A syllogism is an inference or a conclusion or a logical appeal. A syllogism is a type of logical argument which two premises is inferred from one proposition. Aristotle defined syllogism as a communication form with that source certain things which are different from the intended results because the things are supposed to be like that. Deductive reasoning, according to Aristotle’s later definition is that Syllogism’s core tradition. This is the combination of various statements with facts determined by observations this is unlike inductive reasoning. A valid argument is that which its premises are true and its conclusion is also true according to the premises. Valid syllogism is in the form of AAA-1 while the invalid are in the form of OEE-3. In the examples below:
1. All zebras are striped animals.
No zebras are polar bears.
Therefore, no polar bears are striped animals.
Answer: This is a valid syllogism because the conclusion is true in relation to the two premises
2. All clowns are funny individuals.
Some sad people are clowns.
Therefore, some sad people are funny individuals.
Answer: This is an invalid syllogism because the conclusion is false. It does not agree with the first two premises.
3. Some sticky substances are yucky things.
All taffy is a sticky substance.
Therefore, some taffy is a yucky thing.
Answer: This is an invalid syllogism because the conclusion does not indicate that all taffy is a yucky thing but some. This is a false conclusion.
4. All items made of gold are expensive items.
Some rings are items made of gold.
Therefore, some rings are expensive items.
Answer: This is a valid syllogism because the conclusion is a true statement that agrees with the premises.
5. All flies are winged creatures.
All butterflies are winged creatures.
Therefore, all butterflies are flies.
Answer: This is also a valid syllogism because the conclusion is true and it agrees with the premises.
6. All fragile things are breakable things.
Some glasses are fragile things.
Answer: Therefore, some glasses are breakable things.
7. All mammals are warm-blooded animals.
All whales are mammals.
Answer: Therefore, all whales are warm blooded animals.
8. All books are things with pages.
Some books are mysteries.
Answer: Therefore, not all books are mysteries.
9. All flowers are pretty objects.
All pansies are flowers.
Answer: Therefore, all pansies are pretty objects.
10. No animals are plants.
All sheep are animals.
Answer: Therefore all sheep are not plants.
Hypothetical Syllogisms—Conditional Arguments
1. Madeline must have known the material for the test, because if a person knows the material that person will get an A, and Madeline was one of the students that got an A. Answer: Therefore, Madeline had known the material for the test.
2. Anastasia believes that if she treats people honestly and with an open mind, she will have diverse friendships. She is honest and open-minded and has friends all over the world. Answer: Therefore, Anastasia is an open minded person and honest to people.
3. Roberto thought that if he worked very hard, his boss would give him a raise or a promotion. He made sure she noticed him, but she did not give him a raise or promotion. He thought he must not have worked hard enough. Answer: So Roberto was not noticed by the boss.
4. "I'm still eating too much ice cream," lamented George. "My waist measurement is the same as it was six months ago. I know if I didn't eat so much ice cream, I would reduce my waist size." Answer: Georges’ eating of ice-cream did not affect his waist size at all.
5. The best way to make sure we pay fewer taxes is to elect conservatives. We must not have elected enough conservatives, because we are paying more taxes. Answer: Electing conservatives means paying less tax.
6. If my neighbor were a decent human being, he wouldn't let his yard trash fall onto my property. But he's not a decent human being, so we get to clean his trash as well as ours. Answer: My neighbor is therefore not decent person.
7. We'll have fun and learn a lot in this course, if we have great facilitator. We do have a great facilitator; therefore we are learning a lot and having fun doing it! Answer: Learning the course is fun because we have a great facilitator.
8. If I could understand the concept of hypothetical syllogisms, I would get a passing grade. Hurray! I got a passing grade, so I must have understood the concept of hypothetical syllogisms. Answer: Understanding the concepts of syllogisms has made me to get a passing grade.
PART II: LOGIC & EMOTION
1. The 4 fundamental laws of logic
The four fundamental laws of logic are:
a.) Non contradiction; this means that that conclusion of a logical argument should be true according to the premises. Therefore, a proposition or assertion should be both true and both of them should be false.
b.) Excluded middle is the second primary law of logic. This means that B cannot be or equal to a Non B according to the law of non contradiction
c.) Law of identity is the third primary law of logic. This is that B =B and if any statement supports this, then that statement is true.
Rational inference or law of logic is the fourth primarily law. Just like the others it is essential and vital to all intelligible and coherent arguments or discussion
2. The difference between inductive and deductive logic
Deduction logic aims at providing absolute evidence to the conclusion. This begins by first analyzing the premises which are true then other premises which are assumed to be true are determined. The premises however, are UN provable and should be accepted to be true by faith for exploration purposes.
Inductive logic is the premises which some data are first began with then the general conclusion is determined. The premises are derived logically from the data available. Induction is a theory that offers the explanation of data in a logical way.
3. Role emotion plays in critical thinking process
In critical thinking process, emotions play a role and it is ever present. This is because in logic, emotions are an intrinsic part. Emotion fuels the gathering of thoughts and is the force behind these thoughts. Fear, hate, joy and love are some of the emotions that cover some isolated thoughts.
4. The difference between persuasion and manipulation
Manipulation is different from persuasion. In manipulation, there is only one person who benefits. Persuasion is a social influence by which an individual embraces a view point or an action through reasoning, entreaty and argument. Two people have the opportunity to agree on a view point where both of them will mutually benefit.