Compare and Contrast Athens and Sparta
One of the key similarities is that both Athens and Sparta were city states in Greece. The other similarity is that both the Sparta and Athens people were greatly changed by the Persian war. However, it is important to note that while Sparta was ruled by the military, Athens was more of a political state which was involved with its economical matters and stature.
The other difference is the location of these two city states and the inhabitants. Sparta was located in Peloponnesus in the southern part of Greece and inhabited by the Dorians people who had earlier on defeated the Laconia people. Athens on the other hand was located in Attica at the northern part of the Peloponnesus. The Government of Athens changed from a monarchy into an aristocratical government.
It is also important to note that even though Sparta and Athens had two different forms of governments, Sparta is the state that eventually emerged victorious and this is a major difference between these two city-states. Athens resulted or moved into a golden age due to dependency in economy while Spartans still upheld their harsh military way of life. Spartan society was unyielding and rigid and its young male citizens eventually became solders while women were raised into mothers of more solders. There was suppression of sentiment and individualism and the only time that Spartans had contact with the outside world is when they had intentions of a conquest.
The Athenian society on the other hand had more freemen and fewer slaves but with time, the economic divide became worse and this led to freemen being sold as slaves leading to overthrowing of the old aristocratic rule. A major valued part of the Athenian society was trade with the outside world especially with craft and this is in contrast with the Spartan society that did not value manual labor on craft.
Philip II of Macedonia came to power in 360 B.C and defeated most of the neighboring enemies of Macedonia within a period of less than a decade. Phillip II made a lot of reforms which led improvement of siege machinery and catapults and this led to his army being at the forefront with regard to military technology. Philip unified Macedon and expanded it in the west and north and then eventually conquered Thrace and Thessaly.
He defeated an allied army of Athens and Thebes in 338BC at the Battle of Chaeronea. He then convinced many city-states to ally with him and these city states did that by joining the League of Corinth. Phillip was however assassinated by Pausanias of Orestis after entering a war against the Achemaenid Empire.
He was succeeded by his son, Alexander who defeated Darius III of Persia and led to complete destruction of the Achaemenid Empire and hence earn the Great epithet. It is evident that Alexander’s reign changed the phase of Asia and Europe. Alexander strengthened the military power and led an army across the Hellespont located in Asia. Alexander eventually conquered the empire of Persia ion Egypt and western Asia.
Noble, T. F. Western Civilization: Beyond boundaries (6th Ed.). Cengage Learning, 2008.
Kaltas, N.E, Onassis culture centre and Ethniknon Archaiologikon Mouseion (Greece). Athens-Sparta. Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation (USA), 2006.