American History

American History


Phase 3- Task 1

Summary of events that lead to the dropping of the bomb

In the final stages of the world war 11, the United States dropped atomic bombs in Japan’s cities Nagasaki and Hiroshima. This was the year 1945. The decision was arrived when Japanese government refused the ultimatum given by the Postdam Declaration of President Harry. S Truman (Rezelman, Gosling, and Fehner, 2000). The president ordered the nuclear weapon to be dropped on the city of Hiroshima on August 6th 1945 commonly known as the “little boy”. A second bomb attack three days later on Nagasaki. The two attacks in history warfare with nuclear weapons had acute effects. It killed 60,000 to 80,000 people in Nagasaki and 90,000-166,000 people in Hiroshima. Japan surrendered to the allied powers six days after this devastating attack.


 During the World war 11, The Japanese had a program to develop nuclear weapons to protect them against perceived threat especially from the US. Just like the German nuclear weapon it suffered from problems associated with the inability to head off the Manhattan project development. The Manhattan project development was a codename for atomic bomb development during the Second World War (1942-1946). It was a project headed by the US with full participation from Canada and the United Kingdom.President Truman’s decision to attack Japan came after considering several factors. This was no doubt a difficult decision to arrive at. The United States had suffered much causality during the war, yet Japan showed no interest to negotiate. Prisoners of war who were US citizens continued to be mistreated and molested till death. 200,000 of them were being murdered every month in Asia. The general government believed that bombing Japan was the only way for them to surrender.


 Truman feelings towards Stalin’s true intention

When Truman became America’s president in April 1945, he was prepared to support the Grand Alliance. He had sympathetic feelings towards Stalin (Leffer, 1996. p 134-35). Soon, there differences arose due to the murdering and raping rampage of Red Amy towards the American s in the Eastern Europe. Stalin had the intention to communize Poland juts like other acquired territories. This sphere of influence was resent by President Truman and other US leaders. This predictable move alarmed Washington Leaders including the president.  This lead to Truman proclaiming in his March 12th  1947 speech  that the Unite States foreign policy would henceforth support free people to resist outside pressure or attempted subjugation by armed minorities.  This was in reference to Greece and Turkey which were under threat of Stalin’s dominance. Truman situated aid to Turkey and Greece to help them have alternative ways of life (Powaski, 1998p 72)


 Phase 3 –Task 2

Brown vs. the Board of Education of Topeka

This court case marked a landmark in the United States education system by declaring a law on public schools to be for both white and black students.  This decision was arrived at because of earlier court ruling of Plessy v. Ferguson (1898).  It was unanimously agreed that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal therefore the de jure racial segregation was seen as  a violation of  the Equal  Protection Clause of the 14th amendment  in  the US constitution.


 The Topeka, Kansas school system

The Topokea, Kansas school system was for the black American students. The board of directors filled a suit that called for the school district to change its policy of racial segregation.  The Topokea Kansas School operated under the 1897 Kansas law that called for districts to maintain separated learning facility for elementary schools for white and black students.  


 Plessy v. Ferguson

This case was a landmark in The US supreme court that came up with the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’. This remained a standard doctrine until the 1954 Brown v board of education decision by the Supreme Court.  Plessy v Ferguson was a suit that had arranged for Homer Plessey’s arrest. This arrest was to challenge Louisiana’s law of segregation.  


 Oliver Brown and NAACP

Oliver Brown was an African American parent and a welder of Santa Fe Railroad shops.  He was also an assistant pastor at a local church. He had a daughter called Linda at Monroe Elementary a segregated school. As a direction from NAACP, all parents were required to enroll their children in schools at the closets neighbored for the whites in 1951. The parents including Mr. Brown were denied this and directed to black American schools (Cj Online, 2010)


 Thurgood Marshall,

Thurgood Marshall was the first African American jurist to serve at the Supreme court of the United states. He is best remembered for his successful arguments that lead to the victory of Brown v Board of education. Other justices in the Supreme Court were Burton, Black, Douglas and Minton. They had the aim of overturning Plessey


 Orval Faubus

Orval Faubus was the Arkansas governor in 1957. This case leads him to call his state as a ‘National Guard to block black student’s entry to little Rock high school’. 


 The Florida legislature

 In 1957, the response from Florida towards the case was mixed.  It passed a legislature of interposition resolution that branded the decision null and void.  Florida governor LeRoy Collins refused to sign the document although he had joined the protest against the court decision.  


 George Wallace

He was the Alabama Governor in 1963. He personally blocked the door to Foster Auditorium of the Alabama University to prevent black students from enrolling (Veterans of civil rights movement, 2008)

The case decision on Brown, v. board was an effective courts case that helped to begin a process of equal education and integration.


  Reference

 Powaski, R (1998) The cold War:  The United States and the Soviet Union. 1917- 1991,

         oxford University press, New York, p 72

Leffler, M (1996) Inside Enemy Archives: The Cold War Reopened, Foreign n affairs,

                p 134-35

Rezelman, D, Gosling, F and Fehner, T(2000) the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, the

            Manhattan project: an interactive history. Retrieved from

             http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/index.htm

             On April 29, 2010

Cj online (2010), in-depth Brown v board case. Retrieved from

            http://cjonline.com/indepth/brown/historic-spots-map.shtml

            on April 29, 2010

Veterans of civil right s movement, (2008) 1963(January –June). Retrieved from

              http://www.crmvet.org/

              on April 29, 2010

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