Summary of the Article
According to Lawrence M. Hinman, postmenopausal pregnancies should not be banned. This means that what matters is not the age of prospective parents but the answer as to whether the parents can meet the child’s needs. Hence, banning postmenopausal pregnancies will deny a chance of parenthood to individuals who are able to meet all the parental responsibilities. It is therefore important for perspective parents to ask themselves whether they are capable and ready to take care of all the needs of the child. It is illogical to prohibit fertility clinics from helping menopausal women to have children.
Arceli Keh is a good example of a parent who was helped to have a child at a postmenopausal age. She thinks that what matters is the fact that both parents love their child and given him the care needed (Espejo, 2003).
It is also important to note that postmenopausal pregnancies are associated with ethical and moral issues. Some think that postmenopausal parenting is a selfish act and parents are seen as putting their desires and needs first without considering the well-being of the children that will be produced. This is further seen as a reflection of how the society quest for unending or eternal youth. The other issue is that an extra child means extra network responsibilities with the child at the centre of the network. Some of the key responsibilities include feeding, clothing and providing shelter for the child. Educing the child is also necessary (Espejo, 2003).
It is therefore challenging to decide whether Keh and her 60 year old husband did the right thing by bringing their baby-girl to this world. However, the answer still lies of whether the parents and their associated extended parents have the ability to meet all the responsibilities such as protection, nourishment, love and even education. Seeing this issue from the perspective of ability to take responsibilities, one can comfortably say that it is not worthy to ban menopausal pregnancies.
It is therefore clear that what counts is whether the prospective parents have the potential to nurture and meet the child’s needs. A case of parents who are at a risk for recurring incidents of cancer is questionable. These parents may not live for long and provide quality life to their child. Hence, in this case parents may be denied the chance to bring a child into this world. The question as to whether the child’s needs would be met should be asked by both male and female prospective parents (Espejo, 2003).
Some people may think that older people are unfit to be parents. Well, there is no literature that proves this point. It is in fact evident that since older parents tend to bring emotional stability and economic tranquility, they can make better parents compared to young people. Hence, such advantages in addition to a blissful enthusiasm that comes along with parenthood may outweigh the demerits associated with anxiety about stamina and health among old parents.
The entire society needs to be enlightened on the fact that bringing a child into the world creates binding responsibilities to educate, love, nurture and protect the child. If prospective parents have the capability to meet and take care of the child, there is no need to deny them a chance to bring a baby to this world. Hence, there is no need to ban health care services that aid in menopausal pregnancies.
Espejo, R. Biomedical ethics (3rd Ed). Greenhaven Press, 2003.
Research and documentation has proved that there is a persistent relationship between education and health in many countries. There is a clear association between education and health irrespective of labor market, income and family background indicators. It is important to note that the relationship that exists between these two concepts is complicated since there are several mechanisms dictating the connection between health and education.
There are several deferring reasons on why education might be related to health status for instance, economic explanations whereby education has been related to occupational choice and income. This paper will give a detailed comparison between education and health Status in U.S and South Korea in addition to other developed and developing countries. Education in U.S is universally available and mainly provided by the Public sector. Education in Korea on the other hand is due to American influence after World War II.
Overview of Education in the U.S
Education in the United States is chiefly provided by the public sector. Education funds come from the state, local and federal. The other feature associated with U.S education is the fact that child education is compulsory. Hence, there is a universal availability of education nationally. The standards of education and decisions regarding standardized testing are made by the state. Ages for compulsory education range from five to eighteen years. In both the public and private schools, there are three education levels which are elementary school, middle school and high school. Governance of college education in the United States is separate from the high school and elementary school system (Schoeni, 2010).
The State of Education in the United States
According to the findings of UNICEF in 2002 on the education status of twenty four countries, the United States was ranked at the eighteenth position. Science has been the main subject that has made the U.S to have more economical stability compared to other countries. U.S education status went down due to the ‘No Child Left behind’ Law that requires testing of all students on math and reading. This law made many schools to drop science courses in order to concentrate more on reading and math. Hence, American students are quite behind their International counterparts due to neglect of science subjects (Muney and National Bureau of Economic Research, 2009).
There have been claims that America’s leaders give less attention and focus to the educational sector for instance, the science advisor to the president fails to attend cabinet meetings, and there was also banning of the Office of Technology Assessment in 1995. The main reason however for the declining education status is the depreciating values of today’s youth whereby they give more attention to achieving a celebrity status. It is therefore advisable for political leaders to stand up and get more involved in improving the country’s education status (Schoeni, 2010).
Health Status in the United States
The State of health in the united State is associated with disparities and public health agencies are working hard to eliminate these disparities and improve the quality of health care provided in the country. The key indicators of health status are infant mortality and morbidity rates. Infant mortality is a true reflection of both maternal health and accessibility to primary health care by pregnant women. At the start of the 20th century, the US population experiences poor hygiene, poor living standards and poor nutrition. Infant mortality rates were high due to acute conditions and communicable diseases (Schoeni, 2010).
It is worth noting that over the course of the century, health status has greatly improved due to public measure initiatives such as drinking water treatment and improved sanitation. Aging population is however threatened by chronic diseases such as cancer which has been a major cause of death in the old-aged. Education is also a major contributor and determinant of health status in U.S The healthy status of the United States is Moderate, despite the fact that the country spends more money on health care than any other field. There will be a detailed examination of the relationship between education and health status in the United States (Schoeni, 2010).
Relationship between Education and Health Status in the United States
Research studies have shown that there is a huge and positive relationship between education and health status. It is however difficult to determine whether this relationship is causal or not. Synthetic cohorts by use of successive U.S censuses are used to estimate the impact that education has on health status and mortality rates. Compulsory education laws in the U.S can also be used to determine a causal estimate of the impact of education on health status (Schoeni, 2010).
There is a little connection between access to health care insurance, income and expenditure on the health status. It is however evident that there is a great correlation between education and health status. This relationship is extremely strong irrespective of controlling other measures such as race, income and socio-economic status. Health status in US can be measured using different aspects such as self-reported health status and morbidity rates. Hence, education has a large causal effect on the United State’s health status and in particular the mortality rates (Muney and National Bureau of Economic Research, 2009).
Education has been thought to improve health status in United States. Inequalities in health care are caused by poor allocation of funds and finances. The level of health among the richest group is much higher than the level of heath among the poor groups of people. This difference in the level of health is caused by differential level of educational and income. The moderate health status of the United States is contributed by the low level health status of the poorest groups in the United States. There is a large gap between the rich and the poor which presents large disparity is the health status between the two groups (Schoeni, 2010).
Lower class people have low level of education and hence they end up getting jobs that are more stressful. Individuals in lower economic classes are subjected to extremely high cases of stress in both emotional and physical terms. These people have to work harder physically in order to earn money for instance they have to perform physically strenuous jobs and hard labor. It is also evident that these poor individuals have to endure emotional stress since they often worry more about meeting their financial needs. The jobs in this lower rank are also stressful due to the fact that they entail tedious duties with less governance over a worker’s performance. Job stress has a direct relationship with lower heath status level (Muney, 2009).
Therefore, low education level is an indication of lower class jobs and hence increase in stress levels. High stress levels of the other hand indicate low health status. It is therefore evident that, a low degree of education depreciates the health status of individuals In United States. The United States government spends more of its money in the health care sector instead of focusing on other sectors such as the education sector. When more resources are spent on health care instead of education, individuals become even poorer due to lack of adequate knowledge that can help them land high income-earning jobs. Low-income and poor health status is directly related. The less efforts by the government to improve the education sector leads to poor generation that gets stuck in a vicious cycle (Schoeni, 2010).
Education has been shown by prior research to have a positive impact on the health status. The more educated an individual is, the longer that individual lives. High education reduces mortality rates among individuals. This is due to the fact that better and more education improves both income and health status (Muney, 2009).
The United States is known to spend most of its funds on health care. It is also evident that the country is not allocating its funds in a way that ensures there are equal opportunities to enable a satisfactory health status among each and every economic or social group among citizens. The best option or solution to unequal allocation of funds in health care is to improve the level of education in the country. The level of education should particularly be improved among the poorest classes of citizens.
This means that in the United States, the health Status of Citizens is low, and this health status can only be improved by the government allocating more funds to the education sector. Allocation of funds to the education sector will imply universal attainment of quality education among all citizens even those at the lower social class level. This will subsequently lead to getting high-income generating jobs that are less strenuous, and hence improvement of health status. It is therefore clear that high education level is an indication of improved health status in the United States (Muney, 2009).
Although education is compulsory for all children aged within five to eighteen years, there is need to improve the quality of education provided. The ‘No Child Left behind law’ puts more emphasis on math and testing while neglecting the science subjects. Science is among the major fields that can help in development and in improving the economic status of the United States. Low quality education leads attainment of low quality and strenuous jobs that depreciate the country’s health status. By focusing more on quality education, it is possible to improve health status in the United States (Schoeni, 2010).
Compulsory schooling and child labor laws in the United States have a direct effect on education and mortality rates. Compulsory attendance law was incepted in 1852 and it gives a minimum and maximum age at which school attendance is required for all children in The United States. Child labor laws on the other hand regulate employment of minors in the United States.
Within the periods of 1915-1930, compulsory education and child labor laws had a huge impact on individual education attainment. So many individuals attained elementary and secondary education, and there was a marked decrease in mortality rates. A decrease in mortality rate is an indication of improved health status. Hence, this shows that there was a direct dependence or relationship between the education level and health status in the United States during that period (Schoeni, 2010).
It is therefore clear that there is a high decrease in mortality rate following an increase in compulsory schooling. Compulsory laws affect both education and adult mortality rates. This however may be affected by other determinants and factors such as childhood education attainment. In this case, a person’s health during childhood may reflect his or her health during adulthood. It may also affect the level of education attainment (Schoeni, 2010).
The other point that is worth noting is the fact that improved health status, may imply increased investments in education. Therefore, low mortality rate would mean an increase the chances of investing more in the educational sector. The United States invests more funds and resources to the healthcare sector instead of allocating funds to the education sector. Therefore, by increasing the level of education among its citizens, there will be improved health status and hence citizens will have the ability to live longer and invest more in the educational sector (Muney, 2009).
According to a survey done by the National Adult Literacy organization, about a quarter of the American adult populations have limited literacy skills. Research has also shown that poor literacy skills imply poor health status among individuals, limited knowledge on health information and higher hospitalization rates. It is also evident that individuals who have low literacy skills generate more charges for health care services than individuals with high literacy skills. These findings show that in the United States, the health status is determined by the level of literacy skills possessed. Citizens with poor literacy skills have low health status, and are more likely to be hospitalized hence spend more money on healthcare (Schoeni, 2010).
Allocation of more funds by the United States government in the healthcare sector means that citizens spend more money in receiving healthcare services. Research has shown that high rate of hospitalization is due to limited literacy skills. This means that the low quality of education in the United States means citizens have limited literacy skills and limited knowledge on health care measures. Due to limited knowledge, there is more likelihood of developing different health complication and spending more money on health care services (OECD- Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2010).
Overview of Education in Korea
The basis of Korea’s modern education system is the founding of national institutes and private schools by patriots and foreign missionaries. Schooling at this time was no longer reserved for the upper class elite but was available for majority of Korean population. All the schools were encouraged to teach practical subjects in order to grow the future of Korean leaders (Mun’gyobu, 2009).
The Korean education system entails a six-year elementary school education, three-year junior school education, and four-year college education. Korea got some education assistance from American education after the Second World War. In contrast to United States, in 1960s, junior high school education in Korea was not compulsory. Koreans have traditionally attached so much importance in education which has proved to be extremely competitive (Mun’gyobu, 2009).
The key role of education in Korea is to prepare young men for the public service. The central Korean government has done much effort to ensure that local residents are given quality education. It has done this by dispatching scholars to provincial areas. The main goal of elementary schooling in Korea is to teach the fundamentals that can help young Korean children to be live a future productive life. It is therefore evident that Koreans regard education more highly compared to Americans (Mun’gyobu, 2009).
Health Status of Korea
The morbidity rate of Koreans is low and research shows that the rate is likely to decline gradually for the next years. Health status in Korea is determined by several determinants such as environmental conditions, income, nutrition and not forgetting education. The economic development and high rate of industrialization in Korea since the 1960s has led to an observable increase in health status. Infant mortality rates have also been greatly reduced over the mentioned period of time (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007).
The economic capability is the key determinant of the health status and health-related problems among the Koreans. Research studies have shown that the health status of the aged Koreans is dependant on an individual’s wealth and not income. The wealthiest groups of individuals was healthier compared to the poorest group of individuals. Moreover, higher income was also related to a better health status among the elderly people (Mun’gyobu, 2009).
Mortality and morbidity rates in Korea have gradually changed from communicable diseases to lifestyle and chronic related diseases. This means that the health status has gradually increased over the years. The education system in Korea has also greatly improved and this is the major cause of increase health status. The number of doctors in Korea plays a major role in reducing adult mortality rates. The other factors that have lead to a decline in mortality rate are lifestyle factors, healthcare expenditure and public health initiatives (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007).
Relationship between Education and Healthcare Status in Korea
There are complex mechanisms by which education influences health status among the Koreans. These mechanisms may include poor health in childhood, interrelationship between demographic and family background indicators, greater resources due to higher levels of education and also an individual’s social networks (Mun’gyobu, 2009).
There has been a marked increase in education in Korea. Many Koreans are educated and knowledgeable which means that they have high literacy skills. There is a positive relationship between education and health status in Korea. This statement is supported by the fact that an increase in education level has been accompanied by improved health status in Korea. There has been a decrease in adult mortality rate which means that less people are dying due to improved health status. More people are knowledgeable and have knowledge on healthy living tips and lifestyles. Healthy living means an improved health status (Mirowsky and Ross, 2006).
There other determinant that has lead to increased heath status in Korea is increase in capita income. Increase in capita income means that an individual has a well-paying job. In order to obtain a well-paying job, one has to attain a high educational level. Korea has experienced an increase in the number of doctors which means that majority of Korean citizens have high standards of education, and hence can qualify for doctorate careers. It is therefore clear that improved education level is directly linked to increase in per capita income, which means increased health status in Korea (Mirowsky, 2006).
In contrast to the U.S government, the Korean government has invested limited resources and funds to the healthcare sector, medical facilities and services. This means that the government has invested more resources in education sector compared to the healthcare sector. The result of this investment is increased health care status among the Koreans and spending less money in receiving healthcare services (Mun’gyobu, 2009).
However, it is important to note that Korea is a developing country and hence there are some sectors that are still under development for instance the healthcare sector. The government is pending so much in technological advancement in order to increase health care equipment and facilities.
It is beneficial that the government lays emphasis on better education and trains its citizens on the essence of education and becoming industrious individuals in the society and the country in general. With the emphasis on education, there is hope that more citizens will have literacy skills and invest in other regional sectors. Moreover, with better education, knowledge of health-related information will ensure there is a remarkably improved health status (Mun’gyobu, 2009).
Literacy and Health Status in Developing Countries
Education influences economic, social and physiological behaviors of many people especially in developing and recently developed countries. Research studies have shown that there is a relationship between education and socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status also has a link to development of chronic diseases such as obesity. Obesity on the other hand is correlated to the level of education (Paccaud, Burnier and Wietlisbach, 2009).
There is an increase in rate of obesity in developing countries and these rates vary according to the levels of education in addition to ethnic background. An example of a developing country that has a high obesity prevalence rate is Nigeria. Obesity is associated with people of highs social class in developing countries. This link between obesity and individuals of high social class in experienced only among women in developed countries (Paccaud, 2009).
Research done to show relationship between education and health status of the Ibo group of Nigeria indicated that males and females with limited literacy skills and education showed high mean blood pressure values. High blood pressure may be as a result of stress. Citizens with low education levels have low per capita income and often end up getting tedious and strenuous jobs. Moreover, these individuals worry a lot and are often stressed as they think of ways to meet financial needs. Stress and too much worry is what lead to these individuals developing high blood pressure (Ralph and James, 2007).
Research results also showed that individuals who were at a higher risk of getting obesity and cardiovascular diseases were those who had limited education. Hence, primary school group showed a higher risk of obesity and cardiovascular occurrence compared to tertiary education group.
It was also evident that woman of primary education level were more likely to get cardiovascular diseases and obesity. The major reason is due to the fact that these women were more involved in doing tedious work and were more stressed compared to their male counterparts. Moreover, the women had low educational level and hence less knowledgeable on ways of better health care living and ways through which they could improve their health standards and status (Ralph, 2007).
Education is a major contributor and determinant of health status in developing and poor countries. There is an inverse relationship between education and blood pressure and obesity. Therefore, increasing the level of education would be expected to reduce obesity prevalence rates in developing countries such as Nigeria. Citizens with high level of education and schooling are less likely to drink a lot of alcohol and smoke a lot. Hence, the chances of these individuals becoming obese or using illegal drugs are low. Conclusions of research showed that years of formal schooling were directly related to health status (Rotimi, and Ataman, 2005).
The other explanation of the results obtained is that individuals with a high education level have more information on health are likely to make better use of these health-related information. Individuals with limited education on the other hand have less health-related information and hence low health status. The lack of education on energy foods and health foods has also contributed a lot to the effects of social class on obesity. Less educated people do not have knowledge on the kinds of food required for prevention of obesity and other chronic diseases (Rotimi, 2005).
The other point that is worth noting is that there is a high adult mortality rate among the less educated people in developing countries. This is due to the fact that these people lack on knowledge on ways through which they can achieve healthy living standards. Such people have a low per capita income and hence lack money for better healthcare services. Lack of better health care services is among the major contributors of high adult mortality rate. Highly educated people have a much higher income and high access to better healthcare services, and hence low mortality rate (Rotimi, 2005).
Individuals with a high education level live longer after diagnosis with chronic diseases such as obesity. This is due to the fact that they have accessibility to better treatment and receive more treatment hence increasing the cost of treatment. On the other hand if individuals with low education status and low socioeconomic status desire to live long and attain a general health condition, there would be need to spend more money due to increased intensity of treatment, complications and increased rate of re-hospitalization (Ralph, 2007).
Highly educated people in developing countries have the knowledge and ability to develop healthy lifestyles and awareness of health risks accompanies by obesity. Uneducated people on the other hand have little knowledge on obesity and its risks. It is therefore clear that improving education is the only way through which developing countries can combat the increasing prevalence rate of obesity-related diseases and high blood pressure (Paccaud, 2009).
It is therefore clear that the education level of an individual has a direct correlation with the health status of that individual. The same case applies to a country in that a country with a high developed education sector has an improved health status. United state does not regard education as highly as Korea does.
Due to this reason, there is a higher adult mortality rate in the United States compared to Korea. This means that Korea is experiencing a gradual improvement in its health status due to the much emphasis laid on education citizens. The health status in developing countries is determined by the level of education, social class, lifestyle and other determinants. People of a high social caste or poor people have limited education and literacy skills. Hence, there is a high mortality rate or low heath status among these individuals. Moreover, they are at a higher risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer and high blood pressure.
Mirowsky, J., Ross, C. E. (2006) Education, social status and health.
New York. Transaction Publishers, page 150-154. Retrieved on November 13, 2010 from: http://books.google.co.ke/.
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Muney, A. D., & National Bureau of Economic Research (2008) The relationship
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Adiposity and blood pressure: consistency of their association across developing
and developed countries. Int J Obes, Page 150-180. Retrieved on November 13, 2010 from: http://books.google.co.ke/.
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This essay paper will argue that it is possible for a legitimate romantic relationship to include more that two individuals.
It is possible to have a legitimate romantic relationship by eliminating the element of deception between the individuals involved. This can be achieved by informing all parties involved. When the parties involved in a romantic relationship have knowledge about their relationship and respect one another, then it is possible for the romantic relationship to work out. Moreover, the relationship will be more fulfilling since there no sense of having a guilty conscience due to committing adultery (Singer, 2009). Most societies worldwide condemn the act of adultery especially in marriages. Therefore when all individuals in a polyamorous relationship know each other, there is no adultery involved.
Jealousy is part of human nature and this is what makes majority of polyamorous relationships to be viewed negatively. It is essential not to allow the fear of jealousy to rule one’s actions. This fear is the one that discourages individuals from engaging in relationships having multiple partners. It is possible for a group of adults to get way past jealousy and agree of having a strong romantic relationship. It is possible to move through jealousy if the individuals involved in the romantic relationship are constantly assured of love and given the opportunity to grow both personally and emotionally.
One can not overlook the fact that jealousy does exist in polyamorous relationships. Jealousy has been viewed as a moral indignation that people are entitled to when they seem to believe that the love that is meant to be rightfully theirs is bestowed onto someone else. However, on the other hand it is worth noting that there also exists compassion, understanding, sharing and love. Love in addition to the mentioned elements makes polyamory a worthwhile experience (Singer, 2009). Since children are comfortably taught not to be jealous when a new member or child is added into their family, it should be possible for individuals in a relationship to remove the element of jealousy and accept to having a romantic relationship involving more that two individuals.
According to Singer, love may have three definitions. The first definition is appraisal, the second definition is bestowal while the third definition is a mixture of both appraisal and bestowal. Singer thinks that if one attempts to define love as either appraisal or bestowal, problems may arise. The same case applies to romantic relationships where choosing of partners depend solely on looking at particular qualities or traits.
One individual may possess a given desirable trait while another individual may possess extra or more superior qualities. Having legitimate relationship with both individuals is healthy and will reinforce the qualities considered. Therefore, if love is viewed as containing both the elements of appraisal and bestowal, it is possible to have a legitimate relationship that includes more than two individuals (Singer, 2009). .
For love to be complete, it has to include both appraisal and bestowal aspects. It is almost impossible a single partner to fulfill both aspects and hence, there is need to have more individuals to be involved. Love is the integral part of any relationship and it is an uplifting process that makes relationships worthwhile. This same love has to be complete so that it can create meaning to romantic relationships. Therefore, by defining love using a single aspect, either appraisal or bestowal, it becomes impossible to have a happy and fulfilling romantic relationship. One romantic partner may serve the role of appraisal while the other two or more may play the role of bestowal. The process of love is thus complete with more that two individuals involved (Singer, 2009).
Most Romantic relationships are based on one partner looking for desirable qualities in the other party. It is possible for two or more individuals for instance two ladies to share the same qualities that a man is looking for in a lady. According to Soble, individuals have no reason to choose one partner over the other partner and yet both of them possess the same qualities. This presents a dilemma in the definition of love and existence of romantic relationship between two individuals who view each other as non-replaceable. If love is appraisal, then there is no need to treat partners in romantic relationships as non-replaceable entities (Singer, 2009).
Some individuals may object polyamory with the claim that such relationships are not legally recognized and hence, they are immoral. They view polyamorists as immoral individuals. Well, it is inappropriate to conclude that all illegal actions are immoral. The fact that polyamory has not been officially legalized does not justify to term the practice as immoral. It is inappropriate to prejudice multiple individuals having a romantic relationship. Perhaps it is possible to find a case where polyamorists are much happier and in more fulfilling relationships than their monogamous counterparts.
There is also an objection to polyamory based on the fact that love is a finite entity. This implies that it is possible to share romantic love with a single person due to the fact that love is indivisible. It further claims that it is almost impossible to divide love between two or more individuals since each individual will get an extremely small portion of it. It is vital to always keep in mind that love is an emotional feeling and not an object that can be divided into small pieces .It is therefore possible to bestow the same amount of love to different individuals at the same time. It is essential to view love as a feeling and not an entity. By doing this, the many polyamorous relationships will work out.
It is illogical to declare and come up with conclusions indication that polyamory does not work. Excuses such as jealousy and the claim that polyamory is immoral are not enough evidence to rule out the practice. So long as the parties involved in the romantic relationship have consent and understanding, it is possible to maintain the relationship. Elimination elements of jealousy and deception are of the essence. Elimination of deception is attained through having consent from individuals involved in a romantic relationship. Jealousy on the other hand is an emotional feeling that one can easily get through. Hence, it is possible for a legitimate romantic relationship to include more than two individuals.
Singer, I. (2009) The Nature of Love: Pluto to Luther. MIT Press.
YOU ARE MY HERO
You, My Lord, are my hero,
Who can measure up to your standards?
Not the kind next door neighbor,
And definitely not the Good Samaritan woman
Your love and kindness are incomparable
Your love is unconditional
You are my hero.
What shall I compare you to?
Neither the warm summer day nor the cloud in the sky
Neither a lily of the valley nor the bright morning star
These will be there today
But tomorrow they will be gone
My Lord, you are omnipresent
You are my hero.
I have to celebrate you my dear Lord
You are always with me through the tough, unbearable times
We also celebrate together through the good times
The blessings you shower me are countless
You deserve all the praises
Honor and adoration belong to you, Lord
You are my Hero.
You are always there in times of greatest need
You give life and take away all the pain
You extend your hand and touch those who are suffering
Your heart goes out to reach those who desire love and are in need
Your selfless nature is admirable
You are my hero.
You are the greatest gift to mankind
You show love and compassion to all without discrimination
Your agape love extends globally
Even to the high and mighty
You deserve to be adorned with all glory and praises
You mercies and goodness amaze all beings on earth
You are my hero.
When I finally meet you, My Lord
I will worship at your feet
And kiss tour blessed hands
What a glorious day it will be
When I finally get to fulfill my heart’s greatest desire
This is to meet you, my Lord, because
You are my hero.
The film depicts the historical injustices contemporary issues associated with the Native American culture. The film also shows how the Native American culture was conservative in nature. Indians are depicted as alcoholics who abandon their families and show less concern. This depicts the high degree of prejudice and stereotyping among the Native American Culture. It also shows how the culture was reserved. The evidence of this fact is the expedition or journey of Victor and Thomas to Phoenix that has been portrayed as among their greatest expeditions on their own.
“If we forget our fathers, what is left?” This statement by Victor Joseph relates to the film in that Thomas tries as much as he can to connect with the people around him despite the fact that he lost both his parents at a very young age. It is also evident that it is hard to forget and abandon one’s father completely. This is seen when Victor embarks on an adventure to Phoenix to collect his father’s ashes. Though his father, Arnold was an alcoholic person, who abandoned his family, Victor still shows love and compassion to him. It is also important to note that though Arnold was alcoholic, he had some good in him since he is the one who saved Thomas’s life in the fire that killed his parents.
The central subject of the film is the memory of Victor’s father, Arnold Joseph. Hence, it is extremely hard to forget one’s father as Victor says.
The problem in this case is the question ethics of loyalty. Robert S. McNamara is a government official who finds himself in an ethical dilemma. The big question is whether the government official should be loyal to the citizens or the administration. It also questions whether loyalty to a governor, mayor or president has to be greater or lesser than loyalty to the citizens’ overall interests.
Robert S. McNamara served as the secretary of defense under the rule of President F. Kennedy and later president Lyndon B. Johnson. As the defense secretary, McNamara served as the chief administrator of a futile war in Vietnam which resulted to deaths of several Vietnamese and Americans. McNamara knew from the very start that the war was unwinnable. Despite this knowledge, he kept silent and continued to pour innocent blood out of loyalty to the president.
McNamara knew that President Johnson’s administration did not have enough knowledge on the war situation. He had also agreed with the protesters of antiwar belief that the war was unwinnable and futile. If only McNamara had confessed these facts before leaving the defense office, ten thousand of American lives could have been saved. This implies that McNamara’s loyalty to the interests of citizens could have helped save American lives. Hence, it is clear that the loyalty of McNamara is questionable. The dilemma is whether he was right to remain loyal to the president or follow his conscience and be loyal to the citizens’ interest.
The significance of this case study is that it has been used to show the limitations of relying on system analysis and mathematical models for decision making. Moreover, the case study plays a significant role in depicting today’s public administration sector whereby the question of ethical dilemmas has been a major issue affecting public officials in both public and private sectors. Finally it portrays the high level of dissatisfaction and cynicism citizens have towards their governments.
History of the Case
McNamara taught statistics at Harvard Business School before the Second World War. Due to his honorable service in the war, McNamara was promoted to the rank of the U.S Army Air Corps lieutenant general. In 1946, he joined the Ford Motor Company and became its president in the year 1961. A few months later, McNamara was appointed as the defense secretary by President John F. Kennedy. As the defense secretary, he pursued a futile war in Vietnam where he was the chief administrator ad instrument through which millions of Vietnamese and tens of thousands of Americans died.
Media sources such as the New York Times published information condemning and viewing McNamara as an intellectual and moral coward due to his silence and hypocrisy. He was further referred to as an individual who deserved to be morally condemned by his countrymen. The big question in people’s minds was the reason as to why such a patriotic citizen who wanted to do good in government service could end up causing so much harm in such a massive scale.
McNamara was extremely knowledgeable and was the architect of the military strategy of America in Vietnam and among the strongest advocates of the war. As the war progressed, he gradually became disenchanted with the slaughter, which made him believe that the war could never be won at any given time. Due to the great burdens cased by the war and his disenchantment, McNamara was appointed as the President of the World Bank. His leaving for the World Bank made critics conclude that he went to the World Bank while a lot of other Americans went to their graves as a result of losing their lives in the war.
The source of information about McNamara’s true feelings was McNamara himself. He published his memoir in 1995, where he stated his knowledge that the war was unwinnable. Despite knowing this, he kept silent and continued pouring American blood out of being loyal to President Johnston. McNamara’s role in the war became an open secret through his published memoir. His decision of remaining silent took many American Soldiers and millions of Vietnamese lives. He chose to remain loyal to President Johnston in exchange for American and Vietnamese citizens lives.
It can be presumed that the guilty conscience is what drove McNamara into publishing his memoir confessing his role in the Vietnamese war. He was not at peace with the fact that he was guilty of the death of many American solders and Vietnamese citizens. The same case applies to our governments and big firms where employees are often faced with ethical dilemmas especially with the loyalty issue. It is essential to make an ethical decision when it comes to such matters. It is also recommendable to follow one’s conscience.
Alternative Solutions to the Problem
The best solution to the problem was for McNamara to make a logical and ethical solution. This would only be possible if he had followed his conscience. Ethics refer to reverence for life and this is the key principle of morality. McNamara’s reverence for life could be clearly expressed by showing loyalty to citizen’s interest rather that loyalty to President Johnston. Morality entails promoting, maintaining and enhancing life. On the other hand, limiting, injuring and destroying life as McNamara did, is referred to as evil and lack of morality (Johnson and Ridley, 2007).
It was once said that the greatest tragedy is not to live and die but rather, the greatest tragedy is to live and die without having the satisfaction of giving life to others. If only McNamara had lived with this principle in his mind, he would not have chose to keep silent and let millions of lives die during the war. Hence, McNamara encountered one of the greatest tragedies in his life since he lived and died living people with so much anger and hatred towards him for the role he played in the Vietnamese war and the loss of countless lives (Johnson, 2007).
Though it is appropriate to remain loyal to our superiors, it is essential for one to make a wise decision when it comes to ethical quandaries like the Robert McNamara case. Our decisions should be based solely on ethics, morals and conscience. It is essential to weigh the various options and carefully analyze the consequences of the decisions made. One should make a decision that can help save lives instead of killing innocent souls and lives (Johnson, 2007). McNamara opted to remain silent and this decision resulted to countless lives and souls to be lost during the war. Even though, he later confessed through his memoir, it was already too late since may lives had been lost and people had greatly suffered because of him.
Implications and Lessons for a Public Administrator
Public administrators are among the most important individuals or leaders who deserve loyalty from their subjects. Many of the said subjects have an inner fear of facing public administrators and questioning them about some key policies that affect them in one way or another. A good example is a policy that enhances inequality and unfair treatment. Some employees will keep silent and fail to face the public administrators all in the name of loyalty without considering the fact that innocent people are suffering as a result of their silence (Johnson, 2007).
Public administrators are not supposed to misuse their offices for self-interest reasons. Misusing of offices may lead to negative effects such as tyranny. These public officials should also have an obligation to stand by the truth since this is the only key to prosperity. There are several levels of ethics in public administration for instance organizational ethics, social ethics, professional ethics and morality. Hence, the issue loyalty ethics forms an integral part in public administration (Johnson, 2007).
It is essential to keep in mind that honor comes before ethics. This is due to the fact that an individual without honor has no moral direction and can not come up with ethical solutions and decisions. Public officials need to be careful not to misuse their offices for self-gain since this may affect the rule of law and change its meaning. Moreover, public officials need to stand by the truth since this is the major key to prosperity and honor.
Johnson, W. B., & Ridley, C. R. (2007) The Elements of Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan.
The earliest known record of diabetes was mentioned in 1552 B. C. By a physician who mentioned frequent urination as one of the disease’s symptoms. Later on in the 16th century, diabetes was identified as one of the most serious genetic disorders. In 1921 insulin was discovered then lab tests confirmed that injection with insulin could help manage diabetes. In 1993, Diabetes Control and Complications Trial report indicated that intensive therapy could delay the onset and progression in diabetes type 1 complications.
According to the World Health Organization, approximately 17 million people worldwide are diabetic. This represents 2.8% of the world wide population. The amount is rapidly increasing and by 2030, the number will be almost double.
There are tow common types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. This research project will deal with type 1 diabetes which results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Lack of insulin subsequently leads to increased level of glucose in blood and urine. Type 2 diabetes on the other hand is a metabolic disorder associated with high glucose amount in the blood in the context of insulin deficiency and resistance. Insulin resistance is a condition in which cells can not utilize insulin properly. This research process aims at determining the prevalence rate of children living with type 1 diabetes.
The participants were various children living with type 1 diabetes and their parents. Consent was obtained from the parents who were required to sign a consent form. Those who signed the consent form confirmed their participation in the entire research process. The parents of the participating children were determined and willing to help their children live long and cope with the condition. Moreover, they were willing to learn the various ways through which they could help their children manage diabetes. Most of them had basic knowledge on diabetes and believed that the key to managing the disorder was to keep the blood sugar level in a manageable or target range.
The sample size consisted of one hundred children living with type 1 diabetes. Only the willing children were recruited to take part in the research process. The parents were also willing to participate in the entire research process and make useful; contributions.
Insulin testing kits were used for the research process. These kits were used to measure the insulin level in the blood drawn from children living with diabetes. Children with extremely low amount of insulin levels in the blood were defined as being at the advanced stage of diabetes. Children with normal levels of blood insulin were defines as those with manageable diabetes. The other instruments used were syringes. These were needed to remove blood from diabetic patients.
The procedure involves conducting interviews on parents of children living with diabetes type 1. The parents were interviewed on the condition of their children. They were also asked to describe several ways through which they could manage diabetes in their children. In addition to interviewing the parents, the children were also interviewed. They were to describe their present condition and how they were feeling. The level of interaction of these students with their healthy counterparts was also determined.
The other form of data collection used is questionnaires. A list of questions was given to parents and their children. Some of the questions asked include the number of years a child and lived with diabetes and the basic play activities that a diabetic child is involved in the daily routine. The other method used to collect data was naturalistic observation method whereby the physical outlook and condition of children living with diabetes was taken into consideration.
The results indicated that children living with diabetes faced various challenges. One of the key challenges was lack of funds to for medication. Majority of parents stated that managing diabetes was costly in terms of medication. Children needed to be administered daily insulin shots which proved to be extremely costly. The other challenge is discrimination and isolation. Children living with diabetes felt left out especially in daily school activities that required them to participate along with their healthy counterparts. Other Parents and children lacked adequate knowledge on diabetes and ways of managing the disorder (Besser, 2009).
The other challenge was poverty. Most of the children suffering from diabetes type 1 are from poor family backgrounds. This means that they could not afford health diet practices. In order to manage diabetes, a child needs to eat the same amount of carbohydrate at each meal and do a lot of exercise. The other daily routine activity required is checking the child’s blood sugar levels at the recommended times according to the doctor’s instructions.
Results showed that many parents lacked adequate knowledge on diabetes, its causes and ways of coping with the challenges associated with the disorder. Hence, there is need to educate parents on the different types of diabetes and ways through which it can be managed in children. Play is an important form of therapy for children living with diabetes type 1. It is therefore necessary to encourage these children to take part in daily play activities with their peers (Hanas, 2007).
The results also indicated that most of the children living with type 1 diabetes were form poor family backgrounds. By seeking help from support groups, such individuals could get financial help to help in managing diabetes in their children. The other form of help can be obtain from nutritional councilors and advisors who can enlighten parents on appropriate diet and nutritional practices that can help manage diabetes in children.
One of the initiatives taken by Health organization to help children suffering from diabetes type 1 is provision of free medical services for these children. There is also provision of free counseling and nutritional advice sessions that are of supreme importance to parents and children living with type 1 diabetes. There are also some organizations consisting of people living with diabetes. These people meet up often for support and encouragement (Hanas, 2007).
Type 1 diabetes is the type of diabetes that is most prevalent in children. There is an increasing number of children with diabetes globally. Poverty and lack of knowledge are among the challenges facing these children. It is essential for health organization to take several initiatives to help children living with type 1 diabetes
Besser, R. (2009) Diabetes through the Looking Glass. Class Publishing Limited
Sperling, M. (2003) Type 1 diabetes: etiology and treatment. Humana Press.
Hanas, R. (2007) Type 1 diabetes in children, addressing adolescents, and young adults: how to become an expert on your own diabetes. Class Publishing Ltd.
It is important to note that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act which has quite a number of provisions relating to healthcare will be a game changer as far as healthcare insurance is concerned especially when it comes to subsidizing insurance premiums by amongst other things coming up with well structured incentives to lure businesses to avail healthcare benefits to employees. For once, the prohibition of companies offering insurance against the imposition of dollar limits on benefits taken to be essential as well as the ban on the exclusion of medical conditions taken to be pre-existing is a welcome move.
As per the provisions of GAAP, the suitability of an asset valuation method is largely dependent on the nature of the asset under consideration (Damordaran 2002). In general terms, GAAP provisions dictate that asset value be informed by the historical cost. By historical cost, I mean the asset’s original cost. Consequently, the market value could be used, i.e. the market place price. This valuation approach is however discouraged as per the GAAP provisions because it may prove challenging to verify or obtain the same. For hospitals and other similar organizations, Delaney (2009) notes that the historical cost is most logical as this valuation is backed up by purchase records.
According to Nokolai (2009), valuing a company’s assets based on objective evidence is highly appropriate as in this case there is a well documented historical track verifiable in cases where there exists documentation as regards to the purchase. However, it is important to note that valuing a company’s assets based on objective cost is not possible for some assets as a result of absence of records or otherwise. In such a case, the only logical valuation to apply is market value which should however be indicated or disclosed in notes to the financial statements. It is also important to note that valuation based on objective evidence or historical cost must be adjusted for depreciation.
Damordaran, A. (2002). Investment valuation: tools and techniques for determining the value of any asset. John Wiley and Sons
Delaney, P.R. (2009). Wiley CPA Exam Review 2010, Financial Accounting and Reporting. John Wiley and Sons
Nokolai, L.A. (2009). Intermediate Accounting. Cengage Learning
Having been signed into law on March 23rd, 2010 by president Barrack Obama, the patient protection and affordable act has been viewed as a game changer as far as revenues of the healthcare industry are concerned. When it comes to insurance companies, the Act prohibits them from the imposition of dollar limits (lifetime) on benefits that are considered essential. This essentially means revenues raked in by insurance companies shall be driven down especially because they shall now be required to pay an excise tax which shall be anchored on their market share. When it comes to employers who provide health benefits, their revenues shall be enhanced as a result of cost savings which Hertz (2010) notes could be as high as $3000
When it comes to revenue trends and their effect on the healthcare industry, it is important to note that when unemployment rates are high, people earn less because less is allocated to investments. This means that people’s disposable income shall be affected. Cleverley et al. (2010) notes that in 2009, we at some point had Unemployment almost hitting 10%. What this essentially means is that individuals could choose to forego the purchase of health insurance just to ensure they make ends meet. This combined with the fact that a number of businesses tend to cut healthcare coverage so as to survive means that healthcare entities and consequently the healthcare industry suffer reduced incomes. This was precisely the case during the recent 2007/2008 global economic meltdown.
When it comes to making use of accounting methods, consistency of such methods is critical. Consistency helps to ease comparisons with regard to the organizations ability to meet its forecasts over time. It is important to also note that when it comes to disclosure of the specific methods of accounting used, efforts should be made to stick to the standards of professionalism as far as financial; reporting is concerned. For instance, an organization can choose to abide by the provisions of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). All in all, budgets are vital so as to ease the identification of inconsistencies and the correction or rectification of the same.
Hertz, H.S. (2010). Health Care Criteria for Performance Excellence: Baldrige National Quality Program (2009-2010). DIANE Publishing
The Homeland Security Act of 2002 was informed by the events following the September 11 bomb attacks on New York. In this text, I come up with an appraisal of the Act.
The Homeland Security Act of 2002 has quite a good number of provisions which are data related. It is commendable that the act brings together federal groups into a single agency and through this; there is a clear as to how their data as well as systems shall, be connected and consolidated (Lake 2010). In the modern day where the integrity of data has been largely compromised, the requirement that the agency comes up with a safe IT structure is commendable.
It is also important to note that another vital provision of the Act is section 101 (D) which offers a timely recognition of the importance of the DHS’s multi-use nature. Similarly, the United States Coast Guard transfer to the DHS (Section 501) is a desirable move towards enhancing the success (overall) of the DHS.
It is however important to note that the Homeland Security Act of 2002 brought with itself fears of some setback as far as the protection of civil liberties was concerned as the law forbid the Terrorism Information and Information System (TIPS) which was a program by the citizen corps. By forbidding TIPS, the public may not have the desired access to information and the gains made as far as privacy is concerned may be eroded.
It is important to note that though there are some provisions in the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which remain controversial and hence prone to change, a good number of the provisions in the Act will go a long way towards strengthening the DHS.
Lake, J.E. (2010). Homeland Security Department: FY 2010 Appropriations. DIANE Publishing