The general purpose of undertaking a research on nursing is to solve problems and to answer questions that apply to nursing. Basic research on nursing is conducted with the basis of expanding knowledge in a discipline within the profession or to refine a theory or to formulate one. Applied research on the other hand is conducted with an aim of coming up with a solution to problems faced in the nursing field. For example a research conducted to find out what is the effectiveness of nursing care that would ease grieving. Both the applied and the basics research are for conducted using theoretical frameworks. This is because there is a relationship between research and theory which is mutually and reciprocally dependant. Models and theories are formed from the general observation before conducting a research.
In-depth studies are also required before conducting a nursing research. This is because relationships and concepts are the foundation for the development of a theory in which the theory can be tested from hypothetical findings and should be subject to various deductions. This therefore means that a theoretical foundation is the basis for developing the purpose and research questions (Polit, & Beck, 2008, 145). Thus, a research plays a continuing role in testing and building a theory. A theory generates ideas and provides guidelines in the research from which the foundation a new theory can be achieved through assessing the worthiness of a theory.
Roy’s Adaptation Model
In Roy’s Adaptation Model, Human beings are viewed as biopsychosocial adaptative systems. They can cope with changes in the environment through adaptation process. According to Roy, the human system has four subsystems which are Self concept / group identity, Psychological / physical, interdependence and role function. The subsystems have adaptive constituent’s modes which are the mechanisms that assist in coping with environmental changes and stimuli. Body health is viewed as process and state of becoming and being whole and healthy which in turn reflects to the environment and mutual interdependencies of human beings
. Nursing has a role to play in helping people cope and adapt to stimuli that affect and regulate adaptation. Nursing profession intervenes by maintaining the external and internal stimuli, decreasing or increasing and maintain x, removing or maintaining stimulant factors that may affect adaptation. (Roy & Andrew, 1999; Roy and Zhan, 2006) . Role adaptation theory can be applied by nurses in the process of administering careful services that could promote illness and various health situations. The model provides a direction that considers goals, patient values and practitioner interventions in practice as well as in research and education.
Differences between systematic literature reviews in nursing
Systematic literature reviews take various forms but recently the most common type of a systematic literature review is the qualitative/ traditional narrative integration and the systematic research findings. These are quantitative studies which are currently being replaced by meta-analysis which is a type off systematic review. Meta-analysis integrates quantitative research data in a statistically technique which treats findings from a study. Multiple studies are combined using Meta analysis technique. Therefore it integrates various individual studies into one large body. Systematic reviews give specific prescriptions and recommendations unlike integrated reviews because its main intention is to influence the actions of the clinicians. Secondly, integrated reviews, systematic reviews provide guidelines that will address issues that are relevant to the decision of clinician such is the balance of risks and benefits. Systematic reviews unlike integrated reviews are by teams of resechers with qualified skills in methodological al guidelines that novels experts and clinicians (Krainovich-Miller et al. (2008, p 250-258)
The benefits of using a theory or conceptual model
Theory in conducting a research is beneficial because it provides guidelines during the research process. Theories service as impetus of scientific findings and investigation from a research so that it can shape the development of a theory. Research is traditionally inherent in providing a frame work that gives qualitative studies a theoretical background. This provides evidence and assessment of the findings
Many nursing researches have been conducted outside the theory by having isolated studies that cannot be placed in theoretical frame works. Theories that relate to human development in disciplines such as sociology, psychology and physiology are not applied in defining nursing problems
Polit, D & Beck, C(2008)Nursing research: generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice, Eighth edition Publisher Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, p 145
Krainovich-Miller et al. (2008). Measuring Cultural Awareness of Nursing Students: A First Step Toward Cultural Competency. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19(3), 250-258.