Organizational, psychology involves the application of facts and principles associated with the psychological aspect of workers in an organization as a way of solving problems that affect the performance of the workers. Over the years, organizational psychologists have developed a close link between the working environment, the performance and job satisfaction of the employees such that productivity of employees is often dependent on the overall how they are treated by their supervisors. Areas that are closely related to organization psychology include personality psychology in addition to cognitive psychology. Qualitative and quantitative research methods are used to collect data based on organizational psychology such as effect of certain motivators as well as changes in organizational structure on the general out put of employees.
Organizational psychology is sometimes referred to as industrial-organizational psychology and it entails the scientific study of the relationships between human beings and the working world in the process of making a living. The researchers who carry out studies on the psychological situation of employees are referred to as industrial-organizational psychologists and they contribute to the success of any given company by improving the performance in addition to the well-being of its workers. This group of scientists works on ways of modifying the behavior of employees by identifying how change in the hiring process may create a positive attitude to the employees Anderson, Ones, Sinangil, and Viswesvaran, (2005), According to the organization psychology, the style of management has a substantial effect on the overall productivity and performance of workers such that this can be improved by adopting the best method of initiating change to ensure that employees are able to express themselves freely in order to achieve long term company goals (Anderson, 2005).
Evolution of the field of organizational psychology
Organizational psychology has been in existence since the early 1960s when a move to establish a closer look into group and organizational phenomena of the industry was initiated. At that time, organizational psychology was mainly involved in sole individuals rather than the entire workforce in each organization (Anderson, 2005). According to research which was carried out in the early stages of establishment, most employers trained their employees to believe that they meant little to an organization as others could always be obtained equally fast. This notion has changed over the years and today employees are made to understand that employees are the most valuable asset in any organization.
In recent years, most organizations have learnt to create conducive environments for their employees in addition to ensuring that their psychological needs are met to increase their productivity (Anderson, 2005). Current developments in the field of organizational psychology involves advocating for humane treatment of all employees as research shows that workers become more creative and productive when treated with due respect. Charismatic leadership has been known to change the organizational psychology as it seeks to cater for the needs of employees by ensuring the emotional state of all employees was healthy (Anderson, 2005). Consequently, organizations have been encouraged to invest in their employees and encourage maximum cooperation as well as laying more emphasis on social responsibility.
Organization psychology in relation to cognitive psychology
While organizational psychology aims at improving the atmosphere at the workplace, cognitive psychology is concerned with mental processes which underlie mental activities such as perception, reasoning, problem solving, and emotions in addition to memory. In order to understand the psychological aspect of an organization, it would be equally important to look into the cognitive aspect of the individual. Some behavioral attributes of workers are often affected by their cognitive ability hence there is a need to understand the relationship between the two Spector, (2005).While it would be important to take suggestions from employees seriously, it is essential that the authorities to check the mental status of the individual so as to determine the implication of the next step. This is quite crucial when applying intended changes which affect entire departments such that the reasoning and problem solving capacity of the decision-maker is considered Spector, (2005).
Organizational psychology and personality psychology
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which deals with patterns of behavior and emotions which make up an individual. Different people have different personalities such that it would be disastrous to categorize the feelings of all employees as being similar. By understanding the emotional perspective of an individual especially when initiating change in an organization, a more appropriate way of delivering information is adopted in order to minimize conflicts Mangelsdorff, (2006).Consequently, organizational psychology involves implementation of appropriate measures to ensure all employees are given a chance to air their views on different issues as well provision of interactive forums to instill more knowledge on the importance of the intended change Mangelsdorff, (2006).
The role of research and statistics in the field of organizational psychology
Researchers employ a wide array of research designs to identify the qualitative and quantitative measures of organizational psychology. Information on elements affecting employee performance and productivity is obtained through surveys as well as observation. Sometimes questionnaires are used as a way of obtaining first hand data from the employees. The statistics obtained from the survey are used by the organizational psychologists to identify psychological problems among employees and ways of reducing or eliminating them Rogelberg, (2002).The data and statistics obtained can also be used to identify individual psychological problems and in due time the appropriate steps are undertaken to counteract the issue before it explodes. Employees also benefit from such studies as information on ways of coping with stress at work as well as ways of developing close mutual relationships among employees may be communicated to them at the most appropriate time Rogelberg, (2002).
Organizational psychology is a wide field and it has direct significant effects on the overall performance of any organization. Thus, proper understanding of the psychological needs of workers is paramount to increased productivity and performance. There are quite a number of related areas which affect decisions of organizational psychologists directly and they thus require intense understanding by the key players in the field. Research and data collection in organizational psychology is crucial as it is the basis of most managerial decisions.
Anderson, N., Ones, D.S. Sinangil, H.K. and Viswesvaran, C. (2005), Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology. Vol 2. London: Sage Publications ltd
Mangelsdorff, D.A. (2006), Psychology In The Service Of National security: American Psychological Association
Rogelberg, S.G. (2002), Handbook of research methods in industrial and organizational development. Malden: Blackwell publications Inc
Spector, P.E. (2005), industrial psychology research and practice. John Wiley and Sons.