Attention according to current psychologists is the possession of the mind in a vivid and clear form seen in various simultaneously. Attention is eliminating other aspects so that one can deal with a very specific item at a time. In cognitive psychology, the phenomena of attention are studied so as to analyze the processing of particular information when it is presented in the environment we live in. Human mind can be captured by various aspects that are in the environment. Such include sound of passing vehicles, talking and sound around one, the pressures from the tight shoes you have worn, the beautiful scenario seen through the window, the bright warm color of your shirt and conversations between two or more students classmates.
Despite, all these distractions it is important for as student to focus on studying the book he or she is reading. He or she will have to put his attention on the book and not any other aspect that is surrounding him in that environment. Attention acts like a highlighter of the most important issues at a given time that needs to be dealt with effectively. This is also known as the area of interest which through attention, one is able to tune out sensation, information and perception which are not of relevance at that given time. Attention enables one to focus on the most important information (Solso, Maclin, Maclin, 2008. pp 17).
The Pre-motor theory of attention has been studied by Giacomo Rizzolatti and Dr. Laila Craighero of Italy. According, to the psychologists, spatial attention does not occur as a result of control mechanism but due to the weak activation of the frontal –parietal circuits which determines how the motor behaves towards specific locations of the spatial. This is the pre motor theory of attention (Solso, Maclin, Maclin, 2008. pp 177).
In support of the theory, a series of experiments had been conducted by the use of vertical saccades with the measured variables being the acoustics and visual stimuli which are directed to a particular spatial location. An imperative stimulus is then used to trigger the trajectory in the saccade which is the attention site. The findings of the experiment are that eye movement system is necessary to allocate attention to a particular position even with no movement (Solso, Maclin, Maclin, 2008. pp 182).
Other theories which study human attention are the attachment theory, confirmation bias, in attention blindness, information process theory, ironic reversal and selective exposure. The experiment on selective exposure studies how human mind automatically processes information. The change of stimulus leads to the switch of attention, them leads to selective attention (Solso, Maclin, Maclin, 2008. pp 170).
The linguistics relativity hypothesis postulates the reasons of linguistics diversity among world languages, how language is influenced and the linguistics influence of thoughts. Linguistic diversity hypothesis claims that world language speakers speak different and think differently about the world. This hypothesis is criticized for not accepting the fact that languages of the world have today borrowed concepts from one another and have similarity of some words and meanings. The second hypothesis is linguistic influence on thought. This is that the lexicon and the structure of a speakers language influences on how he or she conceptualizes and perceives the world around him. This means that the speaker does so in a semantic means.
Linguistics study how language is used as a transmission of culture. Comparative linguistics is the study of language families according to their relationships. The structural approach by Ferdinand de Saussure emphasizes on the synchronic development of language rather than the historical study of language. This covers grammar and speech patterns or called la langue. The psychological study of language examines how human beings have the ability to acquire language, produce and comprehend language (Solso, Maclin, Maclin, 2008. pp 176).
Solso, R.L., Maclin, O.H., Maclin, M.K. (2008). Cognitive psychology (8th ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Pp 164- 200