% percent (Native American children), 30.7% (Hispanic American children), 34.7% (black American children), 14.6% (Asian American children) and 10.6% (white children).


             An analysis of this figures indicate that racial injustices and discrimination is also a contributory factor towards poverty. In the U.S.A the rising income segregation adds to the injustices that are brought about by racial segregation. According to a research by the Coalition on Human Needs the population of households that lack nutritious supplies of food increased from 36 million to 49 million. This is the highest recorded number, and amongst these people were seventeen million children, this is was four million more in 2008 compared to 2007 (Maume & Arrigi, (2007).


             Children living in poverty often go hungry and are unable to access primary health care. These children are also isolated in lack of transportation, lack of proper child care, segregated patterns of housing and by segregation that lands them in under-funded and stressed public schools. These children also live in segregated neighborhoods characterized with poverty and frequent cases of violence, drug abuse, prostitution and other social and criminal vices. As a result, of these environmental factors children are negatively influenced, and thus drop out of school. Finally, these children engage crimes that land them in jail serving long terms of incarceration instead of being in college. Experts believe that American children in poor families today may have little to no opportunity to break out of poverty in comparison to earlier generations (Maume & Arrigi, (2007). 


 Impact of poverty on American children

            The American Census Bureau report release in 1996 indicated that 13.8% of American citizens live in poverty, whereas; many more are at the brink of the poverty line. The effects of poverty hit people of all ages, but 48% percent of these victims are young people and children. It is estimated that one out of every four American children live below the poverty line set by the government-this is approximately 15 million children. It is also estimated that 25% of children under 12 years and 22% percent of those under 18 years are either hungry or at the brink of falling into hunger. Additionally, 2660 births occur daily in poor families, 27 of these children die because of poverty.


           This situation has persisted over several years causing the U.S to denoted as the country with the highest child poverty rate amongst the 17 most wealthy countries. There are numerous long term effects of poverty on children. These effects may range from depression and aggression to stunted growth or low height in comparison to age. In addition, there are severe economic costs that result from child poverty. The Children’s defense fund declares that every year spent in poverty by a child causes a loss in future productivity that could amount to $11800 (Collins et al, 2009).


            Poor health is the first impact of poverty that arises from lacking proper nutrition and balanced diet. The National Center for Health Statistics states that children born in poor families are 3.6 times more likely to have bad health and die of infectious diseases. It was noted in 2002 that 14% of children lived under poverty and 7.7% of babies born into poverty were under-weight. According to the findings of the National Health and Nutrition body the mean levels of lead in blood was found to be 9% lower for children born in families with incomes doubling the mean poverty level income compared to those born into poor families. Data from the federal health program also indicated that 8%-12% of poor children enrolled in its programs had elevated levels of blood lead. 


             Lead poisoning was observed to be rampant in children born in poor families because of the poor living conditions that they are exposed to (Oberg, 2003). It was also observed that 34% percent of children from poor households had obesity compared to children from families with high incomes who had19% percent of their children being obese. This high prevalence of overweight children also causes other multiple health problems. It was also observed that poor children are more likely to get asthma compared children from families that are not poor. In 2002 it was observed that 8% of poor children had asthma compared to only 6% for the non-poor children. Children born in poor living conditions of poverty have a high risk of being born under weight or getting diseases such as anemia, asthma, stunted growth as well as other complications such as lead poisoning. Low birth weight has also been cited a risk factor in infant mortality.


           Children born under weight are more likely to get catch diseases compared with those born with proper weight. They also develop problems such as learning disabilities, physical disabilities and grade repetition. Low birth weight has been noted as rampant feature among babies born to single mothers, especially those that are uneducated. This has commonly been observed among Black Americans- a group that has high prevalence of poverty. Stunted growth which is high among poor people may lead to poor cognitive development, which later may lead to poor learning abilities. The poor living conditions also expose the poor children to lead poisoning because the houses that they live in are often sub-standard. The poisoning later causes more complications in their health resulting to low IQs, behavioral problems, hearing and speech problems-all these resultant complications may be almost irreversible(Oberg, 2003).


            Poverty has been found to cause profound effects on children’s cognitive development. The lack of proper cognitive development slows down the child’s learning abilities due to developmental delays. The Brandeis University’s Center of Hunger and poverty malnutrition coupled with poor environmental surroundings of upbringing may retard brain development, cognitive functioning and physical growth on a permanent basis. Lack of enough food and a balanced diet may result in low attentiveness, alertness, motivation and emotional expression, all of which negatively influence development processes. This could affect learning, playing, communication and parent-child bond. When these poor children fail to attach or bond well with their parents they also develop low self confidence needed in the formation of new relationships. As a result, the children will have a low sense of efficacy, and therefore they will feel less important and worthless-both of which create a low self esteem, depression and anger (Feeny & Clarke, 2007).


            Education is also another sector and part of the children’s life that is greatly affected by poverty. School un-readiness or the number of children that are no prepared for schooling before entry into primary schooling is also very high in poor children. This un-readiness has far reaching effects that may affect the poor children way beyond kindergarten. Children from poor families have been known to join kindergarten later than their peers. It has also been established that 50% percent of these children are unable to attain reading proficiency by the time they reach fourth grade.


           Schools that had 50% percent of their students enrolled into reduced price or free lunch were noted to have lower average scores compared to schools which had at least a quarter of lower enrollment of students in to these programs meant to assist poor students. This is a clear indication that poverty leads to poor academic performance. This may be attributed to poor cognitive development that results from hunger and poor health caused by poverty. Additionally, the poor social development and lack of concentration due to depression and hunger impedes learning (Oberg, 2003). Studies on school drop out rates indicate that children living in poverty are more likely to drop out of school before completion compared to their counterparts from well off families. The inability to complete their studies means that the poverty cycle continues and chances are high for these children to end up poor.


            Child poverty is also the main reason behind child prostitution, drug abuse, violent crimes and many other vices that occur within the society. The children in poor families are compelled to engage in illegal and dangerous acts due to the poor conditions that they live in. Additionally, negative influence on morals is rampant in impoverished neighborhoods. These poor children grow up witnessing violence, crime, drug abuse, prostitution among many other evils. These experiences cause the children to develop morals and behaviors that are characterized with their experiences.


           Children from poor neighborhoods are more likely to engage in activities such as child prostitution, drug dealing, substance abuse and violent crimes.As a result most of them end up in jails or rehabilitation centers. Children raised in poor neighborhoods are more likey to engage in crime compared to their counterparts from well to do families.Children brought up in poverty also also develop behavior changes characterised by depression and lack of proper cognitive abilities. These children are mostly influenced by the depresive nature of their parents. Most poor mothers experience occasional domestic violence that is experienced by the children. The teahers may also aggravate the problem by neglecting such children or by failing to accord them the necessary attention that they require.            


            Teenage pregnancies is also a big problem in the U.S. Statistics indicate that 25 out of 1000 teenagers aged between 15 to 17 have had child births, most of whom never get to finish their high school studies. Itis also highly likely that they may never get a chance to get to college. This simply implies that they are likely to live a life of poverty in their future. The cycle of poverty is also llikely to continue because the parents will be unable to provide for their children. It has also been proved through empirical surveys that the probability of teenage pregnancies reduces significantly in well to do families whereas it increases as the income levels in families drop (Collins et al, 2009).


 Conclusion

            Despite great advancements and development within the America, povrty is still rampant and those that suffer under it are the young children that are born into these poor families. Povertyu robs them off their future and places tham at a risk of having a poor future that propagates the vicious cycle of poverty in their families. Most factors that shape early childhood are not provided as required so as to shape cgildrenm well. These factors include, nutrition and health, a good environment, and good parent-child interactions. All these are not properly provided for under conditions of poverty.


             As a result, childtren grow under difficult conditions that hinder proper growth and reduce their future productivity as well active performamnce in academic circles-which very important in shaping their future. The government has moved in to reform the situation but all it has done is to provide for minimum bare survival. In personal view the government should do more funding to help alleviate poverty especially, for the sake of children that bear the future of our nation. More funds should be set aside especially, in the provison of education and better nutrition and healthcare for children living underconditions of poverty.


 References

Oberg, C. (2003).  The Impact of Childhood Poverty on Health and Development. Healthy Generations Journal, volume 4, issue number 1.

Collins et. Al (2009) Children in Poverty: Trends, consequences and policy options. Trends Cild Research Brief. Retrieved on 1st September, 2010 from www.childtrends.org.

Maume, J.D. and Arrighe, A. B.(2007). Child Poverty in America Today: Children and the state. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Feeny, S. And Clarke,M. (2007). Education for the end of poverty: implementing all the Millennium Development Goals. Nova Publishers.


 

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Government’s Regulation on Healthcare and its Effects on the System

 


 Introduction

             Healthcare regulation in America encompasses a wide variety of aspects and areas of regulation that relate to healthcare. Healthcare regulations include regulation of physicians and other healthcare practitioners, healthcare financiers, drug and healthcare products, healthcare institutions and hospitals as well as regulation of healthcare research and public health. The healthcare industry is one of the most regulated within America, and as such; every aspect of the healthcare system has to be subjected to heavy government scrutiny, be it at the federal or state level.


          The measures have good intentions of fostering a healthy nation and population. However, at times they have been thought of as working contrary to their goals and objectives. Legislation both at the federal and state level, have been able to enhance quality and cheapen medical care expenses. At times the regulatory measures have compromised the efficient provision of healthcare to the general public due to implementation of regulations that are over restrictive. In some instances the regulations have created bottlenecks that have hindered efficient delivery of medical care.


 Role of governmental regulatory agencies  

At the federal level the U.S Department of Health and Human Services serves as an executive department which oversees all legislation relating to healthcare. It also oversees national licensures that moderate the industry to ensure the quality of services provided across the nation is standardized across the board. The department’s main objectives are to enhance availability of healthcare services, enhancing affordability as well as better quality of healthcare. The public healthcare service has various agencies charged with the regulation of various aspects of healthcare.


The Health Administration Agency regulates provision of healthcare to people that have no healthcare. The Food and Drug administration agency regulates safety of drugs and medical products used as well as food, Healthcare Research Agency controls aspects of research within the system. The Agency of Disease Registry and Toxic Substances regulates issues relating to release of toxic and hazardous material into the environment. Finally, we have the Centers for Disease Prevention Agency; this agency is responsible for prevention of high mortality rates, disabilities and diseases. State authorities also have their own locally tailored means of control either extending from the federal government as branches or locally set up. However, states do not regulate issues of healthcare that may relate to large national employers due to preemption. A lot of healthcare organizations and hospitals also submit to JCAHO certification and inspection on a voluntary basis (Field, 2007).   


 Examples of regulations and their impact on healthcare delivery

            Government regulatory measures greatly influence the healthcare system as a whole. Spheres of influence include availability of healthcare services, institutions and practitioners as well as the cost of healthcare services and the quality of medical services offered. As stated earlier the influences have been mostly positive, but they have also had negative effects related to other aspects of the healthcare system. This is exemplified by the HIPAA Privacy Rules (Privacy Rights, 2010).


            These new legislations stipulate that higher levels of confidentiality have to be maintained when dealing with or handling patient information. This regulatory measure is actually legislated with good intentions-those of protecting the client’s privacy and constitutional rights. However, the regulatory measure brings about higher operation expenses for institutions that have to incur additional spending in the initiation of secure information systems meant to safeguard information and offer controllable access to patient information.


                For example, large healthcare organizations have to employ full-time officials to carry out training and worker communications projects. Failure to comply may be expensive because of the illegalities that may arise. Looking at it in another way, there may arise occasional cases of legal confrontations that may cost the organization some legal expenses. Regulations on interstate physician licensure and on medical practitioners’ education through the American Medical Association (AMA) affect availability of doctors and other health practitioners for healthcare organizations. AMA has always lobbied for control of the number of doctors supplied by training institutions to the extent of greatly limiting the number of available doctors. In turn, this has made the fees paid to doctors to rise significantly due to the interplay of supply and demand factors to the disadvantage of the common citizens. Similarly, AMA is known to have championed the banning of midwifery as well as some practices performed by medical practitioners that are not fully qualified doctors (Field, 2007).


               This eliminated affordable sources of healthcare for people with lower incomes. As a result, this made medical procedures such as delivery and expensive service to procure from doctors. Though legislated in good faith, the measure makes healthcare expensive and inaccessible to some people, especially the poor. The few practitioners that already exist and medical facilities find that they have to deal with a large number of cases such as deliveries which would have been easily undertaken by midwifes. If for example the midwifes are allowed to practice, there would be a lesser backlog for the doctors, and in turn; this would allow them to reserve their time for more serious cases of health conditions. It would be sufficient to allow midwifes to practice under stipulations that they should promptly refer complicated cases to doctors in an urgent manner.


            Despite the seemingly negative regulatory measures, there are other measures that appear more positive and advantageous to the promotion of quality, availability and cheaper medical services. These legislative measures may be exemplified by the EMTALA Act (Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act). The provisions within the act guarantee availability of healthcare for every person, including those that may be unable to pay for their treatment under cases of emergency. Practically EMTALA is applicable virtually to all medical organizations and hospitals except the Veterans Affairs hospital, Indian health service and as well as the Children’s Shiners hospitals.


               This act was passed in order to regulate ‘patient dumping’ or the denial of medical care on grounds of inability to pay or the discharge of patients under emergency care because of anticipated high costs of treatment and diagnosis. The legislation is effective once a patient reaches the department dealing with emergency medical care. The patients that reach this department are supposed to receive healthcare whether they are able to pay or not. Despite the fact that the patient may be unable to pay or has no insurance cover to foot the medical bills, s/he will still be under a legal obligation to effect the payments due for his/her treatment. This is provided for under the civil law, and as such any person that fails to pay, when s/he is in actual sense able to pay will be subjected to legal procedures (Furrow, 1987).


             Patients that may have had advance intentions of receiving medical care with an intention not to pay may not be held liable criminally unless they present evidence proving otherwise willingly and in full knowledge so as to reveal their false allegations and intentions. This bill has loopholes that may create problems on health organizations and hospitals. These organizations may offer services for which they may be unable to recover their service fee, and thus operate at a loss if such cases happen to be rampant. However, it a positive thing for patients and the general populace because they are sure to get medical attention in emergency cases even with inabilities to pay for the services, To a greater extent this portrays the effort the government has put in to ensuring that there is no discrimination in the provision of health services to all American people. Though advantageous to some people, the legislation is disadvantageous to those that area bale to pay (Pozgar, 2004). This is because the unpaid bills are passed on to those that are able to cater for their payments as high costs in their medical care services.


 Conclusion

            Conclusively, the regulation of the health sector and its players by the government is in good faith and for the good of the general populace. However, the regulations stipulated seem to have both positive and negative effects. The negative effects are mostly characterized by high resultant costs and lack of availability of medical care services. On the other hand, the positive side of these legislations is mostly characterized high quality medical care services. The positive side of these regulatory measures and benefits outweigh the negatives or disadvantages, and thus the laws should be maintained as they are and extra measures set up to ensure that they are adhered to. However, they should also be reviewed in cases where they seemingly compromise the provision of affordable healthcare as well as its availability. Streamlining of these regulatory measures and laws can be done via legislative amendments.


 References

Field, I. R. (2007).Health Care Regulation in America: Complexity, confrontation, and compromise. OxfordUniversity Press US.

Furrow, R.B. (1987).Health law: Cases, materials, and problems, second edition, West Publishers.

Privacy Rights, (2010). Medical Privacy in the Electronic Age. Retrieved on 26th August, 2010 from http://www.privacyrights.org/fs/fs8a-hipaa.htm.

Pozgar, D.G. (2004).Legal Aspects of Health Care Administration, ninth edition. Jones and Bartlett Learning Publishers.


 

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Week 3: Meaning Vocabulary Lesson Plan

Week 3: Meaning Vocabulary Lesson Plan


Lesson Topic: Meaning Vocabulary.

Objectives:

Language: The student should be able to:

• Define the meaning of various vocabularies as well as apply them in the right context within sentences in order to portray their meaning.

Content: The student should be able to:

• Learn how to use the proper labeling for different objects that correlate to various units and themes presented in the class.


 Learning Strategies:

• The presentation of pictures and objects stimulates different ideas about actions and the objects of pictures presented. This lesson will employ the use of these objects to help the student formulate and internalize vocabularies that can be associated with the objects presented during the lesson.

Key Vocabulary: Etiology.


 Materials:

• A box has a lid and an assortment of pictures and objects such as toys representing various objects and features. These objects may include plastic kitchen items meant for child-play such as plastic spoons, ladles, cups, plates, jugs. These are meant to help children in practical recognition of items during naming activities.

Motivation: (Building the Background)

• Present various assorted objects and ask the student what comes to his mind when they view the various objects. Let him name the objects or pictures and offer alternative names for those objects and pictures as well as actions related to them.

• Thereafter, tell him that the week’s lesson is going to be about defining and understanding the use of various vocabularies associated with objects, actions and professions in life.


 Presentation:

• Theteacher should choose various objects or pictures that are related andhelp thestudent name them as well as name actions that are related to them as well as descriptive words. Thereafter, the teacher should explain the etiology of these vocabularies and how they may be related to the object, picture or actions and characteristics related to the picture or object.

• Explain how various vocabularies are coined in relation to objects, characteristics and related actions.


 Practice and Application:

• The teacher should collect various objects, toys or objects that relate to specific units or themes, and put them in a covered box (for example, you could make a collection of kitchen equipment of all types). The student should then be asked to move forward and pick an item from the box. The student should then identify the object by name and identify its characteristics, use and the actions for which it is used as well as related terms. Thereafter, discuss about the attributes of the object in terms of color, size and function.


 Practice Activities

The teacher should suggest a number of topics and lists of the subtopics. They should be given in various visual formats such as a train engine as the topic, and carriages as subtopics, a ladder  as a topic and subtopics on every rung, a flower as a topic and  petals as subtopics or alternatively  a spider as the topic and the  web as subtopics spread all over the web. The student will be required to add to as many words as s/he can possibly recognize in the subtopics’ sections.


 For example:

Animals (dog, cat, hen, rat, bird) Colors (red, white, black, blue, green) Furniture (table, bed, chair) Occupations (teacher, doctor, cook, dentist) Food (milk, fruits, bread, juice). The student should list all vocabularies that come to mind according to his/her scope of grade learning.

The teacher should select charts with pictures or assortments of related objects and ask the student

to name the objects. The teacher should offer assistance where difficulties arise. More examples on

how to develop such exercise and activities may be found in books such as “Teaching Literacy in

Third Grade”, by Almasi et al.


 Conduct word defining activities and contextual use by reviewing short stories and literary pieces such as poems. The teacher can read out loud, samples of poems. Thereafter, the teacher can offer the student a copy of the poem and ask him/her to read it again. After reading out loud, ask the student to visual a picture of the poem or what is described in the poem. The poem chosen should be one that uses words to paint a picture by use of vivid description. In order to brainstorm for the poetry session, the teacher can begin by first reading familiar rhymes covered in lower grades and even nursery school as a way to introduce the session. The may start by using samples of “Jack and Jill” or “Old king Cole”. More examples on how to handle poetry lessons may be accessed from books such as “Give them poetry !: A guide for sharing poetry with children K-8”, a publication by Sloan.


 First stanza for Jack and Jill

Jack and Jill went up the hill

To fetch a pail of water

Jack fell down and broke his crown

And Jill came tumbling after.


 Old King Cole poem

Old King Cole was a merry old soul, and a merry old soul 

was he;

He called for his pipe in the middle of the night
And he called for his fiddlers three.
Every fiddler had a fine fiddle, and a very fine fiddle had he;
Oh there’s none so rare as can compare
With King Cole and his fiddlers three.


 Review and Assessment:

• The student should be offered clues that he should use to identify the various objects and attributes by the use of clues provided. He should then list attributes and terminologies associated with their use and characteristics. This should be used to assess how well the student understands vocabularies related to various items or features represented by pictures (Bader, 2009).


 Extensions:

• The student could be instructed to choose a collection of related items or pick a certain profession. After which he can be asked to state all vocabularies related to the collection of items or practice of the profession. Listed terms may include tools, activities, personnel involved and technical jargon related to the field of practice or collection of items.

• The teacher can take the student around the school in selected areas, and instruct the student to write down vocabularies related to objects, items and features that he sees.       


 

Biofuels and Food Crisis

 


Bio fuels production has an effect on the global food supplies and prices. Since bio fuels can be made from corn, soybeans, wheat and barley, the primary effect of bio fuels on food supplies and prices comes due to the increase in the prices of these farm products. This increase comes about because of the increased demand of these products in the production of bio fuels. Due to this increased demand, farmers result to increasing the planting of these products and this in turn results to increased prices of other crops competing for the same land. Moreover, increased prices in the products used to make bio fuels have a direct impact on other food commodities made from them.


For example increase in wheat prices leads to increase in the prices of flour and hence increasing the prices of bakery products like bread. Increase in Soya bean prices leads to increase in Soya bean oils and margarine products. However, there are world wide arguments especially from the bio fuels industries that due to advancements in technology, agriculture can be relied on to provide a reliable portion of the world’s fuel as well as be a food supplier. There are also arguments that the current food crisis is dependent on food scarcity since bio fuels can be produced through bio-chemical and thermo-chemical processes.


 However, studies show that biofuels were the major cause of the 2007-2008 world food crises. Though biofuels cause food crisis, it’s argued that developing countries and rural areas in developed countries benefit from biofuels production since electricity is generated in the process. Despite this, biofuels production has a negative effect on poor countries and a positive one on rich countries since fuel demand in rich countries competes with food demand in poor countries. To make this situation more sustainable, biofuels should be produced from non food crops like algae, crop residues and wastes.


 References

Corinne Alexander &Chris Hurt. (2007) Biofuels and Their Impact on Food Prices [Online] Purdue University Press. Available from: http://www.ces.purdue.edu/extmedia/ID/ID-346-W.pdf. (accessed 29/09/2010)

Donald Mitchell (2008). A note on Rising Food Crisis [Online]. The World Bank. Available from: http://www.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/2008/07/28/000020439_20080728103002/Rendered/PDF/WP4682.pdf.  (accessed 29/09/2009)


 

Rosemary Clinton is the Author of this paper. She is a senior academic writer and an editor and she offers custom research papers. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and lack of confidence by visiting ResearchPapers247.org

Balance Sheet

Balance Sheet


 

QUESTION E 4-2

           

Income statement

                 

Balance sheet

   
   

Dr

Cr

   

Dr

Cr

service revenue

 

15,590

long term assets

   

accounts payable

5672

 

equipment

23,050

 

salaries expense

10840

 

short term assets

   

rent expense

760

 

accounts receivables

7,840

 

depreciation expense

641

 

prepaid rent

2,280

 

interest expense

57

 

total assets

33,170

 

net loss

   

-2400

liabilities and equity

 

totals

 

17970

17970

notes payable

 

5,700

       

accounts payable

 

5,672

       

interest payable

 

57

       

total liabilities

 

11,429

       

net worth

   
       

common stock

 

25,000

       

retained earnings

 

5,960

       

net loss

   

-2400

       

total net worth

 

28,560

       

total liabilities & net worth

33,170

               

QUESTION E 4-3

           
               

income statement

           

revenue

     

15,590

     

cost of goods sold

           

stock (accounts payable)

5692

       

cost of goods available for sale

 

-5692

     

gross profit

   

9898

     

expenses

           

salaries expense

 

10840

       

rent expense

 

760

       

depreciation expense

 

641

       

interest expense

 

57

       

total expenses

   

-12298

     

net loss

     

2400

     
               

retained earnings statement

         

for the year ending April 30th 2008

       

retained earnings balance as at April 30th 2008

5960

   

net loss for the year

     

-2400

   

dividends paid to shareholders

   

3650

   

retained earnings balance as at April; 30th 2008

7210

   
               

classified balance sheet

         

assets

             

equipment

23,050

         

accounts receivables

7,840

         

prepaid rent

2,280

         

total assets

33,170

         

liabilities and equity

         

notes payable

5,700

         

accounts payable

5,672

         

interest payable

57

         

total liabilities

11,429

         

net worth

           

common stock

25,000

         

retained earnings

5,960

         

net loss

 

-2400

         

total net worth

28,560

         

total liabilities & net worth

33,170

         

LANGUAGE AND COGNITION

 


Introduction

Many linguists as well as authors have over time noted that studying language is diabolically difficult. In a traditional perspective, language is essential for the communication as well as construction of meaning and hence to cognitive scientists as well as linguists, language remains to be largely taken as the mind’s window. In this text, I define language and lexicon as well as the various features of language. I also explain the four levels of language structure and processing and lastly expound on the role of language processing in cognitive psychology.


 Language and lexicon: a definition

According to Boeckx (2009) language as a term does not have an assigned meaning. As such, its meaning largely rests with the context and application. However, language has gained recognition as a transmission of an individual’s feelings as well as thoughts through a combination of signals that can be regarded as arbitrary. These signals include but are not limited to symbols which are written, gestures or even vocal sounds. It is good to note that for such a system or combination of signals to work, there must be well established rules for components combination. It cannot also be lost that such a combination of signals must be used by a given society, individuals or grouping.


 Jarvis et al.  (2008) defines that when it comes to linguistics, a language’s lexicon is made up of its vocabulary as well as its expressions and words. Lexicon in one way or the other acts as a link joining knowledge depicted in a language and the language itself. In every language, there exists a distinct vocabulary. However, for every language, there is a provision of grammatical processes for purposes of giving its combination of words meaning. It is important to note that for each language, the lexicon is an essential support for all its probable uses.


 Features of language

According to Boeck (2009), over time linguists have come up with several distinct features of language which in one way or the other can be taken to be occurring in a variety of languages. Below, I discuss some of the common features of language.


 Displacement

This language feature denotes the ability to use language to talk of not only the current happening or the current situation but also a wide range of other happenings in the past, present as well as future. All this happenings can be real, imagined or otherwise. For example, while engaged in a game of chess, one can talk about not only the game but other things related or unrelated to the game.


 Arbitrariness

According to this feature of language, there is nothing that connects a sound or word with its actual meaning or in a real world situation. What this essentially means is that by just looking at a word, one cannot come up with its meaning. For example, there is nothing to tell an individual that the word ‘handball’ in English has the same meaning as ‘handyspiele’ in German. Hence for one to derive meaning from words that can be considered to be arbitrary, knowledge of the language in question is essential. However, there exist some exceptions to this feature as according to Jarvis et al.  (2008) there are some exceptions to the same as there are some symbols that are iconic and whose meaning can be understood without the prerequisite knowledge of the language in question.


 Cultural transmission

According to this feature of language, the fact that we are all brought fourth into this world with the same vocal tracts does not dictate which language we are going to speak. What this essentially means is that if a child is born in America and taken to china as a toddler, he or she will speak Chinese but it will still sound American.


 Learnability

This feature of language means that despite being born and acquiring the mother tongue, we can basically learn any other language or even a wide variety of languages. Basically, unlike animals, human beings have no genetic limitation as to which language they can use.


 The four levels of language structure and processing

According to Boeckx (2009) language structure as well as processing can be taken to have four levels namely pragmatics, syntax, meaning and lastly sound. Below is a brief description of the four.


 Syntax is mainly concerned with bringing out the meaning of the structure of sentences that are considered acceptable grammatically. According to linguists, native speakers of a given language though unaware of it have well defined knowledge as well as competence of the structure as well as processing of a given language. To aid this, there are well developed phrase strictures as well as a variety rules regarding phrase strictures which work hand in hand with rules of lexical insertion to bring out a coherent sentence structure.


 With regard to meaning, a given language must pass on the required meaning. An entire sentence must be constructed in a way that passes on the intended meaning. That is to say that the structure of the sentence must be relevant to demonstrate meaning. The words in the sentence must in one way or the other be interrelated at the sentence level.


 When it comes to sound, there are two areas to look into i.e. production and perception. In this regard, sounds should be combined in sequences that are not only seen to be permissible but also are indeed permissible. Phonological rules come in handy in the spoken output segmentation.


 Pragmatics are concerned with the various rules of social language. Pragmatic rules help in or enhance giving of organized stories, procession of a wide variety of language use as well as the utterances of things which can be taken to be related in one way or the other. In another way, programmatic can be taken to be a way where meaning is informed by the context.


 Role of language processing in cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology investigates the human cognition. Cognition can be taken to be a grouping of all the mental abilities of an individual. This may include understanding, reasoning, thinking, remembering, learning as well as perceiving. Boeckx (2009) argues that cognitive psychology is basically concerned with the way we acquire as well as utilize information and/or knowledge.


 Language processing is the basis on which cognitive psychology is anchored. This is because without the ability of an individual to process language, he or she cannot utilize the information gained if it will be acquired at all. Hence it can be said that language processing aids cognitive psychology.


 Conclusion

It is important to note that while cognition can be said to be concerned mainly with the generation of meaning, language is concerned mainly with the determination of the generated meaning. Hence both language and cognition can be said to be related in more that one way.


 References

Boeckx, C. (2009). Language in Cognition: Uncovering Mental Structures and the Rules behind Them. John Wiley and Sons

Jarvis, S., & Pavlenco, A. (2008). Cross-linguistic influence in language and cognition. Routledge


 

Rosemary Clinton is the Author of this paper. She is a senior academic writer and an editor and she offers custom research papers. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and lack of confidence by visiting ResearchPapers247.org

Extinction Rates of Species

 


Biological scientists define extinction as the end of a group oftaxa due to the death of the last individual of that particular species or organism.

Extinction has largely been witnessed in variety of species and this can attributed to both environmental factors and human factors. Scientists say that the largest threat in the extinction of species is contributed by man’s destruction of the habitat whereby the home of a species or the ecosystem is destroyed and this has been witnessed mainly in the waters when we put chemicals inside. It has been seen that 17 out of every 22 crocodiles become extinct due to this type of habitat destruction. (Grinning Planet 2004)


 Excessive hunting has also triggered most recent extinction rates of animals such as the rhinoceros which are being hunted for the horns, others include lions and tigers. We have also seen that due to the destruction of the environment by man has caused climate change and global warming contributing to extinction of species as suggested by botany specialist Peter Raven who says that 25% of different plant species in the world become extinct due to pollution and climate change (Grinning Planet 2004). Other causes are predating, natural selection/competition and disease.


 These areas should be of major concern to us in order to look for the control and conservative measures of co-extinction where we witness extinction of parasites due to extinction of hosts or issue of predators and preys. We should also take into our concern on the processes of speciation i.e. arising of new varieties of organisms through evolution and also the Lazarus taxa where species assumed extinct reappears abruptly. (Wikimedia Foundation Inc 2010).


 References

Grinning Planet. (2004). Endangered species/species extinction – Causes, statistics and trends.

Wikimedia Foundation Inc – Wikipedia (September 2010). Extinction


 

Rosemary Clinton is the Author of this paper. She is a senior academic writer and an editor and she offers custom research papers. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and lack of confidence by visiting ResearchPapers247.org

Personal Mythology

 


Myths refer to traditional stories encompassing a belief regarding some facts or phenomena, shared by a community or group of people and are part of that community’s cultural identity (Wikipedia, 2010). Myths are usually concerned with some being or event without determinable basis of facts or natural explanation. Different cultures use different myths for purposes such as attempting to explain the world they live in and natural phenomena, to express admiration of character, satisfy need for role models and to try and understand life and death mystery.


There are cultures that are more associated with myths such as the ancient Greeks and Egyptians. Myths are more pronounced in the Greek culture where there are numerous stories on Greek gods, goddesses, deities and heroes. Traditional narratives such as the twelve labors of Hercules, Archile, the Trojan War, Perseus, the Terror of Medusa and the Three Hundred men of Sparta are common stories in the Greek society (About.com, 2010). These myths have been well documented in books and films and are widely appreciated by the Greeks even today. Perhaps another culture that comes close to the Greeks in terms of myth connection is the Egyptian culture.


There are many traditional myths that prevailed in the ancient Egyptian culture such as the story of Re, Isis and Irisis, the seven years of famine and Egyptian view of the Trojan War. Popular myths that I am well familiar with are the myths on creation. Different cultures have their own creation stories. The most common American creation stories are the big bang myth, primal chaos myth and the Bible creation story (Myths Encyclopedia Forum, 2010). There are modern day myths such as the popular dooms day 2012. Myths have not had much impact on my personal and professional life as they are not emphasized in my society.  


         References

About.com (2010), Ancient Classical History, Retrieved on September 29, 2010, from Http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/heroes

Myths Encyclopedia Forum (2010), Myths and Legends of the World, retrieved on September 29, 2010, from Http://www.mythencyclopedia.com

Wikipedia (2010), Mythology, retrieved on September 29, 2010, from Http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/mythology


 

James Robinson is the Author and the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive top essay writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

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