Moral skepticism is the notion that there is nothing wrong or moral explanations on why some activities are carried out by people. This refers to doing something which can not be regarded as morally wrong or right. The cultural differences argument is based on the fact that various cultures have their own practices which could be right or wrong depending on the culture of the individual analyzing the action. The provability argument however, depicts any action of moral skepticism as being right without regard of its cultural or any other ties. Rachel’s support for the cultural differences argument is positive as the premises preceding the conclusion are true while she does not support the provability argument for a false premise. However, the answers are not cogent as because two false premises can result into a truth hence supporting the cultural difference argument or the provability argument is more or less the same thing.
- The claim that something is a mere matter of opinion could mean different things to different people depending on the various ways through which some concepts are figured out. One way is that the opinion could be false hence making the entire claim false thus no real sense in making the claim. The other meaning could be that a claim could be false hence trying to make true opinions as a way of altering the false nature of the claim to make it true fails and the whole statement becomes ambiguous. Similarly, the claim and opinion could be false hence making the entire procedure false as two false concepts result in a false conclusion hence the speaker needs not raise a true opinion for a false claim.
- One of the arguments for the informative actions is including more women to congress in essential for increased participation of women in the country’s affairs. The other one is based on reduced discrimination against the blacks as a way of reducing high levels of poverty in developed countries. Affirmative action as activities which are put in place to reduce oppression against individuals who are treated unfairly by others who are in power. For the first argument, an objection could be that including more women in congress may not result in significant participation of women in the affairs of the country. This argument employs utilitarian reasoning where the most ethical thing to do in this society is to ensure that men and women are given equal opportunities. Thus the action of equal opportunities presents the individual with an ethical conclusion that makes all people equal in society.
- Hettinger and Levin both agree that reverse discrimination in affirmative actions is right as it would be costly to increase the women participating in congress yet they are not equally qualified for the post. In this case, the cost of training the candidate to mete the required qualification to be able to carry the task quite efficiently is rather high. Levin on the other hand believes that women are often overburdened by a series of household tasks regardless of their job position. Thus they are bound to spend more time of their official working hours tending to domestic issues hence making them less reliable due to the cost of having to seek replacements every now and then. These conclusion and views are acceptable as each individual prescribes to a different affirmative action which argues uniquely on the discriminatory issues.
- the five conditions that are outlined by Levin as necessary to justify compensation are as follows; presence of injuries, the individual who was injured, the person who inflicted the injury, the beneficiary of the injuries, the amount of property which was lost and the feasibility of rectification. For the above conditions, the women do not satisfy the “amount of property lost” condition hence they may not be liable to gain compensation. However, the blacks who have been subjected to discrimination are able to satisfy each of the set conditions as most of them were injured in a way that the injuries can be seen, the white inflicted the injuries, as well as, benefited from them while body parts and family members were lost in the process, in addition to, the rectification being feasible.
- BFOQ’s are bona fide occupational qualifications which refer to traits that are not significant to a job although they determine the applicant’s chances of being hired. Race or gender can be a BFOQ for jobs not traditionally thought to be related to race or gender as a school seeking to hire a new teacher will opt for a white teacher even if the level of qualification or experience could be wanting. This is because of the stereotypes created by man that whites are more competent than blacks. Thus Hettinger can use Wertheimer’s notion of a “reaction qualification” as the black teacher despite his vast experience could be having a speech influence hence making him/her less efficient in class as compared to the white whose speech is flawless.