Anxiety And Depression
People with Anxiety and Depression
Anxiety and depression are psychological problems that occur in individuals such that their ability to enjoy life maximally is undermined. Some people experience one of the two conditions while in extreme cases, individuals may suffer form a combination of the two.Anxiety is a psychological disorder characterized by worry about events which occur in the course of normal day to day activities. Although it is normal to worry about every day events, some people usually have an exaggerated worry about things such as their health or their financial status.
This constant worry and fear about the usual things makes such people expect disaster such that their normal daily life is coupled with constant fear of unexpected negative events occurring. Severe anxiety makes the individual less productive at work, in school and in their relationships because of fear of an unexpected problem arising. Other than unnecessary fear, these people usually exhibit physical symptoms such as irritability, restlessness and are easily startled as they are always waiting for the unexpected to happen (Lerner and Jovanovic, 1999)
.Depression is more of a disease rather than a psychological problem as it is often accompanied by disorders in the usual way of thinking. Depression is a condition that is exemplified by a cloud of despair or hopelessness that engulf the person such that the individual has lost hope in life and they see everything including themselves as failure. An intense feeling of sadness usually accompanies depression such that the individual suffering from the condition is barely able to participate in any activity cheerfully. Depression may be intermittent in that it is caused by a specific situation such that it is not permanent unlike anxiety which is more prolonged (Lerner, 1999).
Nature and nurture in developmental psychology
Developmental psychology is a field that dwells much on the systematic changes that occur in people from infancy to adulthood. Most psychologists argue that behavioral patterns are acquired as a result of the individual interacting with the environment. Relationships with other people have also been credited with acquisition of certain characters in man such that the environment nurtures the behavior. According to the aspect of behavior being acquired in the developmental and growth process of an individual, the more the interactions with the appropriate environment the faster the development of a person. Exposure to the appropriate stimuli has been directly related to a better adoption of certain behaviors and characteristics. However, sometimes the nature of environment in which an individual grew up in has very minimal effect on the overall behavior of the same individual later on in life (Lerner, 1999).
Nature of the other hand tends to focus on the innate aspects of an individual such that the psychological development of an individual is controlled by the genetic factors which were inherited from parents. Although some behaviors and traits run in a family and are inherited from one generation to another, most are acquired as a result of the many interactions which individuals present in their day to day activities. Research has shown that sometimes though an individual may have inherited the trait from their parents, lack of appropriate stimuli may lead to the trait being concealed such that it is not exhibited.Therefore, developmental psychology may not only be caused by interactions with the environment but also the genetic components in the individual. Thus, nature and nurture have crucial complementary roles in psychological development (Lerner, 1999).
Ethnic differences in adolescent achievement
Research has shown that there is a considerable gap between the academic performance of white adolescents and their African-American counterparts in school. This gap has been attributed to discrimination against the minority in most schools such that the adolescents fail to gain the same recognition and access to facilities as their counterparts. Discrimination causes low self-esteem such that the minority adolescents feel less confident about their academic performance as they are not applauded when they perform well hence they end up neglecting their studies. On the other hand the white students are applauded by their parents as well as being allowed to utilize the best facilities available and more individual attention is allocated to them.
This way the morale of the student is enhanced and as the learner is made confident in his/her academic work, they are able to achieve better grades (Lerner, 1999).Self-esteem is paramount to success of most individuals such that it all adds up to the right notion about a certain aspect and thus success is achieved. When individuals and especially adolescents are made to believe in themselves, the impact of the increased confidence is exhibited in success not only academic but in other areas as well irregardless of ethnicity (Lerner, 1999).The genetic approach of the whites possessing different genetic combination as compared to their minority counterparts have no basis as given the same facilities and resources both categories of students are known to post equal results (Lerner, 1999).
Lerner, M. and Jovanovic, J.(1999) Cognitive and moral development and academic achievement in adolescence. Vol,2 Taylor and Francis.